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Preface v 

Keport _----.--- 1 

Appendix - - - - - - - - - 359 

Index - - 371 

(iC i 1 1969 
■%»s,Ty Of ^^:^ 


The Papers from which the present volume is compiled are a 
fragment of the Portland collection which was transferred to 
Longleat in consequence of the marriage in 1759 of Thomas 
Thynne, third Viscount Weymouth (created in 1789 Marquis of 
Bath) with Lady Elizabeth, eldest daughter of William Bentinck, 
second Duke of Portland, by Lady Margaret Cavendish, only 
daughter of Edward Harley, second Earl of Oxford. Partly 
inherited, partly acquired by correspondence and otherwise, by 
the second Duchess of Portland, they are of miscellaneous 
character and very unequal value. The more important are 
described with more particularity than is here necessary in the 
Third Report of the Historical MSS. Commission, Appendix, 
pp. 193-194. They are now arranged as follows : — 

Vol. i-ii. Select Autograph Letters, etc., 1516 to the 
middle of the 18th century. 
,, iii. Autograph Letters of Queen Anne, 1704-13. 
,, iv-viii. Correspondence on affairs of State subsequent 
to the Restoration, and chiefly of the reign of 
Queen Anne. 
,, ix. Miscellaneous Papers relating to Trade, Revenue, 

the Colonies, etc., 1628-1729. 
,, X. Miscellaneous Letters and Papers of the 18th 

,, xi. Political Pieces in Prose and Verse, 1589-1769. 
,, xii. Letters of Alexander Pope to Edward, second 

Earl of Oxford, 1721-39 (already in print). 
,, xiii. Jenx d' esprit between the Scriblerus Club and 
Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford. Transcripts 
of Letters of Swift, Wycherly and Atterbury 
(for the most part already in print). 
,, xiv. Miscellaneous Correspondence, 1712-84. 
,, XV. Letters of Edward Young, author of Night 
Thoughts^ to the second Duchess of Portland, 


Vol. xvi. Letters of Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu to the sarae, 
1740-85, mostly contained in the printed 
collections : also Letters of Mrs. Pendarves, 
afterwards Delany, and others to Harbin, 
,, xvii-xxi. Scrap-books. 

,, xxii. Catalogue of Pictures, Gems, MSS., etc. belong- 
ing to the second Duchess of Portland in 
,, xxiii. Papers relating to the sieges of Brampton Bryan 

and Hopton Castles. 
,, xxiv. Parentela et Parentalia Hollesiorum. Auctore 
Gervasio Hollesio, 1658 ; printed in Arthur 
Collins' Historical Collections oj the Noble 
Families of Cavendishe, Holies, Vere, Harley 
and Ogle, etc., 1752, fol. 
The collection also comprises divers common-place books and 
note-books of which sufficient use was made by the second Earl 
of Hardwicke in his Walpoliana, 1783. 

The Brampton Bryan Papers serve to supplement the Letters 
of Lady Brilliana Harley, edited for the Camden Society by 
T. T. Lewis in 1854, and afford a clear and connected account of 
her gallant defence of Brampton Castle from its investment, 
26 July, 1643, until its relief by Essex, her death -early in-ihe 
- following Septenafeei^r and the second siege of, the Castle during the 
winter and spring, the surprise by a party from Brampton (Feb., 
1644) of Hopton Castle, the reduction of the latter place and the 
cold-blooded massacre of its garrison (March), and the subsequent 
reduction of Brampton Castle. These transactions were certainly 
of no great importance, the forces engaged being on both sides 
inconsiderable, and the losses, apart from the massacre, insignifi- 
cant — indeed, the Brampton garrison would seem to have been 
almost as much distressed by the '* rotten language " of the 
Cavaliers as by their '' poisoned bullets," and from first to last lost 
only four men, notwithstanding that they had defended a breach 
for some days, before, despairing of relief, they surrendered 
(17 Ap., 1644). The Cavaliers are said to have lost five hundred 
and fifty men in the three sieges, but this figure cannot be accepted 
without reserve, the details of the three narratives being such as 
hardly accord with sober history. The defenders throughout 


appear as mighty men of valour, who, when they come to close 
quarters with the enemy, do deadly execution upon them or strike 
them with " panic fear," while the besiegers have little stomach 
save for plundering. The correspondence, however, shows pretty 
plainly that the slackness with which the first siege was prose- 
cuted arose mainly from reluctance to press "the honourable and 
valiant lady " hard. These papers, however, will doubtless prove 
a welcome addition to the particular history of a struggle, the 
interest in which is apparently inexhaustible. The papers 
relating to the latter half of the seventeenth century are dis- 
appointing, even the letters of Burnet shedding very little light 
upon public affairs. 

On the other hand the papers of Queen Anne's reign are of 
capital importance in regard of the inner political history of the 
time. They enable us to trace the course of Harley's estrange- 
ment from the Whigs from its very beginning to the final 
rupture. For rather more than a year after his appointment to 
the Secretary's office all goes smoothly enough, but from the 
tone of his draft letter to Godolphin of 21 July, 1705, it is 
evident that he had already incurred the Treasurer's suspicion, 
and was hard put to it to find language equal to allaying it. The 
numerous alterations in the draft show the extreme care with 
which it was studied. But the artist forgot celare artein, the 
humility is abject, the adulation laid on with a trowel; and such 
expressions as '* I cannot allow a thought disagreeable to you," 
" have no other views, no other passions, than to be subservient 
to your Lordship," "know my own heart, and I can die a martyr 
for what I have written," must have been apt rather to excite 
than to allay suspicion in a statesman of Godolphin's shrewdness 
and experience. In a letter of 4 Sept. following we find the 
first hint of the expediency of broadening the basis of the 
administration. " I take it for granted that no party in the 
House can carry it for themselves without the Queen's servants 
join with them ; that the foundation is, persons or parties are 
to come in to the Queen, and not the Queen to them .... If 
the gentlemen of England are made sensible that the Queen is 
the Head, and not a party, everything will be easy, and the Queen 
will be courted and not a party: but if otherwise" . 

Nor did the appointment of Gowper, one of the staunchest of 
Whigs, to the Lord Keeper's place deter Harley from pressing his 


project of a broad bottom administration upon Godolphin with 
more urgency and at greater length in the following year. On 
15 Oct., 1706, he writes that "many of the most staunch Whigs 
(not whimsical) have, and do frequently lament the fury of their 
leaders, and have rejoiced when their presumption was humbled, 
and, to use an expression of one of them, that, if they were gratified 
in all they desire, they would immediately be undone. I am very 
far from making them jealous. I did not mean that places 
should be given to others, and I was humbly of opinion that who- 
ever would come in as a volunteer to the service should be 
accepted as far as he would go, and I am the more confirmed in 
this opinion because those who call themselves "Whigs, if united, 
are the inferior number, and that they will not follow^ those who 
make themselves their leaders, but yet may be united in the 
Queen's service by her ministers .... I have with grief 
observed that the leaders (or zealots rather) of both parties are 
frequent even now in their reflections on the Queen's ministers, 
I mean your Lordship and my Lord Marlborough. I cannot but 
apprehend danger from both sides in the extreme, and therefore I 
am humbly of opinion to increase the number of those who would 
devote themselves to the Queen's and your service would be best." 

The appointment (3 Dec.) of Sunderland as secretary in 
succession to Sir Charles Hedges further strengthened the Whig 
interest; and thenceforth Harley's letters, though written in 
much the same sense, are more circumspect in tone, and betray 
a certain uneasiness as of a man conscious that he was regarded 
with suspicion. " I am very sensible," he writes on 2 Sept., 
1707, " of the difficulties which for one reason and for another 
are like to attend public affairs next winter ; it would be very 
impertinent in me to trouble your Lordship with my poor 
thought of the true occasions of them ; I am sanguine enough 
to think I see beyond them, but that is not my business ; " and 
eight days later he assumes an apologetic tone, protesting that 
he has "no attachment to any other person in the world but" 
Godolphin and Marlborough ; and hinting that he has been 
misrepresented by " a sort of people who wound those they do not 
like in the dark." At the same time he dreads " the thoughts of 
running from the extreme of one faction to another, which is the 
natural consequence of party tyranny, and renders the govern- 
ment like a door which turns both ways upon its hinges to let in 


each party as it grows triumphant," adding, "and in truth this is 
the real parent and nurse of our factions here." In two subsequent 
letters, 17 Sept. to Godolphin, 16 Oct. to Marlborough, he returns 
to the alleged misrepresentations. Then followed the discovery of 
the treasonable correspondence that had passed through his office, 
and though the examination of his clerk, William Greg, failed 
to estabHsh Harley's complicity, Godolphin evidently deemed it 
morally certain, for at the close of the examination he sent Harley 
word by Attorney-General Harcourt that he was disgraced, a 
step which in such circumstances admits of no other interpre- 
tation, and to Harley's letter protesting his innocence (30 Jan., 
1707-8) he returned only the curt answer: — "I have received your 
letter, and am very sorry for what has happened to lose the good 
opinion I had so much inclination to have of you, but I cannot 
help seeing and hearing, nor believing my senses. I am very far 
from having deserved it from you. God forgive you." 

On what passed between this date and Harley's resignation 
(9 Feb.) the papers shed no light ; nor do they add much to our 
knowledge of the means by which the subsequent victory was 
organised, while they are entirely silent as to the events which 
led to his second fall. Swift's attempt to vindicate him from the 
imputation of cunning (p. 227 infra) is only interesting by its 

In regard to matters external the most voluminous corre- 
spondence is that which relates to the expedition, to the command 
of which, by Marlborough's advice, Lord Eivers was appointed. 
At first (21 July, 1706) designed against France, it was 
eventually despatched to Spain for the reduction of Seville 
and Cadiz, and sailed in the autumn under convoy of Sir 
Clowdisley Shovell. Eivers had been assured that he was not 
to serve under Peterborough, and had taken this to mean that 
he was to have an independent command. When therefore, 
soon after his arrival at Lisbon, he received instructions which 
subordinated him to Lord Galway, and entirely changed the 
objective of the expedition, he took umbrage and devoted his main 
energies to the composition of despatches in disparagement of 
Galway, accusing him of complicity with JohnMethuen in treason- 
able intrigues, and insinuating that he was now associated with 
Paul Methuen in similar practices (pp. 125, 146-150, 155 infra). 
These imputations were discredited by the Ministry, by whom he 

was nevertheless treated with the utmost consideration (pp. 160-1 
infra). The objective being Valencia, the expedition proceeded in 
the winter to Alicante, whence Rivers wrote to Halifax severely 
censuring Galway's recent strategy and asking to be relieved of 
his command. Rivers afterwards met Galway and Stanhope at 
Valencia, but no understanding was arrived at, and in March 
Rivers threw up his command and sailed for England. The 
tidings of the disastrous defeat in the plain of Almanza followed 
hard on his return. (See the letter of his friend General Thomas 
Erie, pp. 169-170 infra.) • 

Among minor matters may be mentioned the letter of Captain 
John Ogilvie (p. 187 infra) to Harley relative to the intrigues of 
the Jacobites in Scotland in 1707 ; that of St. John to Harley, 
dated 11 Oct., 1708, in which he expresses himself as "fully 
convinced " that " there is no hope but in the Church of England 
party, nor in that neither on the foot it now stands and without 
more confidence than is yet re-established between them and 
us," and suggests the expediency of "gaining Bromley" (the 
future Speaker) " entirely; " and those of the Duke of Shrewsbury 
to Harley, Sept.-Dec, 1709, 1709-10 and July-Nov., 1710. 
The replacement of the Marquis of Kent by Shrewsbury as Lord 
Chamberlain (14 April, 1710) was the first sign which the Queen 
gave of her intention to change her advisers. It was followed 
by the appointment of Dartmouth as secretary for the Southern 
department in place of the Earl of Sunderland, and the transfer 
of the seals of the Northern department from Boyle to St. John 
(21 Sept.). In the meantime Shrewsbury, as appears from the letter 
of 22 July, 1710, had been offered the place of first Commissioner 
of the Treasury, but had pleaded incompetence : upon which it 
was given to Earl Poulett, with whom Harley was associated as 
Chancellor of the Exchequer. The letter of 20 October, 1710, 
is peculiarly interesting for the evidence it affords that the Queen 
did not believe in Divine right. From that of 25 April, 1711, it 
appears that there was then some suspicion of a plot to assassinate 
the Queen ; but this was probably a mere canard occasioned by 
the recent attempt on Harley' s life. The paper referred to in 
the endorsement and subsequent letters was apparently Torcy's 
project of peace. {Cj. the letter of Petkum to Marlborough, 
dated 17 Jan., 1711, in Hist. MSS. Comm. Fourteenth Report, 
Appendix, pt. ix. 355.) 


The Countess of Marlborough, whose piteous letter is printed 
on p. 204 infra, was the widow of William Ley, the fourth and last 
earl. The family had suffered during the civil war. The very 
interesting correspondence between Oxford and Marlborough 
during the summer and autumn of 1711 shows that the comple- 
tion of Blenheim was the price of the apparent withdrawal of the 
Duke's opposition to the peace (pp. 203-209 infra). Nevertheless 
it is clear from a letter of the Queen to Oxford, which is probably of 
later date, that she was by that time convinced that Marlborough 
was playing a double game (pp. 212-13 infra), though it was not 
until the close of the year that he was dismissed. The course 
of the peace negotiations is illustrated, though none too fully, by 
other letters, chiefly from the Queen and Shrewsbury to Oxford. 
The Queen's letters abundantly evince the ascendency which 
Oxford had over her, and the almost tender solicitude which she 
felt for his health (pp. 213-15 infra). From her letter of 
19 Nov., 1711, it would seem that it was from her that the main 
objection to the proposed appointment of Prior as plenipotentiary 
came, and that it w^as grounded on nothing more than his "mean 
extraction." There is no evidence that Strafford felt any such 
prejudice (Cj. Wentworth Papers, ed. Cartwright, p. 28), and 
though the Queen's objection prevailed. Prior acted as Strafl'ord's 
confidential adviser at Utrecht, and was afterwards associated in 
the same capacity with Shrewsbury at Paris, where it is evident 
that the poet proved a more competent negotiator than the peer, 
whose naive confession of total defeat by Torcy on the Newfound- 
land Fishery question will be found on pp. 228-9 infra. With 
this should be compared his handsome tribute to Prior at the 
close of the letter to Oxford of 8 March, 1713 (p. 230 infra). 
The question of *' bona immohilia''' referred to in this letter 
concerned the claim of French subjects emigrating from the 
ceded countries within a year of the Peace to be allowed 
to sell their immoveable property. This claim, notwithstanding 
Shrewsbury's advocacy and Bolingbroke's apparent inclination 
to give way, the British government eventually refused to 
concede. (See the Treaty in Corp. Dipl. viii. p. i. 341, 
§. xiv. and cf. ih. vii. p. i. 41, §. xi.) The principle for 
which the French contended has, however, since come to 
be universally admitted. (See Rivier, Principes clu Droit des 
Gens, i. 207.) 


Shrewsbury's letters from Dublin, Oct., 1713-March, 1714, 
are diverting by the lively picture which they afford of the strife 
of factions in the city. The Duchess of Newcastle, whose two 
letters are printed on p. 248 i7t/ra, was Margaret, third daughter 
and co-heir of Henry Cavendish, the second duke. She was 
widow of John Holies, Earl of Clare, created in 1694 Duke of 
Newcastle. The "wicked marriage " mentioned in the first letter 
was that of her only daughter, Lady Henrietta, to Edward Lord 
Harley, afterwards second Earl of Oxford. (See Arbuthnot's 
letter of congratulation, p. 239 infra.) The Lady Margaret 
Harley, to whom the first Earl of Oxford wrote the pretty letter 
of 21 Oct., 1723 (p. 250 infra) was Prior's "noble lovely little 
Peggy," the future (second) Duchess of Portland. 

The letters of Arbuthnot on the publication of Gulliver and of 
Voltaire referring to the Henriade and the connection of the 
Harley family with France are of considerable interest. But 
the diligence of biographers has left so few remains of the wits 
of this period unprinted that they are here but meagrely 
represented, and abrupt indeed is the transition from the last 
letter of the author of Gulliver to the first of the author of Night 
Thoughts. It will be observed that Young's letters begin at a 
critical epoch in his life. He had married in 1731 Lady 
Elizabeth Lee, daughter of Sir Edward Henry Lee, created in 
1674 Earl of Lichfield. In 1731 Lady Elizabeth was a widow, 
having been married to a certain Colonel Lee, by whom she had 
one son (pp. 281, 304) and two daughters, Elizabeth, who married 
on 18 June, 1735, Henry Temple, son of the first Viscount 
Palmerston, and Caroline, who is frequently mentioned in the 
letters and eventually married William, afterwards General, 
Haviland (p. 311 infra). By his wife Young seems to have had 
but one child, a son, Frederick, who matriculated at Balliol 
College, Oxford, on 12 Nov., 1751, studied divinity, and pre- 
sumably took holy orders ; but of whom little else is known save 
that in 1766 he placed a monument to the memory of his father 
and mother in Welwyn Church. He has been absurdly identified 
with the Lorenzo of the Night Thoughts^ notwithstanding that 
he was but a child when the poem was published. 

It will further be observed that in a letter of 20 Dec, 1740, 
Young refers to "the great number of touching admonitions 
Providence lately has been pleased to give me of my own 


mortality" (p. 256 infra). The latitude with which '* lately " is 
used in ordinary parlance is so considerable that we cannot 
exclude from the list of these admonitions the death of Mrs. 
Temple, though it took place so far back as October, 1736. Of 
the other admonitions one was the death on 18 August, 1740, 
of Mr. Temple, which was speedily followed by that of Lady 
Elizabeth Young. 

In the Preface to the Night Thoughts Young tells us that " the 
occasion of this poem was real, not fictitious," and three bereave- 
ments occurring in swift succession are plainly indicated as the 
occasion in the apostrophe to Death in the First Night : — 

Insatiate archer ! could not one suffice ? 

Thy shaft flew thrice, and thrice my peace was slain ; 

And thrice ere thrice yon moon had filled her horn. 
The last line would seem to import a period of three months; 
but Young is not known to have suffered any great bereavements 
but the three above mentioned, and an immense draft on poetic 
licence is necessary in order to identify the Narcissa and Philander 
of the poem with Mrs. Temple and her husband. The poem 
therefore still remains a crux for the critics. Moreover Narcissa 
is represented as dying not before but after Philander,** as dying 
in her bridal hour, whereas Mrs. Temple died considerably more 
than a year after her marriage, and as denied a grave by Catholic 
bigotry and buried by stealth, whereas Mrs. Temple was buried 
in the Protestant cemetery at Lyons, and there is neither evidence 
nor likelihood that it was ever proposed to bury her in ground 
consecrated by the Catholic Church, t It is therefore evident 
that the attempt to identify Philander and Narcissa with Mr. 
and Mrs. Temple labours, to say the least, under extreme 
difficulties, and the tradition of Montpellier that Narcissa died 
there about the year 1741, and was buried clandestinely in the 
King's Garden, would seem to deserve more consideration than 
it has received. 

Between Mrs. Temple and Mrs. Haviland there seems to be 
ample room for another daughter of Lady Elizabeth Lee, who, if 

* Twas night ; on her fond hopes perpetual night ; 
A night which struck a damp, a deadlier damp 
Than that which Bmote me from Philander'e tomb. 
Narcissa follows ere his tomb is closed. — Third Night, 69-62. 
t Cf. the article on Young by Sir Leslie Stephen in the Dictionary of National 


she died early and in a foreign land and was buried in a nameless 
grave, may well have escaped the research of the genealogists ; 
but the letters unfortunately shed no light on this matter. As to 
Philander we gather from the poem that he was a man of the 
loftiest character and a sage, and that he died suddenly and in the 
full maturity of his powers. Of Mr. Temple we know nothing 
that suggests such a character, and the mere fact that he died in 
middle life is a very precarious basis of identification. In this 
connexion it is to be observed that an earlier draft of the lines 
descriptive of Philander's death, which close the Second Night, 
serves Young in the letter of 3 May, 1742 (p. 271 infra), to pay a 
tribute to his friend Dr. Alured Clarke, then on his deathbed. 
Both chaplains to the King, Young and Clarke had been well 
acquainted, and though, while Young languished in his Hertford- 
shire living, Clarke got preferment, a prebendal stall at West- 
minster and the deanery of Exeter, no jealousy had impaired 
Young's cordial regard for his more fortunate friend, whose 
benevolence was so proverbial that, had he but died a little earlier, 
he might well have been regarded as the original of Philander. 
Philander h already dead in the First Night, and therefore some 
other original than Clarke must still be sought : nevertheless it 
is by no means impossible that some traits of Clarke's character 
were introduced into the portrait during revision. 

The death of Mr. Lee, Lady Elizabeth Young's only son by 
Colonel Lee, occurred in. 1743 (q/. p. 281 infra, and Notes and 
Queries 1st ser. v. 252), nor, had it been possible to antedate it, 
is anything at present known of his history or character. 

The letters on the whole evince a degree of optimism which is 
striking in a man of Young's melancholy cast of genius, and 
who deemed himself, nor altogether without cause, to have not 
come by his deserts. It is interesting to find such a man ranking 
the pleasures of benevolence highest in the scale as being alone 
neither 'short' nor 'precarious' nor 'mixed' (p. 266 infra), 
and finding no objection to marriage but that "which the wise 
world amongst its ten thousand objections never makes" — "that 
the husband and wife seldom die in one day, and then the 
survivor must necessarily be miserable " (p. 268 infra): There 
is sly humour in his remark a propos of his chances of prefer- 
ment: — " I really believe the 'Archbishop is my friend, but your 
Grace knows 'tis dangerous trusting the clergy" (p. 277 infra), 


and in his description of the Duke of Newcastle as "our Pope," 
"as fixed as St. Paul's by his own weight in spite of all the 
revolutions of the little court buildings around him " (p. 280 

infra). The Mr. M mentioned so scornfully in the letter of 

29 May, 1744, is perhaps Edward Wortley Montagu. The book 
referred to in that of 28 July, 1744 (p. 283 infra) as, though not 
written "to your Grace," yet "written for your Grace," is of 
course the Second Part of the Night Thoughts, the preface to 
which is dated 4 July, 1744. The Third Night had been 
dedicated and introduced with a most courtly apostrophe to the 
Duchess. As to public events, little is to be gathered from these 
letters, even the Jacobite insurrection of 1745 passing almost 
unnoticed. Much the same is to be said of the letters of Mrs. 
Montagu ; their interest is mainly in the light they shed on the 
social life of the period. In this connection attention may be 
drawn to the inventory of the Duchess of Portland's trousseau 
printed in the Appendix. 

The correspondence as far as the last letter of Swift, pp. 258-4, 
was seen through the press by the late Mr. J. J. Cartwright ; the 
remainder of the work by Mr. J. M. Rigg, who is also respon- 
sible for the Introduction. 




Vol. I, 


Brampton Bryan. 

1643, July 26. — A true relation of the siege of Brampton Castle 
in the county of Hereford begun on Wednesd^^y July 26th 1643, 
being the public fast day. 

Upon Wednesday the 26th of July about two of the clock there 
appeared two or three troops of horse which divided themselves 
after they had faced our castle about an hour, from a little hill 
on the south side thereof called Pinners, and presently stopped 
all our passengers. Not long after there appeared about two or 
three hundred foot upon the east part of our castle which like- 
wise dispersed themselves. The number of the enemy, as we 
understand since, w^ere about seven hundred of horse and foot. 

This evening a trumpeter was sent to summon our castle from 
Henry Lingen, esquire, High Sheriff of the county of Hereford, Sir 
Walter Pye, knight, and William Smallman, esquire, which was 
answered by the honourable and valiant the Lady Harley.*'* 
The evening upon their first approach and before their summons 
[they] murdered one John Powntney a man born blind, 
because upon demand he said he was for the King and 

Thursday the 27th many of the foot possessed the town and 
church, and we played all that day and night with small shot 
upon each other. Some of the enemy were slain, but none of 
us. This day they plundered many of our sheep and cattle. 

Friday the 28th we continued with small shot till about 
the evening, when another trumpet and letter was sent from 

* Copies of the summons and answer, and of other letters referred to in this 
narrative are printed on pp. 8-22 2>ost. 

VVt 6802 A 


Sir William Vavasour, knight, Colonel and Governor of Here- 
ford, which was likewise answered by the Lady Harley. This 
day the parley being ended they plundered our horses which 
we endeavoured to suspend, they being housed, but could not, 
and in the night the Cavaliers plundered all our fat cattle and 

Saturday the 29th of July a troop or two of Horse appeared 
and dispersed themselves about us, and about evening a drum 
was sent with another letter, so we ceased from shooting that 
evening and night. 

Sunday the 30th of July we expected their ordnance and 
were compelled to pluck up our portcullis, and about the evening 
the honourable Lady sent a letter to the Governor, so we ceased 
till a warning piece should be on their side given. 

Monday the 31st was spent in letters and answers, here 
annexed, with a cessation of arms. 

Tuesday August 1st 1643 the enemy approached into our 
quarters and began to raise breastworks, but being commanded out 
by a gentleman, one Captain Scudamore, refused. Immediately 
the Cavaliers fired a house in town whereupon we gave fire 
roundly upon them [for] about an hour, but then we espied all 
our out-houses, containing very many bays of building, on a'light 
fire. This evening a trumpet was sent from the governor afore- 
said with a letter, which was answered, etc. 

Also another letter from the Lady with a promise of answer at 
twelve of the clock the next day, yet unperformed. 

Wednesday August the 2nd an answer was expected to the 
aforementioned, but instead thereof we had peals of ordnance. 

Thursday August the 3rd very early in the morning the 
Cavaliers fired our mills, and about ten of the clock the fire began 
in the town which within a very few hours consumed the greatest 
part thereof, then about three that afternoon the enemy planted 
a saker against our castle in the stable window. This evening 
they made ten shots against us with bullets of betwixt six or 
seven pound weight which only pierced our battlements but slew 
none of us, wherein the great power of God may be observed, 
that in these nine days not a hair fell from our heads by any of 
these enemies ; as for our loss by fire and plunder which hath 
already been very great to the value of three thousand pounds and 
upwards, yet it was observed that all of us took joyfully the 
spoiling of our goods. The malignants of the country stood upon 
hills about us, and when the ordnance played, gave great shouts, 
which no whit daunted us. This night they cast up a work at the 
parsonage on the east side of our castle which we could not 
prevent in the dark, and the enemy fired a bomb on the west 
side, which did no whit annoy us, although they had the wind. 

Friday August 4th the parsonage house and barns were burnt 
down, which was an advantage to us for there the enemy 
quartered their men and began to raise batterings and breastworks. 
All this day they played with their great gun ; they made 
twenty six shots against us which only struck down one chimney 
and a battlement of our castle, shattering the tilestones, and 

although most of the bullets came in the house there was not 
one of us hurt, whereby we may see an Almighty power and 
Providence in our protection and preservation. 

Saturday August 5th the enemy made twenty one shots more 
against our castle, and at last down came the top of another 
chimney, at which the Cavaliers gave a great shout — and cause 
they had so to do — that with five great shots at eighty yards 
distance they prevailed against one stack of chimneys and a 
battlement. This was the execution done this week, God 
being still pleased to preserve all our lives and support our 
spirits. We omitted nothing that might strengthen our walls, 
laboured day and night in a cheerful expectation of a happy 
deliverance. This afternoon the enemy beat up their drums 
and a part of them marched out of town ; many country people 
came into their room and made that night many fires and a great 
noise, the cause of this alarm is not yet known to us. This 
night they made a great shot at us which did no execution as we 
were taking down tile and timber. 

Sunday August 6th the enemy saluted us very early with their 
loud music eight times before morning sermon and then left off, 
perhaps ashamed of some barbarism on this day, or rather 
because God did blow upon some of their instruments of cruelty 
which broke. About one of the clock we heard many muskets 
go off and at last discerned them shooting as if some part had 
been in skirmish with them a mile off ; the particular of this we 
are yet ignorant of. Let me add this one thing remarkable, that 
of men women and children never used to such hardships, about 
one hundred all immured up in a close house and the^dog-daxs, , 
there was not one sick or feeble person among us. 

Monday the 7th of August, we had secret intelligence that the 
enemy had no great hopes of taking the castle, that some of them 
were hurt, some slain, that their scouts had taken a little ' 
girl of ours and murdered it, that the Parliament forces 
were on their march, etc. This day they made ten shots 
with a demiculverin which did no execution ; in the after- 
noon they planted a very great gun on the west side [of] the 
castle and made three shots against us, the third bullet came in 
at the window and shattered the wall by the clock, broke the bell 
and hurt in the lobby at the parlour door the Lady Colebourn, 
struck out one of her eyes. Mrs. Wright, Dr. Wright's wife, was 
also hurt, but thanks be to God, neither of them mortally. This 
was the saddest day that we have yet had since the beginning of 
the siege. 

Tuesday August the 8th the enemy planted two great guns 
against the west side of our castle ; this day they made twenty 
nine shots against us, some of their bullets weighed nine 
pounds ten ounces, all which did no execution, neither on the 
walls nor persons, such was the mercy of God to us. This 
evening came in two colonels of the enemy's foot, which vapoured 
at their first approach and gave a shout, called us Roundheads ; 
these made neither our walls shake or our hearts fail. 

Wednesday August 9th the enemy planted five great guns 

against our castle as if they had meant this day to have beaten it 
to dust, two on the east part, two on the west part and one on the 
south. They made forty three great shots against us, which 
through God's great mercy did us Httle hurt. This night we had 
secret intelhgence that Sir Wilham Bruerton had given the Lord 
Capell a great overthrow, that Gloucester was not besieged four 
days since, that Sir William Yavasour was shortly expected west- 
ward, that this county was summoned into Ross upon pain of 

Thursday August 10th the enemy was so quiet till evening 
that we could scarce discern they were here, they gave us three 
shots out of the steeple which broke some Venice glasses in a 
high tower which formerly entertained some of those capon-faced 
cowards who have unmanned themselves in offering violence to 
so noble a lady, an action which will render them odious to man, 
as their 'perjurious' act at Hereford perfidious to God. This night 
we had secret intelligence that their greatest gun was yesterday 
broken, that the cannoneer was killed and that twenty five of 
their men were slain by us. 

Friday August 11th the enemy began very early with their 
great guns which in the night they had planted near us. They 
made this day thirty six shots against us, which through God's 
mercy hurt none of us, nor our walls but very little, besides 
continually shooting with muskets and hammer-guns ever since 
the siege began and yet not a man of ours slain or wounded, 
which is a wonderful thing. This night they made two shots 
with their great gun, which likewise did no execution, thanks be 
to God. 

Saturday August 12th, the enemy continued shooting with 
their great guns, sometimes battering at chimneys, sometimes at 
the walls below, anon at the windows and tiles, now three or 
four shots in the west, then to the south and east, then cursing 
the Roundheads, calling us Essex bastards. Waller's bastards, 
Harley's bastards, besides rogues and thieves. This was their 
language and these were their actions to reduce us to obedience 
to the King. This day they made twenty shots against our 
castle and so concluded three weeks work, all which through 
the wonderful mercy of our good God, did us very little hurt, yet 
not a man slain or wounded although so many thousand shots 
have been shot against us. I dare say there hath been no such 
preservation in these three kingdoms since the beginning of these 
unnatural wars. The praise we ascribe only to the God of our 

Sunday August 13th we were necessitated to work in the 
morning, for we found that our wall in the west was sore battered 
almost to a breach and that very near the ground ; it was a round 
tower that contained a staircase, which might be fortified with 
more ease than any part of the castle, there we bestowed much 
pains in lining the walls. This day we had secret intelligence 
that two more of their guns were broken, that another cannoneer 
was sore hurt, that Prince Rupert had sent the enemy word to 
leave our castle, and to run away, that an army was upon their 

march from London for our relief. This day they played not 
with their cannons at all, but lay still, as if they had enough. 

Monday August 14th the enemy was very quiet till the after- 
noon, then they began out of the steeple to batter. They made 
five shots against us this day, which did us no hurt. This night 
we had secret intelligence that the enemy was preparing fire balls 
to destroy us. 

Tuesday August 15th the enemy continued battering with their 
great gun out of the steeple our worst friend. They made this 
day nine shots more at our south battlements which did no 
execution there ; and from day to day hath the Lord hitherto 
preserved us and made their own guns their executioners. 

Wednesday August 16th the enemy lay still almost the whole 
day ; at evening they made two shots against us from the stable, 
which did no execution. This day we had secret intelligence 
that the Parliament forces were at Wolverhampton, that Gloucester 
was besieged, that the King lay before it, that Bristol was delivered 
up upon composition, that Sir William Waller was coming to 
raise the siege of Gloucester, that Brampton Castle was given to 
Sheriff Lingen if he could get it. 

Thursday August 17th the weather being very foul the enemy 
lay still about us and we had a pretty intermission from them ; 
but the Lord was pleased this day to sadden us with the breaking 
of an iron gun, which was our greatest, whereby an honest and 
active gentleman of our garrison was sore hurt and it was God's 
great mercy we (sic) had not been slain, which we acknowledge 
with much thankfulness. The enemy played not with their 
great gun this day. 

Friday August 18th being the [twenty-fourth] we were besieged, 
our honest cook received a shot through his left arm, which was the 
first bullet [with which] the enemy touched any of us. This 
night we had secret intelligence that the Scots were come into 
England, that the whole kingdom resolved to rise as one man, 
that Sir William Waller was made General of a great army in 
London and was coming westward, that the cause in the 
[ ] was successful through the kingdom, but for us in 

particular, without hopes of any relief as yet. 

Saturday August 19th the enemy lay very quiet all the day, 
there was nothing remarkable save only the conclusion of 
another week and not one of us slain, but one hurt ; on the 
contrary we were informed that of the enemy there were three- 
score hurt and slain. 

Sunday August the 20th we spent in fasting and prayer that 
we might be delivered out of the hands of these bloody enemies, 
who were, by the power of God, this day restrained from dis- 
turbing of us. 

Monday August 21 the enemy made four shots with their 
great gun which did no harm. This day a small party of our 
men sallied out upon the enemy and slew some of them, fired a 
house where they kept their wild fire, very much to our advant- 
age, some that lay prisoners have since confessed that these ten 
men of ours that sallied out made four hundred of theirs ready 


to fly ; there was not one of our men touched in this service. 
The praise of our preservation we ascribe only to God. 

Tuesday August 22nd the enemy made eight shots more 

which did no execution. This day they cast up breastworks in 

\ our gardens and walks ; and lay so near us that their rotten 

1/ I language infected the air ; they were so completely inhuman that 

i out of their own mouths, and the mouths of their guns, came 

nothing else but poisoned words and poisoned bullets. 

Wednesday the 23rd of August a drum was sent with a parley 
whereby we understood that Sir John Scudamore, knight, had a 
gracious letter from his Majesty to the Lady Harley ; she presently 
prepared an humble petition to his Majesty then lying before 
Gloucester. This night we had secret intelligence from Lon- 
don of an insurrection there by the malignant rabble, of great 
division between both Houses and other very sad news, 
j Thursday the 24th of August the parley continued. Sir John 
Scudamore came up into the castle by a ladder and a rope, had 
conference with the noble lady, demanded her castle, etc. This 
day our cook died, being shot into the arm formerly with a 
poisoned bullet. 

Friday the 25th of August, the treaty continued wdth a cessation 
of arms. This night we had secret intelligence that things w^ere 
not so bad in the public as formerly we heard, that Sir William 
Bruerton waited for an opportunity for our relief, that London 
was quieted, that Gloucester resolved to fight it out, that such 
cruelty was exercised at Bristol, notwithstanding fair promises, 
that it will be a precedent to all the kingdom never to believe the 

Saturday the 26th of August, the treaty continued. 

Sunday the 27th of August, the treaty continued. This day 
Mr. Lake, vicar of Aymestrey, j)reached to the Cavaliers. 

Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, the treaty 
continued with a cessation of arms. 

Friday, the 1st of September 1643, Sir John Scudamore 
returned again, sent a letter to the noble Lady, and gave her to 
understand that her petition to his Majesty had received a 
gracious answer, etc. This night w^e had secret intelligence from 
Sir William [Waller] that we should speedily be relieved, that 
Gloucester stood out valiantly, many of the Cavaliers were slain 
before it, that the Earl of Newcastle had received a great over- 
throw, that the Lord Capell's powder house at Salop was blown 

Saturday the 2nd of September we expected his Majesty's 
answer afore mentioned, which proved only a letter from Sir 
William Vavasour wherein he offered a pass and convoy for the 
Lady and her servants to march aw^ay. In the evening there 
came a very sharp letter from Sir John Scudamore requiring our 
castle and arms, to admit a garrison, or a positive answer which 
was to this effect, etc. 

Sunday the 3rd of September there was a cessation of arms. 

Monday the 4th of September, we expected the ' Hoggs ' out of 
Lingams Park, wherewith they meant to undermine us. This 

night we had secret intelligence that Eccleston Castle was taken, 
that Sir William [Waller] was bound for Salop county, that this 
week he would send a party to raise the siege here, that 
Gloucester stood out valiantly, that the Scots were in England 

Tuesday the 5th of September, Sir John Scudamore came 
again, sent a close letter to the noble Lady, desired admittance to 
speak with her, which was not granted, for experience had taught 
us, their former words and actions wanted nothing but truth. 
This evening Sir John Scudamore sent in the King's answer as 
he pretended subsigned by secretary Fauckland here annexed, 
etc. This night we had secret intelligence that the Parliament 
forces were at Wem, within seven miles of Salop. 

Wednesday the 6th of September the noble lady sent early a 
letter to Sir John Scudamore here annexed. This morning the 
enemy began to remove their carriages, which is contrary to the 
law of arms in time of treaty, whereupon we gave them a warn- 
ing piece and presently after they began with their great guns 
afresh ; they made two shots and no more which did no execution. 

Thursday the 7th of September the Cavaliers made two great 
shots more with their great guns which did no execution. We 
were of opinion that they had enough, and were taking their 
leave, at last removing their great guns. This night we had 
secret intelligence that Sir William [Waller] was ready to come 
to raise the siege here, that the Lord General and Sir William 
Waller were upon their march for Gloucester to raise the siege 
there, that now Bristol began to revolt from the Cavaliers' heavy 

Friday the 8th of September 1643, the Cavaliers stole away 
our bells and as they were carrying them out of town, we sent 
some of his Majesty's good subjects to old Nick for their sacrilege ; 
some of their great guns, we heard they were now gone. 

Saturday the 9th of September we continued with small shot 
most of the day and through God's mercy concluded another week 
and none of us slain or wounded. This evening the enemy fired 
a 'baracado' upon the west part of our castle, which made us 
confident they were taking their leave of us. This night we had 
secret intelligence that the Lord General was with a very great 
army near Gloucester, that the Cavaliers had raised their siege to 
give him battle, and that all the King's forces were called together 
for that purpose from Exeter, from Shrewsbury, &c. ; that Sir 
William Waller came out of London upon Monday last and that 
the Cavaliers about us would be gone. This, indeed, was the day 
of our deliverance, a day to be remembered and never to be for- 
gotten throughout our generations. 

The Lord was this day pleased to take away these bloody vil- 
lains, and to return them with shame, which had vexed us almost 
these seven weeks, for which we desire to be humbly thankful to 
our good God, that delivered our poor family out of the hands of 
fifteen malignant counties set against us even to our extirpation 
and ruin. 

These are the several passages of our siege truly related from 
our shutting up even to the day of our deliverance. Copy, 


Henry Lingen, Sir W. Pye and William Smallman to 
[Brilliana] Lady Harley. 

1643, July 26. — Our relations to your Ladyship make us 
careful to prevent if we can any further inconvenience to you, 
and therefore to that end we think fit to acquaint you that [as] 
Sir "William Vavasour by his Majesty's command hath drawn 
his forces before your castle, with resolution to reduce it before 
he stirs from thence, your ladyship may do well to take into 
your consideration the posture you are in. Bristol is taken 
by Prince Eupert and [he] is now before Gloucester. His 
Majesty's forces are successful everywhere, so that your ladyship 
cannot hope for any relief, and upon these terms if your 
ladyship should be obstinate we cannot promise and 
expect those conditions for you that are fit for your quality, 
especially my Lady Aubigney having been so ill-treated by the 
Parliament, neither any quarter for those that are with you, who 
further must look for all extremity upon their families and 
substance forthwith. Madam we wish you would take this 
seriously into your thoughts, and we expect a speedy answer. 

Brilliana, Lady Harley to Henry Lingen, High Sheriff, Sir 
Walter Pye and Mr. Smallman. 

1643, July 26. — Your relations to me which you are pleased to 
make mention of might have invited you to another piece of ser- 
vice than this that you are now come upon, in which if you should 
have your desire it would never crown you with honour before 
men, nor blessings from God. For Sir William Vavasour's draw- 
ing his forces before my house by the King's command, I dare 
not, I cannot, I must not, believe it, since it has pleased our 
most gracious King to make many solemn promises that he 
would maintain the laws and liberties of this kingdom. I cannot 
then think he would give a command to take away anything from 
his loyal subjects, and much less to take away my house. If 
Sir William Vavasour will do so I must endeavour to keep what 
is mine as well as I can, in which I have the law of nature, of 
reason, and of the land on my side, and you none to take it from 
ine. For Bristol and Gloucester it is no precedent to me if they 
are taken, that I should give away what is mine. I believe I 
shall have more comfort in keeping my own to the utmost, 
than ever you will have in the least endeavour to take it away. 

Sir William Vavasour to [Brilliana] Lady Harley. 

[1643,] July 28. Wigmore Grange. — I took notice of your lady- 
ship's letter and denial upon Wednesday night with much regret, 
for I thought the demands made to you by those gentlemen who 
subscribed the letter were so reasonable that they could not have 
found contradiction from anybody, much less from a person of 
your wisdom and virtue. How your ladyship can term yourself 
one of the King's loyal subjects, when either by your command 


or connivance at least, your rebels in your house have committed 
so many thefts, murders, and taken so many prisoners for no 
other cause than for being good subjects. Truly, madam, I don't 
understand those declarations you are pleased to mention of our 
gracious King are conditional, and comprehend only those who 
acknowledge his power and obey his commands, which if it please 
your ladyship to do, by delivering up those rebels in your house, 
which you now endeavour to protect — and truly madam I must 
deal plainly with you — much in vain, for we will never suffer the 
King's power to be affronted by so small a part of the county, the 
dispute will end, for if you please not to withstand the right 
which God and the laws of the land have put into the King's 
hands. I shall deal fairly with you, madam. I am your servant, 
and to j)ne so noble and virtuous- am desirous to keep off all 
insolences that the liberty of the soldiers, provoked to it by your 
obstinacies, may throw you upon ; yet if you remain still wilful, 
what you may suffer is brought upon you by yourself, I having 
by this timely notice discharged those respects due to your sex 
and honour. Copy. 

Brilliana, Lady Harley to Sir Wiilliam Vavasour. 

1643, July 28. — I have considered of your letter you were 
pleased to send this morning. For my denial to those reason- 
able demands you wrote of, I am ignorant of any demands they 
mean to offer to me, for sure I am they made none in their 
letter. Those gentlemen you write of seemed in their letter so 
far to befriend me as to let me know you had sent soldiers before 
my house to reduce it. I know nothing I can be reduced to but 
to poverty, and it is endeavoured as much as can be, for all my 
cattle and sheep are taken by your soldiers. I wrote the 
gentlemen word 1 would endeavour to keep what was mine as 
long as 1 could and I know that does not make me an ill subject, 
nor give anyone warrant to take it from me. Sir, I have heard 
such a fair report of you that it possessed me with a belief that 
_so noble a soldier as yourself would rather have put forth your 
power to have rescued me from injuries, than to have poured them 
upon me, and I think it exceedingly strange that so ingenious a 
mind should take up such false reports, as it seems you have of 
me. Sir, my words shall always be so ruled by the line of 
truth, that without further protestations you may believe this 
truth, that none in my house tolerated by me did ever commit 
murder or theft, things which I abhor as much as any can. 
Since you have taken up what is fallen, I believe there is so 
much virtue in you that you will be glad to know the truth, 
though it may seem too long a story. I guess they ground the 
report of theft and murder on this accident. Some Welshmen in 
my house desired leave to go home Whitsuntide last, which they 
did. When they were in their own country they went to the 
sheriff's house in Kadnor shire and thence or from his son they 
took two buff coats, some halberts, and a horse, when they 
returned to my house. Before they came in I heard what they 


had done, with which I was so much displeased, that I discharged 
them presently, paying them what was due and not suffering 
them to come into my house. The sheriff's son two days after 
wrote me a letter to let me know what they had done, and they 
said they had killed a man. I caused the man to go into the 
town to search for what he had lost, of which they only found 
some halberts which were delivered into the constable's hands till 
Mr. Lloyd sent for them, which Mr. Lloyd did the other day and 
they were delivered to him. I wish all could say as I can that I 
never took anything from anybody that I had not good right to, 
and they as willing to give it as I to receive, neither did I ever 
favour anyone in my house that would do the least injury. For 
taking of prisoners I never did take any, but as I was enforced 
thereby as I thought to rescue myself, but upon the score of being 
the King's servants I never did. I am so far from that if any 
unworthy man bear that name I should respect him for that 
though he had nothing else to challenge it. But when my 
servants and friends were taken, I took some to regain mine 
again. For having any rebels in my house, I know none but 
such as appear to~be his Majesty's most faithful and loyal 
subjects. Surely, Sir, you have discovered that which I cannot 
perceive in any, and you and all the world are deceived if you 
think there is any drop of disloyal blood in my heart, and none 
can less cherish our gracious King's enemies than myself. 
Therefore let me obtain the common right that you will believe 
myself and family to be the King's most faithful subjects. I 
know you have taken up those reports at random, or else I should 
be in a labyrinth of thoughts who you should suspect in my 
house for a rebel. Why you are j)leased to term me obstinate I 
know not, my endeavour is to have my will stoop to reason, and 
not to do anything because I will do it. Sir, I need not tell you 
your soldiers have taken my beasts and all else they can and shot 
at my house these two days and nights, but for what cause am 
ignorant and I hope the Lord will never leave me so far to my- 
self that I should give just cause why I should be so used, and 
therefore I believe you will by these lines see your mistake in me 
and those that are with me, and so be sorry for what injuries you 
have done me, and recall your soldiers that I may not be further 
wronged by them. Copy. 

Sir W. Vavasour to [Brilliana] Lady Harley. 

1643, July 29. — I received your ladyship's answer to my 
letter, wherein you were pleased to justify yourself and those in 
your house, and to tax me and my soldiers. I shall not trouble 
your ladyship with much or often writing to you, only this time 
your ladyship hath professed yourself so faithful a subject, I am 
confident you will justify it by obeying his Majesty's command, 
and indeed madam I shall not exceed the commission given me 
by his sacred Majesty, to which I am sworn to be 
obedient. For your cattle truly I gave a strict command they 
should be safely preserved, to the end, if your ladyship shall 


approve yourself loyal, they may be restored and shall, or satisfac- 1 
tion if they shall not be forfeited to the King. I make no I 
pretence myself to them, I have ever abhorred the thing plunder- 
ing. For my soldiers shooting these two days, it was directly 
against my order, for indeed I was not in a present condition, 
my cannon being not then come and I do not love to spend my 
shot in vain, nor do I believe they had given fire against your 
house had they not been provoked to it, by your first and often 
shooting from thence, who have killed a little boy, which truly, 
madam, if not timely prevented by a treaty must be revenged. 

Beilliana, Lady Hakley to Sir W. Vavasour. 

1643, July 29. — The letter you were pleased to send me this 
day I have received. For my justifying myself in avowing my 
loyalty to our gracious King is that which I must always do, and 
Sir, for taxing you had not Mr. Lingen and Sir Walter Pye sent 
me word that you had sent soldiers against me, I should not have 
believed it, that you of so much wisdom would have concluded 
one who you did not know to be worthy to be destroyed. Sir, the 
letter that Sir Walter Pye, Mr. Lingen, and Mr. Smallman wrote 
to me, assured me that your soldiers came before my house in a 
hostile manner, and as they said to reduce me ; to what that may 
be extended to I know not, so that I looked upon [them as] 
a professed enemy, who as soon as they came into the town killed 
a man, and that night killed my sheep and lambs, and the rest 
they drove away. I waited patiently resolving to bear as much 
as with my safety I could. On Thursday morning the soldiers 
approached nearer my house, aiid reviled those they saw in my 
house, both in words and actions ; they_ were desired to 
keep off, which they would not, and then my men shot ; 
but I cannot say it was to revenge the killing of the 
man when they came first into the town, or the taking of my 
sheep, for I will do nothing in way of revenge, but what shot w^as 
made was to keep off those that were my enemies from too near 
an approach ; which action, if you did not account me — your 
servant — as an enemy, you w^ould commend, that I endeavoured 
t o pres erve my famHy. Sir, did you know my hearty you w^ould 
see 1 were more ready to show you respect, than give me occasion 
of revenge. Sir, you are pleased to make mention of a treaty, but 
in what manner I know not, because you are not pleased to 
express it, but sure I am, I am ready rather in the way of peace 
to put an end to this differeiice, than still to have you as my 
enemy, fo^yet I cannot say I am yours ; for sure, had I like the 
power you have and as fair an opportunity to do it, I should not 
go to your house and do as much as you have done to me. Copy. 

The Same to the Same. 

1643, July 30. — My rents have been stopped by the gentlemen 
of this county for almost these twelve months, and now my 
cattle and horses taken by your soldiers. When I heard you 



were come into this county, I having heard the worth was in you, 
I promised myself you would be as slow to such an act as others 
had been, but I know not how the gentlemen of this county have 
overcome you, for yet I cannot tell how to think, that of yourself 
you would so injure one that had no way deserved it. I believe 
my condition cannot be paralleled, that one of my condition, who 
have my husband from me, and so wanting much comfort, 
I should be besieged, and so my life and the lives of my little 
children sought after, with that of my whole family without any 
cause given on my part or of anyone with me. Sir, you have 
been pleased to be their instrument to take away that upon 
which I and my children must live, which was the stock upon 
my ground and which being gone, and my rents not paid, I 
must bethink myself of another place to be in, and therefore I 
desire you will do me the favour to let me have liberty to send to 
Sir William Pelham, who is with the King, that by his means I 
may obtain a pass, by which I may go safely to some other place 
of more safety than my own house. Copy. 

Sir W. Vavasour to [Brilliana] Lady Harley. 

1643, July 31. — If your ladyship shall please to command 
your servants and all others within your house to lay down their 
arms, and suffer me to send in a guard, I will wait on yt)ur 
ladyship, and upon the word of a gentleman you shall receive 
nothing of violence to yourself or family, or anything within your 
house by the said guard, and I shall not exact from your ladyship 
beyond my punctual orders from his Majesty, but show your 
ladyship all warrantable respects. Copy. 

Brilliana, Lady Harley to Sir W. Vavasour. 

1643, July 31. — For my servants laying down their arms 
I know of none they bear l)ut for mine and their defence, a thing 
warranted by the laws of the land, and it is strange to me that 
my having a few arms in my house is more offensive than [in] 
Sir John Winter's house. Sir, for me to yield that you should 
place a garrison in my house, I cannot find out any reason for it, 
and under what notion you would do it, I know not ; but this I 
conceive, I should become a prisoner in my own house, which I 
cannot yield to, for so I should speak myself guilty ; and thus 
much more I must say, my dear husband hath entrusted me with 
his house and children, and therefore I cannot dispose of his 
house but according to his pleasure, and I do not know it is his 
pleasure that I should entertain soldiers in his house ; and surely 
Sir, I never will voluntarily betray the trust my husband reposeth 
in me. I have hitherto believed very well of you, and that I may do 
so, I will not — if I can help it — try how your soldiers will deal with 
me ; and I trust the Lord my God will deliver me and mine out of 
all my enemies' hands ; but if it hath pleased the Lord to appoint 
that your cruelties and wrongs to me and mine, and some of the 
inhabitants of this town, must help to fill up the measure of all 


the cruelties now used against those that desire to keep faith in 
a good conscience, I shall not be displeased ; for when the 
measure of cruelties is full, the day of deliverance will soon 
appear to the Church of God which is now afflicted. And Sir, 
let me desire of you not to be displeased if I put you in mind 
with the rest of the gentlemen of this county, how you make 
yourselves guilty of innocent blood ; for so you will, if you shed 
the least drop of any one with me. Copy. 

Sir W. Vavasour to [Brilliana] Lady Harley. 

1643, July 31. — This return of your ladyship's is so contrary 
to your letter the last day, when you were justly sensible of the 
great danger yourself and your children were in, as also desirous 
to send to Sir William Pelham, that by his means you might 
obtain means to pass from this your house ; that I can guess 
your resolutions are to be disobedient to his Majesty's com- 
mands ; if so, truly madam, I shall discharge my duty to his 
Majesty with more pity to your ladyship than envy, and could 
heartily wish your ladyship were where yesterday you did wish 
yourself ; and for your evil counsellors that think themselves so 
free I shall not doubt but suddenly do such justice upon them — if 
they continue thus obstinate — as is due to such rebellious disposi- 
tions. As for Sir John Winter's fortifying his house, it was for 
his Majesty's service and with my consent ; I could wish your 
ladyship had the same intentions or loyalty to his Majesty. For 
your being a prisoner in your own house, it was never my 
resolution. Copy. 

Brilliana, Lady Harley to Sir William Vavasour. 

1643, July 31. — I now perceive you received the letter I sent 
you yesterday. I am in the same mind I was then, that if you 
will give me liberty to send to Sir William Pelham that so I may 
procure a pass, I shall take it for a favour, but that I hope did 
not discover any intentions in me that I would admit of a guard 
being put upon me. Sir, far be it from me, I should ever believe 
our gracious King — to whom I am a most loyal subject — should 
take it for a disobedience in me if I should not admit of soldiers 
in my house. I am sorry you will not afford me a common 
charity, to believe me loyal to his Majesty, since you know not 
to the contrary. Sir, besides the right of a common subject, I am , 
so happy that, my lord my father was in a particular manner ! 
his Majesty's servant, and therefore I should be sorry that any 
heart should outstrip mine in loyalty. Who you mean by evil 
counsellors I know not, neither is there any in my house guilty 
of any crime which may make them liable to justice. Truly Sir, 
you are better acquainted with my family than I am ; and if you 
know any such you will do me a favour if I may know who they 
are. Sir, I know not whether it is your intentions I should be a 
prisoner in my house, but I should take myself so to be if I were 
under a guard. Copy. 


King Charles I. to Brilliana, Lady Harley. 

1643, August 21. The Court at Matson. — Whereas we under- 
stand that Brampton Bryan Castle in our county of Hereford hath 
been and is made a receptacle and place of retreat to the rebels 
now in arms against us, and a great terror to the country there- 
abouts by killing of divers of our good subjects, firing of houses 
and many other outrages, and hath been in a rebellious manner 
maintained and defended against our forces ; yet being very 
desirous to believe that what hath been done in and from your 
said Castle hath rather proceeded from your being seduced by evil 
counsel than out of your ill-affection to us and our service, and 
being willing to avoid effusion of blood, and unwilling that our 
forces — in respect of your sex and condition — should take such 
course for forcing or firing of the same as they must otherwise 
be compelled to take ; for these reasons we have sent our trusty 
and wellbeloved Sir John Scudamore, knight, in our name to 
demand the said castle to be immediately surrendered to us, and 
we do hereby advise and require you to admit of our forces into 
the same under the conduct of Sir William Vavasour, knight, or 
such as he shall appoint, for the safety and security of that 
country, assuring you in the word of a King of our grace and free 
pardon for the offences aforesaid in case the said Castle be 
immediately delivered according to these our commands ; but if 
you shall refuse to obey this our command and advice in so par- 
ticular and gracious a manner directed to you, you must thank 
yourself for that ruin and destruction which contrary to our 
desire will unavoidably involve you ; and so expecting your ready 
compliance, as well in order to your interest, as to your loyalty, 
we bid you heartily farewell. Copy. 

Sir John Scudamore to Brilliana, Lady Harley. 

1643, August 23. Brampton. — The King s most excellent 
Majesty hath sent me hither with his gracious letters directed to 
your ladyship. I desire to know by this drummer how I may be 
admitted to deliver the same and what else is given in charge to 
me. Copy, 

Brilliana, Lady Harley to Sir John Scudamore. 

1643, August 23. Brampton Castle. — I shall with all readi- 
ness receive what your gracious King is pleased to send to me, and 
I am sorry that my condition is such, that there is not so fair a 
way for you to come into my house as I desire and I know not 
how to offer you the way by which others are enforced to pass ; 
but if it please you to assure me of his safety I will send down a 
gentleman to receive his Majesty's letter, and if it please you 
either by writing or word of mouth, to deliver to the gentleman 
what further you will say to me, I know he will be a faithful 
messenger. Copy, 


Sir John Scudamore to [Brilliana, Lady Harley]. 

1643, August 23. Brampton. — I have received your Lady- 
ship's, and have taken assurance from the Commander in 
Chief of his Majesty's forces here, that the gentleman, whom 
your ladyship shall send forth to meet me and receive his 
Majesty's letters, shall return in safety ; and for my assurance, 
if that may add to his security, I do hereby promise that as far 
as may lie in my power, who have no command here, but was 
very glad to receive the honour of his Majesty's commands, so 
full of tender compassion to your ladyship, had your ladyship 
been willing I should have gladly expressed by word of mouth 
how much I desire your peace and happiness, to which, if my 
endeavours may promote anything, it shall be cheerfully under- 
taken and faithfully prosecuted by me. 

Postscript. — I shall meet the gentleman in any convenient 
place of your ladyship's choice. Copy. 

Brilliana, Lady Harley to Sir John Scudamore. 

1643, August 23. Brampton Castle. — I will believe the 
assurance you are pleased to say the chief commander of his 
Majesty's forces here doth promise for the security and safe return 
of the gentleman I shall send to wait upon you ; and since you 
are pleased to engage your own promise for his safe return, j 
shall have a double confidence in the promise you give of his safe 
return. I should have taken it for an happiness to have had the 
favour to have seen you myself but since I cannot easily attain to 
it at this time, I must desire you would do me the favour to meet 
Mr. Phillips in the Bowling Green which is a little on this side 
the garden. Sir, if you please to let me know whether I have 
made a choice agreeable to your mind, and Mr. Phillips will be 
ready to receive the honour of waiting upon you. Copy, 

The Same to the Same. 

1643, August 23. Brampton Castle. — I must earnestly 
desire the favour, that you will be pleased that I may have 
liberty to send a petition to his most sacred Majesty, by which 
our most gracious King may truly understand my condition, 
which I make no doubt but he will commiserate. I presume 
Sir William Vavasour will not deny me this favour, for once he 
promised to give me liberty to send to the Court. 

Postscript. — If I may have liberty to send, I will God willing 
fail not to send one very early to-morrow morning if you will 
please to procure a pass for him. Copy. 

Sir John Scudamore to Brilliana, Lady Harley. 

1643, August 23. Brampton. — I have spoken with the Com- 
mander in Chief of his Majesty's forces now here concerning the 
pass your ladyship desires ; his answer is, that he hath no com- 
mission to grant such pass, and Madam I take it for a particular 
misfortune to me that your ladyship should desire anything of 
me which is out of my power to perform. I have yet received 


nothing in answer to his Majesty's letter, according to the con- 
tents whereof and my duty, I do hereby demand in the King's 
name that your ladyship do immediately deliver your castle of 
Brampton Bryan into the hands of Colonel Plenry Lingen, High 
Sheriff of this county, and Commander in Chief of his Majesty's 
forces under Sir William Yavasour ; and I do expect your lady- 
ship's positive answer hereunto and shall immediately repair 
therewith to the Court near Gloucester. I hope my fortune may 
be better hereafter in my endeavours to serve your ladyship. 

Bbilliana, Lady Haeley to Sir John Scudamore. 

1643, August 23. Brampton Castle. — Since it cannot be that I 
may obtain the favour of a pass for a servant of mine to go to 
the Court, I will, God willing, send you my petition to our most 
gracious King tomorrow morning in the which will be my full 
answer, and I hope procure me more peace than yet I have had. 

Sir John Scudamore to Brilliana, Lady Harley. 

1643, August 24. Brampton. — I know of nothing that 
hath been denied your ladyship which is in the power of any here 
to grant, and for my own part I am heartily sorry that your 
ladyship is not pleased to make use of such service as I am able 
to do you, which I am confident might be of far greater advantage 
than the passing of a servant to the King. My Lords of Clare, 
Holland, Bedford and many others of the Houses of Lords and 
Commons are come from the Parliament to Wallingford, and 
other places in the King's obedience. My Lord of Clare hath 
sent an humble petition to the King, but on Tuesday when I came 
from Court he was not yet admitted to come forward to the 
King's presence. I have not heard that my Lord of Westmorland 
is yet released out of his imprisonment by the Parliament ; and 
for my worthy good friend Sir William Pelham he is in Lincoln, 
which is lately reduced to his Majesty's obedience, &c. 
My Lords of Northumberland and Pembroke are in the case 
aforesaid ; and give me leave to tell your ladyship, if you knew 
how the affairs stand at London I am confident I should have the 
honour of bringing back to his Majesty the notice of your 
ladyship's doing yourself right by submitting to his Majesty's 
just demands. I must be again a suitor to your ladyship for a 
positive answer. 

Postscri2)t. — Were your ladyship informed how absolute the 
King is both in the north and west, and how much his party 
increaseth in Kent, Surrey and other counties about London, 
the high differences between the Earl of Essex and Sir William 
W[aller], with the little appearance of recruiting either of 
those armies, you would perhaps judge the defending of London 
itself three months will be a very difficult business. The good 
intelligence the King hath with the Scots and his Majesty's 
strength at sea under Sir John Pennington, since the reduction 
of Bristol; these and many other particulars I should have 


acquainted your ladyship with, had I been admitted to your 
presence. The suburbs against the city in arms; the women 
against the House of Commons in multitudes ; the train bands 
of London against the women who cry out for their slain and 
imprisoned husbands ; divers women killed by the soldiers in 
this tumult, yet un appeased ; Mr. Pym beaten by the women 
and with much difficulty escaped their fury by water. Copy. 

Brilliana, Lady Harley to the King. 

[1643, August.] — The humble petition of Dame Brilliana 
Harley. Humbly sheweth that your poor and distressed subject 
perceive th by a gracious letter dated 21st of August from your 
sacred Majesty directed to your said subject and brought by 
Sir John Scudamore, knight, that many unjust informations 
have been given to your Majesty against your said subject. Be 
pleased therefore, gracious sovereign, to believe me, that my 
house is not nor never was, to my knowledge, a receptacle for 
any disloyal person, nor was my condition such, as to be a 
terror to any, much less did any by my command or privity 
either kill any of your Majesty's subjects, or fire any houses, or 
commit any outrages to bring or cause the forces under the 
command of Sir William Vavasour against me, but only kept 
such a number of servants with arms as in these woeful times 
might defend me against pillaging and plundering, a thing your 
Majesty hath in several proclamations expressed your dislike of. ; 
Yet so it is, most gracious sovereign, that I have had servants im- 
prisoned, some killed, and now by Sir William Vavasour's forces, 
all my horses, cattle, corn and other things taken away ; my house 
attempted with many soldiers, horse and foot, with five or six , 
cannons battering the walls, and almost every day assaulted by 
small shot, whereas your poor subject did never offend your 
Majesty, or ever take up arms against your Majesty, or any man 
of mine, or any by mine appointment was in actual rebellion 
against your sacred Majesty; and therefore your poor subject 
hopeth and prayeth the premises being graciously weighed your 
Majesty will not require that from me which by the law of the 
land is mine, and which if I shall give up, I have no subsistence' 
for myself and mine ; but that your Majesty will be pleased to 
command Sir William Vavasour to withdraw his forces and! 
restore to me my goods, but if your Majesty will — notwithstanding! ; 
the premises — command me out of my house, my humble desire isj j 
that you will in your clemency allow unto me some maintenances L^ 
for me and mine and fit time to remove myself and family by x 
your protection to pass to some other place where we may find! 
subsistence, that we perish not ; so shall she who ever hath been \ 
and ever will be your loyal and faithful subject pray for your 
sacred Majesty. Copy. 

Lord Falkland to [Brilliana, Lady Harley]. 

1643, August 30. At the Court at Matson.— Although his Majesty 
be in no degree satisfied with the petitioner's excuses of bo evident 

G8C2 B 


facts, and yet less with the unjust aspersions cast upon his 
Majesty's officers and soldiers for what they have done according 
to their commission towards the necessary reduction of a place 
manned and fortified without his Majesty's consent and against 
his Majesty's forces, yet his Majesty is yet once more graciously 
pleased, so far to reflect with pity upon the sex and condition of 
the petitioner, and to afford the best interpretation to what hath 
passed, as hereby once more to offer unto the petitioner and also 
the persons with her, full pardon and free licence to depart out 
of the castle whither and with what arms and ammunition 
— ordnance only excepted — they shall please themselves, and to 
assure them of a convoy accordingly ; and in case his Majesty's 
forces be immediately received into the castle, his Majesty is 
yet further contented that the petitioner and her family may if she 
please remain therein until she have provided herself of another 
habitation, which gracious offer of his Majesty if it find not a 
most ready and most grateful acceptance from the petitioner his 
Majesty must not only then most plainly discover the vanity of 
the pretences in this petitioner to loyalty and fidelity, but must 
be enforced to punish with utmost severity of justice so high a 
contempt of his grace and favour. 

Note. — Sir John Scudamore added by word of mouth he had 
power to grant to her ladyship what other conditions she could 
in reason demand, which Mr. Moor told her ladyship from Sir 
John. Copy. 

Sir John Scudamore to [BrillianaJ Lady Harley."''' 

1643, September 1. Brampton. — I have outgone my pro- 
mise ; your petition is delivered to the king and I have his 
Majesty's answer. Your ladyship is beholding to Sir William 
Vavasour for his encouragement to me therein, without which 
I durst not have delivered such a petition to his Majesty. 
Madam, I desire to be no longer treated with ceremony by 
admitting me to your presence by an unhandsome waj^ being 
ready to undergo far greater difficulties to approve myself, your 
humble servant. Cojyy. 

Brilliana, Lady Harley to Sir John Scudamore. 

1643, September 1. Brampton Castle. — -I acknowledge your 
favour in that you were better than your promise and so you say 
you have delivered my petition to his Majesty. What Sir William 
Vavasour did in giving way to it, I shall be ready to acknowledge 
as a favour. I will now it is late hold you no longer with these 
lines, but wish you may have a good night. Copy. 

* Three letters, two dated August 24 and one August 25, which passed between 
Lady Harley and Sir J. Scudamore, are printed from other copies at Welbeck on 
pp. 114, 115 of the first volume of the report on the Harley papers belonging to 
the Duke of Portland. (Fourteenth Eeport, Appendix. Part II.) 


Brilliana, Lady Harley to Sir John Scudamore. 

1643, September 2. — Had I not taken cold which hindered my 
sleej) this night these lines should have waited upon you in a 
more early hour. Sir, I do abundantly acknowledge your 
abundant favour that you are pleased to suspend so (sic) with so 
an unhandsome way that I may have the honour to see you, 
which I cannot promise myself, for the chamber where you did 
me favour to speak to me in being a cold place, I dare not obtain 
the favour of seeing you there without fear of increasing the cold 
I have now taken. Therefore give me leave to beg the favour of 
knowing your mind in the way of a letter, with which, to so 
excellent abilities as yours are, it is as easy as to speak. Copy, 

Sir John Scudamore to [Brilliana,] Lady Harley. 

1643, September 2. Brampton. — I am very sorry for your 
Ladyship's indisposition, I was so far from appointing the room 
where I should wait upon your ladyship, that I should have 
been content with any room or place. But since your ladyship 
permits me not to do you the service I desired, and my 
instructions enable me unto, I can be heartily sorry for it, 
though I cannot force it upon you. If it please your ladyship to 
send one out to meet me I shall deliver a letter to him directed 
to your ladyship, and to return to Court, where I shall give this 
account that I could not be admitted to say that which was 
commanded me, and having no order to discourse that with my 
pen which was delivered me by word of mouth. Copy. 

Brilliana, Lady Harley to Sir John Scudamore, 

1643, September 2. — Did not my indisposition of health i 
confine me to my chamber I should now be as willing to wait 
upon you in my own house as I was when you last did me favour 
to come to me. I will send a gentleman to wait upon you, and I 
presume — if please you — I may by your pen know further instruc- 
tions, which I should take as an obligation, and will ever be 
ready to take up all opportunities by which I may appear, Sir, 
your servant. 

Postscript. — I desire to know when Mr. Phillips shall wait 
upon you. Co2nj. . ' 

Sir William Vavasour to [Brilliana,] Lady Harley. 

1643, August 31. Langford. — I have seen your Ladyship's 
petition to the King and have been forward to serve your ladyship 
with my best endeavours to his Majesty, who hath been graciously 
pleased to grant you a safe pass and conduct for yourself and 
servants, your arms being delivered up for his Majesty's use. If 
I may know wherein I may do your Ladyship further service, I 
shall be ready to receive notice of it from Sir John Scudamore 
who hath instructions from me. Copy, 




Brilliana, Lady Harley to Sir John Scudamore. 

1643, September 2. — By yoar favour I have received 
Sir William Vavasour's letter. Mr. Phillips tells me that if I 
send an answer to him you will be pleased to take order that it 
may be sent to him. On Monday if it please God I will send 
him an answer to his letter. Sir, I must beg the favour to know 
to who I may direct my letter to Sir William Vavasour that it 
may have the honour to come to your hand. Mr. Phillips tells 
me you are ready for your journey to Ludlow, where I wish you 
a happy arrival. Copy. 

Sir John Scudamore to [Brilliana,] Ijady Harley. 

1643, September 2. Brampton. — I hope Mr. Phillips did not 
forget to speak to 3^our ladyship for your answer concerning the 
laying down of your arms and delivering up of the castle ; if he 
did, then your ladyship must give me leave to put you in mind 
of that hereby. Your ladyship in your petition did set forth all 
those grievances which you had, which being known to the king, 
your ladyship said that notwithstanding that if the king would 
command you out of your house, you humbly desired his 
Majesty's protection and pass to carry you and your family safe 
to some other place where you might find subsistence, etc. This 
his Majesty hath graciously granted you, and a convoy also for 
your more safety if you desire it, or if you desire to remain in 
the castle till you can be provided in some other place, his 
Majesty is contented that you and your family shall so remain 
there, so as you immediately receive in a garrison of his Majesty's 
soldiers, and to this I must expect your positive answer, that I 
may return to his Majesty, whether you will immediately 
deliver up the castle of Brampton Bryan in the hands of Colonel 
Henry Lingen, which I do now the second time hereby demand 
in his Majesty's name and your ladyship's positive answer. 

Brilliana, Lady Harley to Sir John Scudamore. 

1643, September 2. Brampton Castle.— How to give a 
positive answer to what you require of me, I know not, for, by 
what Sir William Vavasour and you are pleased to write, I cannot 
see that his Majesty commands me out of my house, my petition 
being delivered by such as I presume intend my ruin. I know 
not how to believe whether his Majesty hath seen it or not, since 
he is pleased, as you write, to grant me no more than a mere pass 
for myself and family. Sir, this concerns the livelihood of me 
and mine and therefore before the delivering up of my house, I 
must desire my petition may be solicited by some friend of 
mine at Court who I may confide in. Coxty. 

Sir John Scudamore to [Brilliana,] Lady Harley. 

1643, September 5. Brampton. — Upon your Ladyship's 
letter on Saturday evening I sent away to Court, and have been 


at Ludlow ever since expecting what I have not received, and 
now, Madam, I am further enabled to serve your ladyship than 
hitherto. If therefore your ladyship be pleased to permit me to 
wait upon you, it shall appear to your ladyship how effectually I 
solicited your petition, even to the obtaining of more than you 
prayed, and my actions shall testify than an angry or a little 
misunderstanding (sic) shall not discourage me from seeking 
means to declare myself, your, &c. Copy. 

Sir John Scudamore to [Brilliana,] Lady Harley. 

Same date and place. — I am suitor to your ladyship 
to know how you will please to permit me to convey that to your 
notice which I have in charge to deliver to your ladyship in 
answer to your petition, and the rest of the trust committed to 
me. Cojyy. 

Brilliana, Lady Harley to Sir John Scudamore. 

1643, September 5. Brampton [Castle] . — Since it is so that 
I cannot have the freedom to speak to you myself, if please you 
to let me know your mind by letter I shall be ready to receive it. 

Sir John Scudamore to [Brilliana,] Lady Harley. 

1643, September 5. Brampton. — If your ladyship have a 
will to it, I know nothing that can hinder you the freedom of 
speech with me, who am here purposely to receive that honour 
from your ladyship ; and truly Madam were the thoughts of my 
heart known to your ladyship, all these scruples and ceremonies 
would be removed, and I should have the same liberty I have 
formerly found to your presence : but Madam if you deny me | 
that be pleased to send some one to the Bowling Green to receive 
what is now come to my hands for your ladyship in writing. 

Brilliana, Lady Harley to Sir John Scudamore. 

1643, September 5. — Mr. Moor. will do me the favour to wait 
upon you in the Bowling Green, that by him I may receive what 
you please to make known unto me, for whose safe return I 
desire the engagement of your promise. 

Sir John Scudamore to [Brilliana,] Lady Harley. 

1643, September 5. — Mr. Moor's safe return is promised by 
Colonel Lingen and myself who are repairing now to the Green 
to meet him presently. 

Brilliana, Lady Harley to Sir John Scudamore. 

1643, September 6. — Since my petition to his Majesty hath 
gained me no more than the answer you were pleased to send 
me last night by Mr. Moor I cannot be satisfied till I have 


obtained that, by the hand of some of my own friends, my condi- 
tion may be presented to his Majesty, who then I am persuaded 
would grant me liberty to enjoy what is my own. Sir, I will 
now beg your pardon that these lines waited not on you sooner. 
If you will excuse that fault and do me the right to believe I am 
most ready to serve your most noble lady and yourself, you will 
much oblige me. Coi)y. 

Brampton and Hopton Castles. 

1643-4. — An account of the sieges of Brampton Castle and the 
massacre of Hopton Castle, by Captain Priamus Davies, who was 
an eye witness. 

Amongst the several acts of hostility either defensive or 
offensive since the beginning of these unnatural wars, more of 
God hath not been seen in so weak means of resistance in any 
part of the kingdom than in this castle now consumed to ashes 
together with the tow^n, and that church [in which] was so long 
held forth the truth of God — by the late famous dispenser of 
God's truth Mr. Peirson, afterwards, by the no less famous Mr. 
Stanley Gower — I may truly say to an unworthy people. The 
manner I shall briefly relate. Know, reader, that the county of 
Hereford was the first that resolved and then published that 
cursed resolution against those high and honourable assemblies of 
Parliament. Those malignant sparks who called themselves the 
Nine Worthies have kindled such a flame in England that they 
may well fear the great Justice of Heaven will find them out. These 
began the quarrel against us, which caused that honourable and 
gallant Lady Harley to put herself into a posture of defence 
against their insolent and illegal proceedings. The castle being 
of considerable strength was manned with about fifty musketeers, 
some gentlemen commanders, with an answerable proportion of 
powder and match, and thus inoffensively did this noble lady live 
upon her own in an honourable, resolute and religious way till 
the malice of her enemies broke forth as f olloweth : — 

Those gentlemen entered into an association with the adjoin- 
ing counties of Wales to reduce as they called it this castle to 
the obedience of the king, whereupon a summons was sent from 
Mr. William Coningsby, one of the Nine Worthies, which con- 
tained many threats and vapours, but no storm followed, save 
only seizing upon her revenues very valiantly. 

The next summons came from the Lord Marquess of Hartford, 
whose honour was presently remanded unto a more honourable 
service than to fight with a lady. 

The third summons was by Henry Lingen, High Sheriff of the 
county of Hereford, Sir Walter Pye, knight, and William Small- 
man, esquire, three of the Nine. Upon Wednesday the 26th of 
July, 1643, these appeared and faced us with a body of horse 
and foot, stopped our passages and sat down before us, took 
some of the inhabitants, amongst whom there was one born 


blind, who [when] they demanded who he was for, he replied for 
King and Parliament, him they presently murdered, the summons 
being sent as followeth, &c.*'* 

Upon the 27th the enemy possessed themselves of the town 
and church ; we played upon each other all that day and night, 
slew some of the enemy. The 28th we continued shooting till 
the evening, when another trumpet was sent from Sir William 
Vavasour, Governor of Hereford, with a letter, the contents, &c. 

The 29th their horse faced us again ; by this time they had 
plundered us of all horses, fat beefs, sheep, &c. which was indeed 
their business and errand they came about, and then sent a drum 
with a letter, the contents, &c. 

Upon Sunday the 30th we expected their ordnance, and were 
compelled to block up our double portcullis, for the loss of the 
church which stood directly before the castle gate, within sixty 
or seventy paces, did extremely annoy us. Another letter sent, 
the copies, &c. 

The 1st of August, 1643. The enemy made their approaches 
into our quarters, began to raise breast works and batteries, 
whereupon we gave fire and beat them out. The Cavaliers 
presently fired a house in the town, and we for our own defence 
put fire to all our out-houses, which contained many bays of new 
building, which was much for our advantage. A trumpeter was 
again sent with a letter, the copies, &c. 

Upon the 3rd of August the enemy burnt our mills. This day 
the greatest part of the town was consumed and burnt. In the 
afternoon they placed a great gun in the steeple and made five 
shots which only shattered the battlements but did no execution. 
It is observable, that in these nine days not one of us was hurt ; 
that all of us took joyfully the spoiling of our goods, that none 
of us were daunted either by the enemy, or by the malignants of 
the country, who stood upon hills about us, giving great shouts 
whenever the ordnance played. 

Upon the 4th day the parsonage house was burnt which was 
for our advantage, for then they began to raise more batteries. 
All this day they played with their great gun, twenty- six shots 
they made which did little execution but upon chimneys and 

Upon the 5th the enemy made twenty-three shots more, at 
last came down a stack of chimneys, at which the Cavaliers gave 
a great shout and cause they had so to do, that with thirty- seven 
shots no more execution should be done. We pretermitted 
nothing that might strengthen our walls, but all of us laboured 
as they say for life with much cheerfulness. 

Sunday the 6th they would not let us rest, they made eight 
shots against us before morning sermon, then left off that day as 
if they had been ashamed. It was this day observed, that 
although there were of men women and children above a hundred 
all immured up in a close house, and in the dog days, yet there 
was not one feeble or sick person amongst us. 

* See pp. 8 &c., ante for the letters referred to in this and succeeding paragraphs. 


Ui)on the 7th we had secret intelligence, that the enemy had 
no great hopes of taking our castle, that many of them were 
slain, that a little girl we had sent out was murdered; they made 
five shots more against us this morning. In the afternoon they 
planted another great gun against the west part of our Castle. 
The third shot the hullet came in at a window, shattered the 
walls, which hurt the Lady Colburn, struck out one of her eyes. 
Lieutenant Colonel Wright's wife was hurt, but neither of them 

Upon the 8th day they planted another great gun against the 

west part of the castle, this made twenty-nine shots, all which 

did no further execution. This evening two colonels of foot, the 

train bands of Ludlow came before, who at their first approach 

vaj)oured, called us Eoundheads, rogues and traitors, and sat down. 

Upon the 9th the enemy had planted five great guns, as if 

they meant this day to have beaten it to dust. They made forty- 

. two shots, which through God's mercy did little hurt. The 

1 noble lady was this day more courageous than ever, bid us now 

? play the men, for the enemy was in good earnest. Among the 

many policies of war it is not the least to hold intelligence with 

friends abroad, this her wisdom was great. This night we had 

/ secret intelligence through all their courts of guard to our no 

small advantage and encouragement. 

Upon the 10th they made but three shots which did no 
j execution, but some Venice glasses in a high tower. These had 
I formerly entertained some of those gallants who had now 
unmanned themselves in offering violence to so noble a lady ; an 
act which will render them as odious to man as their late 
perjurious act at Hereford before Sir William Waller, perfidious 
to God. 

This night we had secret intelligence that their greatest gun 
was yesterday broken, which killed their cannoneer; that we 
had slain many of their men, amongst others our mason as he 
was pointing with his hand to shew the enemy the weakest part 
of the castle was shot through that hand into his belly and died. 
Upon the 11th the enemy began very early with their great 
guns which in the night they had placed nearer to us ; this day 
they made thirty-five shots which did no great execution. 

Upon the 12th the enemy continued this battery, cursing the 
Roundheads, calling us Essex's bastards, Waller's bastards, 
Harley's bastards, rogues, thieves, traitors, and all to reduce us 
to the obedience of the king and the Protestant rehgion. They 
made this day twenty shots against our castle and so concluded 
their week's work. It is very remarkable that notwithstanding 
so many thousand great and small shot not a man was hurt. 

Sunday 13th of August we were necessitated to work, for we 
found that our wall was battered almost to a breach, very 
near the ground. Here we made strong barricades and lined the 
walls with earth. This night we had intelligence that two more 
of their great iron guns were broken, the cannoneers sore hurt, 
that Prince Rupert had sent the enemy word to fire the castle 
and come away. 


The 14th they made but five shots which did no execution. 
In the night we had private intelHgence that the enemy were 
preparing grenades. 

Upon the 15th they continued battering out of the steeple 
which did most annoy us. This day they made nine shots more, 
upon the 16th but two shots. This night we had secret intelH- 
gence that Gloucester was besieged, that the King lay before it, 
that Bristol was delivered up, that our castle was given to Sheriff 
Lingen if he could get it. 

Upon the 18th our cook was shot into the arm with a poisoned 
bullet and died, this was the first bullet that touched any of us. 
This night we had secret intelligence from our friends abroad 
but no hopes of relief, that we had slain about sixty of the 
enem-y. Sunday, the 20th, we spent in fasting and praying that 
we might be delivered out of the hands of these bloody enemies, 
who were by the power of God this day restrained from disturb- 
ing us. 

Upon the 21st the noble lady called a council to advise how 
those quarters of the enemy should be fired where their grenades 
were preparing. It was resolved that ten men should sally 
out upon that quarter suddenly, who were to retreat by a word. 
These no sooner fell on but, with rockets from the castle, the 
house was fired, ail their materials and grenades burnt, our men 
slew some of them and retreated back again without any loss, in 
all which time the enemy were struck with such a panic fear 
that they could neither fight nor run away. At last recollecting 
themselves they made four shots with their great gun which 
did no execution. 

Upon the 22nd day the enemy made their approaches nearer 
to us, cast up breast works in our garden and walks, where their 
rotten and poisoned language annoyed us more than their 
poisoned bullets. This day they made eight shots against 
another tower of the castle, which did no execution. 

Upon the 23rd a drum was sent with a parley ; a knight was 
sent with a letter from his Majesty to the noble lady, she returns 
an humble petition to his Majesty, then lying before Gloucester, 
the copies, &c. 

This night we had secret intelligence by letters from London 
of an insurrection of the malignants there, into what a low 
condition the Parliament party were throughout the kingdom 
this exceeding us insomuch that some advised then to deliver up 
the castle. But then the noble lady protested, that she would 
rather choose an honourable death, for she was confident that 
God would own His cause both in the public and private. We 
needed no better an encouragement. 

Upon the 24th the parley continued with a cessation of arms. 

Upon the 25th at night intelligence came to us from our 
friends abroad ; that things in the general were not so bad. 
That Gloucester was resolved to fight it out to the last man. 
That such cruelty was exercised at Bristol notwithstanding fair 
promises, that it was a precedent to the whole kingdom never to 
believe the Cavaliers. 


This parley continued seven days until an answer of the 
petition aforesaid should be returned. The seventh night we had 
secret intelligence through all their courts of guard again, that 
Gloucester still held out gallantly although the greatest of our 
enemies with divers oaths affirmed that it was delivered up. 

Upon the 2nd of September a trumpet was sent by 
Sir William Vavasour with a letter, the copies and answer &c. 

Upon the 4th we had intelligence that the enemy meant to 
undermine us, and that they had prepared ' hoggs ' to that end. 
That Sir William Bruerton would send a party to our release. 
That Gloucester valiantly stood out. 

Upon the 5th a knight came with the King's answer as they 
pretended subscribed by Faulkland, here annexed. 

Upon the 6th the parley continued. This day the enemy 
began to remove their carriages whereupon we gave them a warn- 
ing piece ; they answered us with two great guns. • Upon the 7th 
with two more. This night the enemy stole away their great 
guns. Upon the 8th they carried away our bells, which cost 
some of them their lives. 

Upon the 9th of September the enemy fired their barricade 
and then we were confident they were taking their leave. 

This night we had secret intelligence that my Lord General 
was with a great army very near Gloucester. That the King had 
raised the siege to give him battle, and that all his forces were 
called away. This night the Lord was pleased to take away these 
bloody enemies and to return them with shame which had now 
lain before us seven weeks almost, for which we returned humble 
thanks to God that delivered our poor family out of the hands 
of fifteen malignant counties set against it. During the siege 
our sufferings were great, the enemy sat down so suddenly 
before us. All our bread was ground with a hand mill, our 
provisions very scarce, the roof of the castle so battered that 
there was not one dry room in it ; our substance without plun- 
dered and all our friends fled, yet this noble lady bore all with ad- 
mirable patience, and thus have I truly related the several passages 
of our siege from our shutting up to the day of our deliverance. 

The former siege being raised and we set at liberty, the noble 
lady instead of revenging herself upon the inhabitants of that 
country who were active against her to the utmost of their might 
and power, yea none more forward and false than her own 
tenants and servants, in a courteous and winning way gently 
entreated the part adjacent to come in and level those works 
which they pretended the enemy had compelled them to raise 
against her promising to protect them, and that nonB of her 
soldiers should plunder them, all which they barbarously refused, 
whereupon we took out a party and compelled them in, but by her 
special command that none should take a pennyworth from any 
of them, which was as truly observed, I dare appeal to their own 
consciences, until their malice broke forth again. Many that 
had not paid their rents of some years before refused ; yea they 
\yould not let us have provisions nor any of the conveniences of 
life which they could hinder us from. 


Our necessities and resolutions would no longer brook such 
barbarism ; we then daily sent our parties only against those ! 
that had been most active against us ; whereby our necessities ' 
were in a short time supplied. Also we sent and burnt those 
engines of war which the enemy had prepared to undermine us. • 
The[y] termed them 'hoggs,' which are used in approaches in 
war. This exasperated the enemy that they removed their 
quarters nearer to us. Whereupon this noble lady who com- 
manded in chief, I may truly say with such a masculine bravery, 
both for religion, resolution, wisdom and warlike policy, that her 
equal I never yet saw, commanded that a party of about forty 
should go and beat up their quarters in Knighton, a market 
town in Radnorshire, four miles off, where Colonel Lingen's 
troop, her late antagonist, was quartered. This was so per- 
formed that we brought some prisoners, arms and horses 
without the loss of one man; colours also we had, a hand 
reaching out of a cloud, holding a sword, with the instruc- ; 
tion or motto. Rex et Regina beati, sibi, suisque. This struck ; 
such a panic fear upon the enemy, that for six weeks after they 
never appeared, in which time we put ourselves into a consider- 
able posture again, and made good preparation for approaching 
winter, besides that noble Colonel Massey had sent us one 
barrel of powder, some men and arms, which was all the en- 
couragement or rescue we had. 

By this time the fame of this noble lady was spread over most 
of the kingdom with admiration and applause, even of her | 
enemies, those that were Commanders in chief against her were I 
extremely jeered in the king's army, but herself honourably 
spoken of. 

Thus our prosperity, enlargement, and happiness daily in- 
creasing and growing up, suddenly and in a moment decayed and 
withered, wherein we may behold as in a glass the mutability 
and inconstancy of earthly honours and content and that nothing 
below heaven is permanent or lasting, but of a decaying nature, 
and subject to resolution and change. 

This honourable lady, of whom the world was not worthy, as , - 
she was a setting forward the work of God, suddenly and 
unexpectedly fell sick of an apoplexy with a defluxion of the 
lungs. Three days she continued in great extremity with admirable 
patience. Never was a holy life consummated and concluded with 
a more heavenly and happy end. Myself and many others of 
quality being both ear and eye witnesses to our great admiration ; 
the last period of her mortal abode in this vale of tears, drawing 
on apace, she with an undaunted faith and resolution looked 
death in the face without dread, and the Lord Jesus with joy 
and comfort, to whom she resigned her soul. From Whom she 
hath received an immortal an incorruptible inheritance and 
crown, which none of her enemies can reach to rob or despoil 
her of. 

Her body, which she desired might be wrapped in lead, was \^ 
carefully preserved and placed in a high tower of the castle | 
to attend an honorable funeral which it [blank'] but was ( 


prevented by the malice of her implacable enemies, as shall 
appear in the conclusion of this sad scene. 

I am not able to express the extremity of grief and sorrow 
that this sudden deprivation and discouragement produced. Had 
the enemy for many days appeared we had been able to make 
very little resistance, but volleys of sighs and tears ; and no 
marvel, for her gallant resolution, her admirable wisdom in 
government, her earnest zeal in religion, her care of all our 
preservations, her encouragement in greatest difficulties had so 
drawn all our hearts to the admiration and honour of her perfec- 
tions, that her commands carried us into the cannon's mouth; in 
short her word was a law to us. 

The saddest garrison in the three kingdoms having lost 
their head and governess, began now to consider what this 
loss might be to our public employment in the defence of 
religion and laws, and, therefore, seeing the will of God 
revealed, resolved unanimously that the commanders should 
order the garrison, which continued for a month or two with 
good success, till about December, 1643. A commission was 
sent from both Houses of Parliament that the castle should 
be kept for the King and Parliament, it being of considerable 
strength, that the delinquents in the adjacent counties might be 
seized upon, that Lieutenant Wright, a very gallant gentleman, 
one whose religion, resolution, good service and great sufferings 
speak his fidelity to the kingdom, and to the cause of God, should 
command in chief in this castle, and raise a regiment for the 
reducing of this malignant county to the obedience of King and 
Parliament ; an humble account whereof I shall now give, being 
released out of prison, with submission to better judgments how 
the first hath been discharged. 

He raised a troop of horse, by which means in a very short 
time we had victualled the garrison for twelve months, out of the 
estates of the delinquents, also provision for our horses, all 
which was gained by the sword, besides several delinquents of 
quality were brought in prisoners. The fortifications both of 
castle and church will yet speak industry and care. 

By this time the enemy understanding our authority blocked 
us up all the winter, daily assaulted us with great parties of 
horse and foot a few days, but we [ ] upon the 

[ ] so that the provision we had, we looked upon as our 

last, unless we could contrive some way to keep open our 
passages. We were informed that Hopton Castle within two 
miles of us was designed for a garrison of the enemy, and 
immediately one hundred men to be put into it, which was of so 
great concernment to us that by the advice of all our commanders 
ne)n. con. we should attempt the taking of it, which was done 
with a party of about twenty men, without the loss of a man. 
The manner observable. In the beginning of the night our men 
came to the gate, one knocked, a soldier within demanded who 
was there ? one of ours replied ' here is one, what do not you 
know me ' ? ' who, John Lane ' quoth he ? ' yes, the very same' ; 
whereupon he immediately opened the gate, and our men 


possessed themselves of the castle. Here Captain Samuel 
Moore commanded in chief, with about thirty men, having 
authority from Mr. Wallop of Hampshire, the true owner 
thereof, to keep it for King and Parliament, the castle being 
before given to Sir Vincent Corbet for the disservice done to the 
Commonwealth. Captain Moore presently fortified and victualled 
it, but in a short time received a summons to deliver it, which 
he refused ; whereup [on] a party of horse and foot of Prince 
Rupert's army under the command of Sir Michael Woodhouse 
sat down before it, made several storms against it, but were 
beaten off with great loss, considering the small number of the 
besieged. At last two great guns were sent against it, which 
played with great fury but still resistance was made. Several 
proposals offered, but all refused by the besieged. Sir Michael 
Woodhouse being enraged, vowed their ruin ; as [ ] 

Major of the Prince's foot assured me. Our men did daily 
execution on the enemy, that themselves confessed, there were 
above two hundred slain, and many wounded. The enemy 
possessed themselves of a brick building very near the castle, 
from whence they mined in a secret vault under the castle. Our 
men perceiving this, desired a parley, and Captain Moore had 
permit to go and return safely ; made his demands, that his 
men should have quarter for their lives, which was refused ; but 
Sir Michael Woodhouse required that they should -unblock their 
gate and lay their arms on a heap and turn out and submit to 
mercy. This message Captain Moore delivered to his men, who 
were contented to submit to mercy and give it under their hands 
that they would so submit. They unblocked their port, put their 
arms on a heap and came out expecting mercy. 

Command was given that they should be bound two and three, 
then they were stripped naked as ever they were born, it being 
about the beginning of March very cold and many of them sore 
wounded in defending their own works, there they remained 
about an hour until the word was given that they should be left 
to the mercy of the common soldiers, who presently fell upon 
them, wounding them grievously, and drove them into a cellar 
unfinished, wherein was stinking water, the house being on fire 
over them, when they were every man of them presently 
massacred ; amongst whom Major Phillips, a young gentleman 
of sweet and comely person and admirable parts, suffered. This 
inhuman and barbarous act, wherein the laws of God, of 
man, of nature, of nations and of arms are violated, cries 
to the great Justice of heaven to revenge ; and we hope 
that the justice of England will in due time require an 
account of it. 

But let me return to Brampton Castle again ; where 
the next morning this bloody regiment came vapouring 
so near that some of them were slain, some unhorsed, so 
they wheeled about and marched away to Shrewsbury with 
their ordnance. During this tragedy at Hopton, some passages 
happened in this garrison which I may not omit. One John 
Cotar, an old servant of the house, our new Quartermaster, 
contracted with a prisoner Lieutenant Jones of the county of 


Kadnor, with whom he was trusted, and made an escape, by 
which means all our strength was discovered to the enemy. The 
night following two others that had pretended and protested very 
fair run away ; after these, some fifteen soldiers of the garrison 
took pattern and made their escape ; so that we were left 
not above fifty fighting men. These cowardly and base 
spirits gave such encouragement to the enemy together with 
a petition of some [ ] gentlemen to Prince Eupert, 

one of whom hath been murdered by the Cavaliers, in his 
own house, that they resolved with all their power that that 
destroyer of petty garrisons could make to come against us. 
This bloody butcher Woodhouse with a great army came and 
sat down before us; demanded our castle by summons, which 
our Governor, notwithstanding his great force, refused to read, 
or treat with such a tyrant, returns his summons back again, 
and fires upon his army with musket shot at random. Up he 
rises, and away for three or four days ; then sends another 
summons, which was likewise refused. About the second week 
in Lent, 1643, he sat down before us with a close siege, brought 
his artillery within a mile of us, and entrenched his men, and 
makes his approaches. Our Governor gives command that the 
church and those houses in the town that were standing should 
presently be set on fire, by which means the enemy quartered 
his men a mile off, and left about three hundred in the 
trenches. Upon these about thirty of our men sallied out and 
slew about sixteen of the enemy ; gained their arms and 
returned without hurt. Then the enemy strengthened their 
guards, built huts, raised batteries, brought their cannon 
baskets and ' hoggs ' for their approaches. In all this time 
we lined our walls to our best advantage, then fell upon them 
with a second sally in the sunshine. We here did observe the 
great power of God, and the promise made good, that five of you 
shall chase an hundred; with a very small party we beat them 
quite out of their works, burnt all their huts, cannon baskets, 
batteries and * hoggs ' ; took almost all the muskets in that 
regiment, besides a multitude of spades and shovels and other 
arms ; slew about twenty- six in the place and returned without 
the loss of a man. This gave such encouragement, that we not 
only gained time, but daunted our enemies, that they were as we 
understood [ ] to rise up from before us. Colonel Wood- 

house, enraged at this, posts away to Prince Rupert at 
Shrewsbury, tells him a great story ; in whose absence we sallied 
out twice more ; put the enemy to flight with the same party and 
still did execution and gained arms : so that with an hundred able 
soldiers more we might have kept it to this day. But God that 
had determined otherwise denied us that. The news of relief 
came to us about this time from Gloucester, through all their courts 
of guard. Woodhouse now returns with most of the Prince's 
army ; the Red, Green and Blue regiments of his great ordnance, 
which he speedily planted, and a multitude of pioneers and 
colliers that began to mine. The multitude being so great, we 
thought it not safe to adventure out any more. Then they began 


with their great ordnance to play upon us. The first day they 
made eighty-seven shots against us with a twenty and twenty- 
four pound ball ; these made our walls begin to reel, which we 
lined within with earth. The next day they continued shooting 
as fast as they could discharge, until with a musket bullet 
through the port hole we shot their cannoneer. Five days 
together they followed the breach, which was very great and fair 
to enter, but their hearts failed them. About this time went 
another messenger from Gloucester that brought us letters, the 
contents whereof were, that within three nights we should be 
relieved, and we all resolved to die in the breach rather than 
deliver it up. 

This night the enemy fired the breach, there being much 
timber and combustible matter, so that it burnt furiously. They 
had in the day planted their ordnance upon the breach, and as 
we were quenching the fire, they played upon us with great and 
small shot in a most furious manner, yet not a man slain or so 
much as daunted, so wonderful God held up our spirits. We 
were fired eight or nine times, which we still quenched. All the 
alarm they gave us was by firings, which we could by no 
means prevent. Our expectations of relief, the third day being 
over, began to fail, we yet resolved to defend the breach to the 
very last man ; for their cruelty at Hopton Castle encouraged us 
to die like men rather than to rely on their mercies ; besides we 
knew not then, but they had given our men at Hopton quarter 
under hand and seal, for so we were well informed by very many 
that were there, which was the only reason why we would never 
admit any parley. Three days more we defended our breach, 
yet no relief came ; in all this time we had continual and dreadful 
alarms night and day, that we were all tired for want of sleep. 
Twice in one night their whole army, which was very great, 
cried ' Fall on ! ' ' Fall on ! ' so loud, as if hell itself were broke loose, 
discharging such volleys of shot that no rest could be had. 
When the alarm was ended, we laughed so heartily in 
the breach, ' hollowing ' that barking dogs seldom bite, that 
we heard them damn themselves, but the devil was in us. 
The enemy now began to terrify us with their mines, which 
by this time came very near our walls, swearing most horribly 
that they would blow us up to the devil ; we replied that the 
devil was below, and bid them come like men and enter their 
breach or be silent, for fain we would have slept. Never did 
God keep up the hearts of a poor handful of men or raise them 
higher than were ours ; considering what a bloody potent enemy 
lay about us and how far all possibility of relief was from us. I 
speak this only to the praise of God who manifested His great 
power and our weakness, otherwise these truths would render me 
ridiculous. The Cavaliers seeing our resolutions to be above 
their alarms, were at a stand what to do : to enter the breach 
they had no stomach, they had enough of that at Hopton Castle, 
began to contrive another way ; they gave some intermission 
and sent to Captain Moore, then their prisoner at Ludlow 
Castle, that he should write a letter to Lieutenant Colonel 


Wright, our Governor, to treat of conditions to avoid the 
effusion of blood, which letter was through God's mercy 
the saving of all our lives, for without it we had never 
surrendered the castle. A storm of their great shot being over, 
immediately they sent us a parley ; demanded whether we would 
receive a letter from one of our old friends Captain Moore ? we 
replied, that if all acts of hostility upon their honours and repu- 
tations might cease on both sides till the parley was ended, we 
would ; which was agreed upon ; presently after the receipt of 
this letter, our men appearing upon the walls, the enemy gave 
fire upon us ; we taxed them for their perfidiousness and put 
them at defiance as men unworthy of the name of gentlemen or 
soldiers. Within an hour after they recollected themselves 
acknowledged their error and required an answer, which was to 
this purpose : that the reason why we refused to parley 
with them was their bloody act at Hopton Castle after quarter 
given under hand and seal, for so we were informed. They 
replied it was false, avowing the same that quarter was not there 
given. We being unsatisfied demanded wherein we might 
receive satisfaction by a letter from Captain Moore, whose hand 
we knew, which was granted, but without a cessations of arms. 
About midnight this letter came, which we refused to receive, the 
time being unseasonable to let down -our ports, the enemy lying 
so near us ; at this they stormed and gave us a fierce alarm. 

The fatal day being come, which was the Wednesday before 
Easter 1644, we received this satisfying letter from Captain 
Moore, that quarter was not given at Hopton Castle under hand 
and seal. We then accepted a parley with Sir Michael Woodhouse, 
colonel, Sir William Vavasour, colonel, and Sir William Croft, 
knights, jointly made our demands ; but such was our condition 
being miserably battered and without a possibility of relief, that 
they would yield to no other conditions than these, viz. : that 
the castle and arms should presently be delivered up otherwise 
to expect no quarter; that we should yield ourselves their 
prisoners ; that the lives of all in the garrison should be , 
preserved, and that no violence should be offered to any of 
us, and if this offer was now refused, to expect extremity. 
Our Governor and some of the commanders resolved to purchase 
})etter conditions, at how dear a rate soever; but then our 
divines and some others seeing a possibility of life, being 
extremely tired with extremities, began to persuade the 
contrary. The violence and outrages that threatened our women 
and children, whose lives we preferred before our own, and see- 
ing ourselves without possibility or hopes of relief, or of further 
defence or longer subsistence, we accepted their conditions and 
delivered up the castle. 

Within two hours after, as we since understood, an order came 
from Prince Rupert to put us all to the sword, especially Doctor 
Wright, our Lieutenant-Colonel. Whereupon a council of war 
was called, where it was determined that, notwithstanding the 
conditions subscribed, the Prince's order must be obeyed. But 
Sir AVilliam Vavasour, that had more of a gentleman and a 


soldier in him, protested against it, by whose means, through 
God's mercy, we were preserved. 

Next day they carried us all away prisoners to Ludlow Castle, 
from thence to Shrewsbury, some of us to Chester Castle. The 
inhabitants of Ludlow baited us like bears and demanded where 
our God was. 

It is very remarkable that in both the sieges of Brampton Castle 
we lost but four men, yet five hundred and thirteen great bullets 
were shot against it, and most of them came in. The enemy 
confessed that they lost four hundred of their men there ; and at 
Hopton Castle, that they had spent above twenty thousand 
pounds before they took it. Six thousand worth of pow^der in 
both places. After they had taken it, it was so battered that they 
could not keep it. At last a command came from Prince Rupert, 
that destroyer, that both these castles should be burnt and 
demolished, which was performed. And thus have I rendered 
some account of our service and sufferings. Let the praise be 
ascribed to the Lord of Hosts, that hath not given us our lives 
only for a prey. 

The body of this noble lady we had interred within the castle, 
which, when we had delivered up, we besought the commanders 
that no dishonour might be offered to it, they promised there 
should not ; but since we are informed that it was taken up under 
pretence to search for jewels, but the jewels being gone, the 
cabinet was raked up again in close cinders ; from whence it wdll 
one day rise against these monsters and usurpers of the name 

Brampton Castle. 

[1643.] — A list of those that were in the castle during the 
siege. Includes Dr. Nathaniel Wright, lieutenant-colonel, 
governor of Brampton Castle. John Hakluit, Henry Archibold 
and Priamus Davies, captains. Thomas Harley, Monsieur 
Peter Vachan, Dorothy and Margaret Harley, and nearly a hun- 
dred others. 

Hopton Castle. 

[1644.] — A list of those that were in the castle. Includes 
Samuel Moore [More] , captain and governor, Thomas Phillips, 
major, and twenty-two others. 

Sir John Scudamore to Elizabeth Bletchley, in Ludlow Castle. 

[1644, May.] — I have received yours and Sir Michael Wood- 
house's letters and am very glad yours and my sweet cousins' 
freedom is so near. I think it fit that you get Sir Michael 
Woodhouse to give a pass to a messenger to be presently sent 
away to Sir Robert Harley to procure the Earl of Essex's pass 
for all you, and for such a friend as you shall make choice of 



and prevail with to bring yon up. As also to send to Sir 
Eobert to send a hackney coach for you. God willing, I shall 
not fail to wait upon you on Tuesday next. My service, I pray, 
to my sweet cousins. Copy. 

Thomas Harley to Colonel [Edward] Massey. 

1644, May 30. Ludlow Castle. — I and my two sisters, with 
those that are with us, since Brampton Castle w^as taken having 
been at Ludlow Castle, where w^e have been nobly used by Sir 
Michael Woodhouse, the governor, are now set at liberty by him 
to pass to London. Therefore I desire that if you cannot send a 
coach to Hereford for us, that you will give a safe pass for a coach 
and horses which shall bring us thither, and Sir John Scudamore, 
w^ho is pleased to do us the favour for our safer conduct, to come 
with us, and for his servants and horses' safe return. Coiiy. 

Capt. Samuel More to Thomas Harley, in Ludlow Castle. 

[1644, May.] — I sent you a note from Stafford that my Lord 
Bruerton's son is freed from his imprisonment by my Lord 
Denbigh, whose enlargement I do conceive will beget yours and 
your sweet sisters. I hope also your servants, Samuel Shilton and 
William Bagley, shall have leave to wait on you to your father. 

I w^as not free from my imprisonment till Saturday sevennight, 
and I sent to you from Stafford, whither I was brought, but lest 
that should not come to you I send this to kiss your hand. 

T. H[arley] to his kinsman, Sir John Scudamore, in Hereford. 

1644, June 7. Ludlow Castle. — Our not hearing from you 
since Monday is the reason why w^e send this messenger to you, 
by whom w^e desire to hear if yet you have heard anything from 
Gloucester in answer to our letters thither ; and when you do we 
shall be very glad to see you here. Copy. 

Pe {sic), Lady Scudamore to Thomas Harley, at Ludlow. 

1644, June 10. Hereford. — Sweet Cousin, I have received your 
letter directed unto my husband ; upon Friday last he went to- 
wards Worcester, but is not yet returned ; all that I can say con- 
cerning your business is this : our Governor here. Colonel Minn, 
went unto Monmouth about nine days past, with apurj^ose to send 
a trumpeter to Gloucester with all the letters, which he did, and 
since is returned hither to Hereford, but can hear nothing of the 
messenger ever since he w^ent. Whereupon I told my husband that 
perhaps the trumpeter might be detained till the Governor of 
Gloucester return from " Mamsberry " ; but he saith that the 
Governor came back upon Tuesday last. This is all I can say. 
It may be you see my husband before I shall, for I hoped he 
would have returned yesterday. I desire you to remember my 
service to your little sweet sisters and the gentlewoman with 
them. Copy, 


Sir Michael Woodhouse to Sir John Scudamore. 

1644, June 18. Ludlow Castle. — In pursuance of an order 
given unto me by his Highness the Prince Eupert to set at liberty 
the bodies of Thomas Harley, gentleman, Dorothy and Margaret 
his sisters — the children of Sir Robert Harley, knight of the Bath 
— who were amongst others taken prisoners in Brampton Bryan 
Castle, in the county of Hereford, by his Majesty's forces under my 
command, it is therefore by me ordered and I desire and require 
you, being their near kinsman, to take into your charge and 
custody the bodies of the aforementioned persons, and to take 
such course as you shall think fit for the conveyance of them to 
their said father in London, or elsewhere. Copy. 

T. H[arley] to Colonel [Edward] Massey, Governor of 


1644, June 20. Holm Lacy.-^I received your letter and give 
you many thanks for your expression of love and kindness to us. 
We are come from Ludlow Castle, and intend, God willing, to go 
to London. Therefore I desire, Sir, you will do us the favour to 
send to my Lord of Essex — who I hear is not far from Gloucester 
— for one pass for my sisters, myself and our company to London, 
and another pass for Sir John Scudamore — who doth not only 
accommodate us for our journey, but himself doth us that favour 
to come with us — and his two servants to go up to London, and for 
the return of him, his servants, coach and horses. Copy. 

Colonel Nicholas Mynne to all Officers and Soldiers 
of the King's Army. 

1644, June 20. Hereford. — Warrant for William Bagley to 
pass to Gloucester and back. Copy, 

Thomas Harley to his father, Sir Robert Harley. 

1644, June 30. Northampton. — I must humbly beg pardon 
that I have not presented my humble duty to you and acquainted 
you how it was with us. I thank God my sisters and I are very 
well, and though God hath afflicted us — which I pray God to 
sanctify us — yet He hath been very merciful to us, so that 
among our enemies we have received favour ; and it is no 
small mercy to us that God still continues health to you and 
you to us. Sir, after we had been at Ludlow Castle eight 
weeks and more, we were released to go to London, and Sir 
John Scudamore to take care to convey us thither — who 
hath showed us much kindness, and hath lent his coach and 
horses to bring us, and himself comes with us. 

We came out of Ludlow on Tuesday, June 18th, and came to 
Holm Lacy, where we were used exceeding kindly by my Lady 
Scudamore, and tarried there till the Saturday following; and 
from thence went to Gloucester, where we tarried till Thursday 
after, and then went to Sheudly Castle, on Friday to Warwick, 


and on Saturday we came safe to Northampton, where we are now ; 
and I hope God will bring us safe to you, to our great joy and com- 
fort after so many afflictions. Sir, my brother Kobert is very well 
and presents his humble duty to you. We met with him at 
Gloucester, where not being well he tarried there, and because he 
could not pass safe to the army he came with us as far as 
Warwick. Coj^?/. 

"Kelation of the Siege, Surrender and Butchery at Hopton 
Castle, by Colonel Samuel Moore [More]." 

[1644, February.] — As my memory serves me I went to 
Hopton Castle the 18th of February, which was Sabbath day at 
night. The Monday sevennight the enemy came before us, who, 
facing us with a body of horse first, within an hour sent a body 
of foot, who approaching the out walls, we not able to hinder 
them because the work did not flank — being an old wall made 
round — and burnt the lodging where Richard Steward lay, they 
brought ladders to scale the walls, but upon our killing of three, 
of which one in the place, they retreated and went out of 
the town, but kept courts of guard near us with horse and 
foot. At this time we were but sixteen men in all, myself and 
Mr. Phillips being of the number. Mr. Phillips came the 
Tuesday after I came, who stayed to help to advise the 
making of some works, in which we were as industrious as 
men could be for that short time ; so Major Phillips advised 
to send for more men to Brampton Castle and they 
lovingly sent us twelve, who meeting with the enemy six 
of them only at that time came to us, the others went back 
again ; but afterwards we had about eight more, that we were in 
all thirty-one men. The enemy let us alone, save for some alarms 
in the night, till the Friday sevennight after the first assault, and 
then they marched, as we guessed, about five hundred horse 
and foot, and entered the town, and that night approached that 
part of the wall, about two hours before day, where they 
burnt Richard Steward's chamber, and at the back of a 
chimney they with pioneers made a breach which our sentinels 
discovering gave the alarm, and there we fought with the 
enemy at push of pike, throwing stones and shooting. They, 
as after some of theirs reported, being two hundred, got 
most of them through the breach, but not within our works, 
but as in a pinfold, in the circumference of the burnt 
lodging, where we killed many, among the rest one Captain 
Vaughan, who as since I heard was brother-in-law to Mr. 
Edwards of Stretton. There we repulsed them, took six muskets, 
ten pikes, eight clubs which they called Roundheads, boards many 
and six or eight ladders. After this repulse the next day save one 
they marched away in a full body, but it seems they went but to 
Clungunford, and kept scouts and courts of guard something more 
than musket shot of us, and so we were quiet almost a week save 
for some alarms. Then they came again in a full body and entered 
the town. The next dav Mr. Francis Herbert and Mr. Charles 


Baldwin desired to speak with me, which upon mutual assurance 
of safety I yielded unto, but took one faithful man with me 
named Kichard Brecknock, who was within hearing and so were 
many of that side, among the rest one Captain Pindore; the 
effect of their discourse was to wish me to deliver up the castle 
with probable hopes I might live with my wife and enjoyment of 
my estate. I answered it was not fair nor like an honest man to 
betray a trust, but for my part myself would leave it to them 
who trusted me, and if I might live with a safe conscience 
at home I should be glad of it. So that was not hearkened 
to, and I parted with them, only Captain Pindore told 
me Secretary Nicholas wrote to him of the Scots defeat. I 
told him I knew Secretary Nicholas well, which as he after 
said was the saving of my life. This was as I remember on 
Saturday. Next day came in carriage of cannon basket and 
such things, and in the night three pieces of ordnance. By 
Monday eight of the clock there came a drum and summoned 
the delivery up of the castle, which if we did not yield before 
the shooting off one piece of ordnance we must not expect 
quarter. Our answer was, that we were trusted to keep it for 
the service of King and Parliament, by the consent of the owner 
Mr. Wallop, and would do it with loyalty and fidelity. As soon 
as ever the answer came they shot at us and continued with 
shooting with culvering and demi-culvering, that from 9 o'clock 
till five they shot ninety-six shots at our out-wall and made a 
breach ; but we on the other side did work as fast as we could 
and placed boughs of trees and earth to hinder their entry. 
About five of the clock they approached the breach, which we 
defended, and for the space of two hours at least we fought at push 
of pike, muskets and clubs, so that we gave them a repulse with 
the loss of one man, who was killed with a cannon shot, and three 
or four hurt. But they lost, as they afterw^ards confessed, in all 
one hundred and fifty of theirs, some said two hundred. I could 
not imagine we killed so many, but as they said themselves, yet 
we saw many fall. Next day they desired to fetch their dead, 
which we yielded to. They were quiet all Tuesday till night and 
then they came to the brick tower and set it on fire — which we 
had made in the first week we came thither, a work to (sic), from the 
out-wall and so to the castle ; and on the other side from the 
castle to the out-wall another, to keep the water to us — which 
•when we saw and could not prevent we set Gregory's house on 
fire, which burning took hold on the newer brick house and 
burnt it ; then we fell to make up the door of the castle, which 
the enemy perceiving shot their ordnance and killed one man 
and hurt two more ; we made up the door, but they brought 
broom faggots to fire the porch; we threw water to quench 
it, but for all we could do the porch burnt and the door 
began to fire, which we did not perfectly know ^ till 
we came out. Our men, weary with working all night, 
and not out of their clothes for a fortnight's time, 
and the enemy gotten under us through a house of office 
on the south side ; it was moved we should desire a parley, 


which being done, they bid us send our conditions which Mr. 
PhilHps and I contrived shortly to this effect, that we would 
surrender the castle, so that we might march away with our 
arms and ammunition ; they denied, we should have no condi- 
tions but to yield to the Colonel's mercy. We went to consult 
together and found that so much household stuff with provisions 
were in the room below. 

The castle consisting but of one room below and another above, 
that we had no space to countermine, and our stairs were [ ] up, 
being close to the door where the barricade was, and removing 
Mr. Gregory's provision and stuff in, both Mr. Phillips my- 
self and six more did plainly hear their working under us, and 
as the enemy told me when I was in prison they had blown us 
up within two hours. We agreed to propose to the enemy we 
would yield the castle upon quarter for our lives. Answer was 
brought that no other conditions would be yielded but to be referred 
to Colonel Woodhouse's mercy. We then consulted again and 
being brought into that condition it was thought better to 
yield upon those terms, than be blown up, but indeed we all 
thought we should only be made prisoners, and did not think of 
such a death as hereafter shall appear was upon so many honest 
souls. So we told them we would yield to their mercy, only we 
desired safe conduct from the violence of soldiers to the 
Commander in Chief. So we came out and stood in order, I was 
committed to Ijieutenant Aldersey, and Major Phillips to Ensign 
Phillips, so whilst the soldiers and Henry Gregory and the rest 
had their arms tied, w^e all stayed, and then we were bidden 
march, so I went, and thought the rest had followed till I went 
over the water by Eichard Steward's house towards Mr. Sutton's 
house and then I looked back and saw none follow. I marvelled, 
but my thoughts were, the rest were to be examined apart ; but 
as it seems by the relation afterwards they were stayed behind, 
but I was brought before Sir Michael Woodhouse, who asked me 
the number of the men, which I told him, and what arms 
and ammunition ? I told him about twenty-two muskets, cara- 
bines and fowling pieces and three pistols. He asked what I 
thought they fought for ? I told him I thought he as many 
other men was misled, so he commanded me to the custody of 
Lieutenant Aldersey, to one Glasbrook's house in the upper 
end of the town, where, after I had been about an hour, an officer, 
whose name I never heard, asked me what money I knew of there 
hid. I told him none. He urged me and said Mr. Phillips had 
confessed some. I told him I did know of none nor knew that 
Mr. Phillips knew of any. So he went after some threatenings. 
Another came and asked me whether I desired to live ? I 
answered it was natural to desire to live, yet I prized not my life 
before a good conscience. Then a little after, about three hours 
after the delivery of the castle, Lieutenant Aldersey asked me 
how many of the soldiers I thought were sent to Shrewsbury ? 
I told him I knew not, I conceived all were in one condition ; 
he told me none, which I wondering at apprehended they 
were delivered and was somewhat cheerful, but then he 


answered with an oath they were all killed, whereat I was 
troubled in myself, though I did not much express my 
sorrow, only said I hoped then they were happy, or to that effect. 
So night growing on, I was called to eat with Lieutenant Alder sey, 
who indeed used me civilly. I could eat but little ; then he let 
me lie upon his own bed, where I lay till day break, and then I 
rose, and so they fell to prepare for Ludlow^ w^hither I was brought, 
and from that time till taking Brampton Castle I was close 
prisoner; my wife had liberty to come to me but not speak 
without an officer by. Two days before Brampton Castle was 
taken, Captain Dean, in Sir Michael Woodhouse's regiment, 
pretended to come to see me, and in discourse told me they had 
battered the castle, so as they were ready to enter and were ready 
to spring a mine, and if I desired to have them saved, I might do 
well to persuade them to yield. I told him I had no means to 
write; he said he would convey the letter. I told him then I would 
write what I heard. So I wrote to Dr. Wright that I heard 
Brampton Castle was not like to hold long out, and that con- 
ditions were granted, better sought timely than stay too long, 
but I left it to his more wise consideration. He answered me that 
he heard Sir Michael Woodhouse break his conditions with me, for 
he promised quarter as he heard, and therefore he would not 
treat with him. I replied we were referred to his mercy ; so 
then they treated and agreed. I hope it saved blood, but I 
confess I had much reluctance with myself, knowing it was their 
own ends they sought, and therefore I wrote warily, expressing I 
was close prisoner. After Brampton Castle w^as taken I had my 
liberty to speak more freely and to come into the kitchen and 
speak with the people of the house, and so continued a while till 
my exchange ; only Mr. Symmonds, a minister of Essex that was 
Sir Michael Woodhouse's chaplain, came to see me and got me so 
much liberty as to go to the chapel in the castle two sabbath 
days, otherwise I was not permitted to go out of the lodge. I 
moved Mr. Symmonds that since my estate was sequestered and 
my house plundered I might be allowed out of my estate to pay 
for my diet. This was also granted, after that time which was 
about a fortnight and three days before my release, but the rest 
of the time I paid. 

October 23rd, 1644. — This was wrote in a little time after the 
whole relation in Mr. Samuel Moor's own hand and belongeth to 
the first time they faced us and assaulted us. After they had 
done they sent Mr. Sutton to me to tell me the Prince Bupert 
required the delivery of the Castle of Hopton. I sent word I 
understood no message that came without drum or trumpet ; 
then he sent me word he had taken my son, and it's certain they 
thought they had taken him, but it was Robin Millard they took 
for him. Also I omitted another thing which was, that the 
Friday following their first attempt, they sent a summons by a 
drum subscribed by Sir Michael Woodhouse, who demanded the 
castle in the name of Prince Rupert, and if we w^ould treat he 
would send hostages. My answer was I kept it by authority of 
Parliament by the consent of the owner Mr. Wallop, for the 
service of King and Parliament. 


He as all the rest as 1 heard by themselves when I was in 
prison were unmercifully killed. Your brother as some of them 
told me offered 200/. to save his life ; they took him and brought 
him into the castle to receive the money ; he told them if they 
would suffer him to send to Brampton Castle they should have it. 
They swore at him and stabbed him presently ; all the rest, being 
twenty-five, were killed with clubs or such things after they were 
stripped naked. Two maids they stripped to their smocks and 
cut them, but some helped them to escape. Coj)y. 

Note to above. This was wrote in an odd little scrip of paper 
in Mr. Samuel Moore's hand, what it belongeth to I know not 
well, though I believe Mr. Samuel Moore wrote this to Mr. 
Phillips to let him know that his brother was and how killed. Copy. 

William Bagley to Thomas Hatiley. 

1646, June 15. Putney. — I have cast up my thoughts and 
according to my best understanding as far as I am able to judge, 
I think your father's losses in the ruin of the castle, the out- 
l)uildings, the burning of the town, the goods and furniture of 
the castle, the loss of all his cattle, his rents and other ruins 
that are made upon his estate may be about twelve or thirteen 
thousand pounds, besides w^hat waste hath been made in his 
woods I know not ; for the church I conceive thirteen or four- 
teen hundred pounds may l)uild and repair seats in it again. 
And for the townsmen's losses I cannot well say what it may be 
until I have some further information from them ; but yet I shall 
declare to my thoughts, which are thus ; if all they who have 
term for life or years must again repair the buildings out of 
those ruins, and your father to repair the rest of the town, then 
I think the loss of the townsmen will anlount to about two 
thousand seven hundred and fifty pounds, or thereabouts. 

The day of our enemies' close approach was July 26th, 1643. 
They brought seven great iron guns, one whereof they called 
Roaring Megg. Their great god in whom they trusted broke in 
pieces at the third shot and hurt many of their own company ; 
and at three sallies out upon them, we had not one man killed, 
but many of theirs ; and when our time was expired that we 
must hold the castle no longer we delivered it up April the 17th, 
1644. For many acts of God's providence towards us in this 
time of our trial and trouble, I believe you have more particu- 
larly recorded then I am able to do. Coj)y. 

Brampton Bryan. 

1646 [-7], March 12. — An account rendered to the Committee 
of Accounts at Hereford of the losses in goods and cattle of those 
that were in the castle and town of Brampton Bryan occasioned 
by the King's forces, amounting to 2,5511. 14s. This sum in- 
cludes—Colonel Dr. Wright, 240Z. ; Stanley Gower, rector, 368i. ; 
Francis Boughey, minister, 134L 


Brampton Bryan. 

Same date. — An account of the moneys required to rebuild the 
church and town, amounting to 3,216/. The church, 1,200/. ; the 
parsonage, 250/., and 19 houses the occupants of which are 
named, are included in the estimate.*' 

The Duke of Albemarle, Lord General, to Col. EdWxS-RD 
Harley, Governor of Dunkirk. 

1660, July 21. Cockpit. — The Lords of the Treasury having 
appointed that the officers and soldiers of the army give under 
their hands what Crown lands were bought by or do belong to 
them, he desires that Col. Harley' s garrison will deliver to him 
the particulars of such lands or rents, viz. King's, Queen's or 
Prince's lands, as they have really purchased, the time when 
they purchased them, with the yearly value of them and whether 
in trust or for themselves. 

Two copies of these particulars to be sent to Dr. Samuel 
Barrowe at Mr. William Clarke's house in the Pellmell, one of 
them for delivery to the Surveyor-General, the other to be kept 
by him. 


The Same to the Same. 

1661, May 8. Cockpit. — This bearer Sir Bernard De-Gum (de 
Gomme) is the gentleman whom his Majesty has appointed to go 
over for viewing the fortifications of Dunkirk garrison. I desire 
you to tell him when you go out of town that he may go along 
with you. 

''Young Kobin " to Sir Eobert Harley, at his Lodging at 
a strong water shop over against the " Blew Bore " in 
Tuttle (Tothill) Street, Westminster. 

[16] 62, August 8. — I now perceive it impossible to live within 
the cities of London and Westminster and not turn courtier. I 
wish your lodging had been at Wapping. But whether I write to 
a man of this world or to an angel is a dispute, yet I expect an 
answer and am indifferent from what place, but to let you see 
that a son of Piobin Hood cannot be ill natured I will make this 
manly interpretation of your unkindness, that it is as difficult 
to find me as a stag in the forest of Sherwood, where men of that 
race could hardly be harboured, as many worthy l)alletical 
records can inform you, yet knowing you to be almost one of us 
(though of an Indian race) I dare tell you that I am sometimes at 
Swarkeston, sometimes at W^arsop, and now at Bestwood, merry in 
all places and which is more, well pleased and drink your health 

*The letters and papers printed so far in this Report are taken from modern 
copies bound up in Vol. XXIII. of the " Portland Papers " at Longleat. A few 
papers in this volume, besides those noted on p. 18 a7ite, have been omitted, as they 
are printed from the Harley papers at Welbeck in the Commissioners' report on that 


dead or alive, which your captain and cornet never will 
refuse, and thus I have given you a true and perfect 
account of the plots and affairs of this county as to mankind. 
But should I enter into or upon the other sex, and tell you a true 
account of my Lady Newcastle's horsematch, I must crave aid 
from Sir John Denham and his fellows who trade in nectar, yet 
to speak truth we have good squeezed malt that smells full out 
as well as saudwich {sic), and that well followed makes us appear 
like men ; let others express our actions and hers, for we are not 
book-learned. And now Robin by name and not by nature I bid 
you farewell, and if thou darest meet me near Warsop upon the 
forest at the Lady Newcastle's horsematch the last of August, 
where in taffeta instead of armour bright 'tis six to four I may 
appear, you shall see such a fight as England affords not the 
fellow and possibly become one of the brotherhood, which will be 
no small honour, laying your ordinary knighthood aside, to you 
and a particular kindness from, &c. 

Postscript. — I have a lady and some of my race remembers 
you. Direct your letters by the Nottingham post to Bestwood 
and they will find. 

Sir Ro[bert] Harley to his brother [Sir Edward] Harley. 

1662, November 1. Dover. — I think it fit to send you the en- 
closed papers. The two letters are from the Lord Mordant, the 
person mentioned in the King's is Mr. Rumbal. I had divers 
orders from the King for money, one is with Mr. Rumbal, he can 
give you an account how we were dealt with, the others I know 
not where they are, and are worth nothing further than testi- 

Sir Robert Murray to Sir Edward Harley, to be left 
with the Postmaster at Ludlow. 

[16] 67, June 21. Edinburgh. — Till I came hither I was tied 
up indispensably from making my business known, now I may 
tell you the King hath named me to be one of six commissioners 
for managing the Treasurer's place here, the other five are, 
Earls Rothes, Lauderdale and Tweeddale, Lords Bellenden and 
Cochrane, so that I cannot tell when I shall stir from hence, 
though my presence here may be dispensed withal six months in 
the year; but possibly about September I may go southwards, 
but be it when it will, I still intend to come your way. 

After I have thanked God with you for preserving you from 
your intestine enemy the gout, I shall only take so far notice of 
the success God hath been pleased to give the public enemies as 
to tell you neither of us needs the other's reflections to fill his 
heart with new fits of melancholy ; our hope is, the foundations 
stand sure. 

There is here a rich East India Hollander outward bound 
brought in prize by two of the King's frigates under the command 
of Sir Jeremy Smith. There is in her, as I am told, six chests of 


coined silver and one of ducats, and is fully loaded with other 
commodities, so that of twenty-six guns only six can he used. We 
hear also of another rich ship brought in last night. I have not 
now time to write to the honest Doctor [Burnet ?] ; you will 
acquaint him with my concerns, and I intend to w^rite to him by 
the next. 

Sir Eobert Murray to Sir Edward Harley, to be left 
with the Postmaster at Ludlow. 

[16]67, August 7. Edinburgh. — Till this very evening I cannot 
say I had leisure to answer yours from London since I had it, 
and I presume now% that this will find you making an end of the 
business that your voyage to Westminster interrupted, where I 
hope there is no reigning distemper of bodies nor minds, but 
that now every one shall sit under his ' Gennetmoil ' (?) and his 
' umberleaf ' in peace, and filled with all the blessings I wish may 
dwell at Brampton. This place affords nothing to entertain you 
with. I shall be glad to hear of your own and your brother's 
safe return to the country. I know nothing as yet of my stirring 
from hence till this year be over, but if I do I still retain the 
thoughts of making Brampton in my way to London, if I be master 
of my time. If you please the while to let me hear from you, were 
it only to tell me that all with you are well, returns will not be 
wanting, by which you may take some measure of my joy. 

Sir Eobert Murray to Sir Edward Harley, at the Unicorn 
at the lower end of King Street, Westminster. 

[16] 67, December 9. Edinburgh. — You outdo me still more 
and more, the account you give me of the great matter there is 
as full as it is remarkable. Now it may be hoped things will go 
on smoothly. I have no manner of imagination that the Earl 
[of Clarendon] shall ever return again. You and 1 are not in 
danger of needing a conference to reconcile us as to the verdict of 
Aratus. And I think it is easy for either of us to know what the 
other's judgment will be, if the case be proposed. The Earl of 
Tweeddale is to be found at the Earl of Lauderdale's lodgings in 
Whitehall or his house at the upper end of Suffolk Street. It 
will be worth your pains to talk with him. Your health and your 
brother's are very precious to me. It is not the first time Marsigni 
hath deceived his friends. I am indeed sorry for his miscarriage, 
but no less for his brother's detriment. If there were anything 
of moment here to entertain you wdth, 1 would add it. 

Sir Robert Murray to Sir Edward Harley, at Brampton 
Bryan Castle, to be left with the Postmaster of Ludlow. 

[16] 73, June 24. [London.] — Mr. Clogie hath not as yet done 
me the favour to see me, so his missing of your letter makes my 
loss double. Your brother Robin I have seen in the physician's 
hands, but Thomas not as yet. I hear of his design, but Dr. 
Tong settles at Mr. Sadler's house, and I suspect disappoints 


liiin. Stories of the engagements with tlie Dutch lieet were now 
too stale and cannot but be fully known to you, but I think the 
surrender of Maestricht will be new to you, which fell out on 
Friday last. The Gazette tells you of a most gallant action of 
the Duke of Monmouth that was the cause of it, for being 
possessed of that half moon they found a hornwork galled them, 
whereupon it was stormed and carried with the loss of some two 
hundred men, but immediately upon it the town treated and 
had ordinary honourable conditions and 5,000 foot and 1,000 
horse they say marched out of it. It will be new to you also 
to tell you that Mr. de Schomberg arrived here yesterday, but 
what resolution will be taken now that the Duke goes is not yet 
told. The "Tombeau de Contraiverses " is printed in English, but 
not that translation, you know of another prevented it. I have 
not yet had the opportunity to get you an answer to your ques- 
tion about your mercurial medicine, but I have myself no 
kindness for it, but I think I may get you a more skilful judgment 
of it than mine. You will have heard of the change of the 
Lord Treasurer, and its consequences. 

Dn. G[ilbert] Burnet to Sir Edward Harley, to be left 
with the Postmaster at Ludlow. 

[1682-3,] February 15. — The small civilities which I en- 
deavoured to pay to your most deserving son are overpaid when 
they are remembered. His ow^n merit gives him a just title to 
much more than I could ever express, and I confess I never saw 
him but with a secret joy in my heart when I observed so many 
fair and excellent beginnings in him, which makes me hope he is 
born to be a blessing to the rising generation, and that all the few 
remnants of virtue and piety that are yet left are not like to go 
off the stage so soon but that some young men grow up to fill the 
rooms of those that must go off ere long. I am very glad you 
are so favourable as to approve those short remarks I ventured 
to make on the letter of the French clergy. They had the luck 
to be so favourably received by those in Paris that understand 
English that those who were writing answers gave over, and 
pressed the hasting a translation of that little book into French 
which is now printed. You are certainly in the right when you 
observe that the cruelty of that church is neither to be appropriated 
to the order of the Jesuits nor to the Spanish nation, though the 
sourness of the latter and the forwardness of the other have made 
both more barefaced than the rest. Their cruel doctrines and 
practices began about 350 years before the Order of Jesuits was 
formed and as France was the first scene of them so it is no 
wonder they should now lick up that vomit while they retain 
the same spirit and principles. I am at present at a stand 
as to that design of which I spoke to your son, other things 
having intervened, but whenever I return to it I will be sure to 
make my application to you for such assistances as you can 
afford me, being very well assured of your zeal for helping 
forward all such undertakings. I pray God preserve you 


long to be such a support and honour as you are to the 
reformed reHgion and make your son to inherit your quaHties as 
well as he is to do your fortunes, and am with all due esteem and 
acknowledgment, &c. 

Postscript. — My most humble and most affectionate service to 
your son. 

Dr. G[ilbert] Burnet to Sir Edward Harley, recommended 
to the Postmaster at Ludlow. 

[1683,] May 26. — I delayed answering yours till the end of the 
week hoping by that time to be able to give you some account of 
those who are on their journey hither from Scotland, but my 
last letters tell me that one of them will not be here till the end 
of the next week and the other not for a week or two after. 

I shall take care that the person I recommend to Sir Thomas 
Wilbraham have the qualification my Lady desires, but I desire 
to know whether I shall soon after his coming hither send him 
down or if I may not keep him here a month to help him to wear 
off any roughness that may be in his accent. I beg you will give 
my most humble service to Mr. Newport, I take it for a very 
great honour that he is pleased to allow me to recommend a 
chaplain to him. I shall answer for it he shall be both a 
good and a learned man, and a true protestant and 
sincerely, though not furiously, of the church of England. The 
person that is coming up is of great discretion, as well as other- 
wise of excellent parts, and will, I hope, soon get over the 
accent of his country. I ought to say . a great deal in acknow- 
ledgment to yourself for your generous charity towards my 
countrymen, who have certainly left all they had in this world 
upon the account of their conscience when they had no reason to 
look for so good a provision as many of them have found in 
England. There is good reason to hope they will adhere to the 
last who have showed their steadiness so early, and those who 
have felt the smart of rigour upon themselves are not likely to 
be carried with a tide of severity against their brethren that 
differ from them. My last letters from France are the saddest I 
have had from thence of a great while, many eminent persons 
have abjured their religion, three ministers have lately done it of 
whom Mr. de Mahrs, minister of Orleans, is the most remarkable ; 
he was a man of great parts and hitherto of an exemplary life. 
One De Brues, an advocate at Montpellier that answered the 
Bishop of Condom's book, has also turned and refuted himself, 
and it is thought many thousands will follow their example. 

This affects me more than all their severities, which do likewise 
every day increase, for I have received this day an edict of the 
5th of May, that if any papist comes within any of their temples 
the minister shall be condemned to the amende honorable to 
perpetual banishment and confiscation of his goods. This is 
since by a private order thus explained that in every church there 
shall be one pew or bank for such catholics as shall be sent to 
hear and observe the sermon, but the edict is to take place 


against all that come except those of this pew, so that any 
malicious papist by going to one of their churches has it in his 
power to bring all this misery on them. I wish we may all have 
that tender sense of their condition that may prepare us for the 
like when it shall come to our turn. I give my most faithful 
service to your worthy son, and am with a deep respect, &c. 

Dr. G[ilbert] Burnet to Sir Edward Harlby, to be left with 
the Postmaster at Ludlow. 

1683, June 5. — I must begin with my humble thanks for 
your kind present of cider which I had to-day. There was com- 
pany with me when it was brought in, so I called for a bottle of it 
and we all agreed that it was incomparably good. 

This morning the gentleman came to me whom I am to re- 
commend to Sir Thomas Wilbraham. Upon a long conversation 
with him I find him to be a truly mortified and serious as well as 
an able man, and I hope within a month he will have so" shaken 
off the rudeness of his dialect that his pronunciation shall not be 
at all offensive, but by that time I must desire your directions 
how I shall address him to that noble family where he is to 
serve as chaplain. There is one either on his journey or very 
near it that I intend to send to Mr. Newport ; it is not he I 
expected that comes but indeed another sort of a man, 
one w^hom I have these twelve years since I first knew him 
reckoned among the worthiest of the clergy I have ever been 
acquainted w^ith. He has always lived just upon the border of 
England, so that I know his accent will have very little of his 
country. He had a great living both for the extent of his parish 
and for the profits, but he minded the one so much and the other 
so little that he was a great and shining light in that country. 
He is above forty but has the gravity of threescore. I doubt 
not but that honourable person will be very well satisfied with 
him and will find it a blessing to have such a one in his family. 

But besides these w'ho are all unmarried there are two very 
eminent persons that are married who would be very glad if a 
door were opened for them to labour in the ministry, and though 
of those who are thus turned out the livings were at least 60/. 
a year and some above 120/., yet they who have abandoned all 
rather than sin against their conscience do not look at high 
things in this world but will be easily satisfied with a moderate 
competency. You see how much I build on your goodness and 
your zeal for the public good as well as your compassion for all 
good men that fall under such difficulties. I add no more but 
the continuance of my faithfullest and tenderest services to your 
son, and beg you will ever look upon me as one that is in a very 
particular manner, etc. 

The Same to the Same. 

[1683,] July 19. — I hope you will forgive a very short letter 
now, for my attendance on my Lord Russell as it takes up the 


greatest part of my time so it fills all my thoughts. I shall only 
say this of him, that in my whole life I never saw so much of the 
worthiness of a brave man and of the greatness of an excellent 
christian met together as are in him. He will die clearing him- 
self of all those crimes for which he is condemned except only 
the concealment of some treasonable propositions which he 
opposed to that degree that they were laid aside. He has spoken 
to me of many of his friends whom he thought I knew and among 
others with great tenderness of his cousin Mr. Newport, and 
rejoices much at his recovery and that good temper of mind he 
is in. Two days ago the gentleman came hither whom I intend 
to recommend to him. I have not yet seen him but he left word 
he would be ready when I should desire him to go down, so a fort- 
night hence he shall come down, by the grace of God, as he I 
recommended to Sir Thomas Wilbraham shall go in the second 
coach that goes from hence next week and I shall follow your 
orders of writing first by the post to Sir Thomas. I have written 
all this not without great uneasiness, so I only add besides my 
faithfullest service to your son that I am, &c. 

Dr. G[ilbert] Burnet to Sir Edward Harley, to be left 
with the Postmaster at Ludlow. 

[1683,] August 18. — I cannot write any long letter, being to 
go a short journey for a few weeks over into France, having 
obtained a pass for it, so that I have several little things upon 
my hand. I intend to come back, if it please God, by the 
beginning of the Michaelmas term, and then I shall give you a 
more particular account of the state of the protestants of France. 
In the meanwhile I beg you will give my most humble service to 
Mr. Newport, for whom I will leave a letter which his chaplaili 
will bring to him within a few days. I hope you will forgive a 
short letter and believe that I am both your son's, &c. 

The Same to the Same. 

[1683,] November 20. — I remember you told me you had a 
copy of Mr. Cloggy's [Clogie's] life of Bishop Beadle [sic, Bedell] 
and in the leisure that my retirement is like to procure me this 
winter I intend to look over that and see what I can make of it, so 
if you will do me the favour to let me have the sight of that book 
a few weeks I shall certainly return it to you again and shall send 
you with it the form in which I will cast it that it may be com- 
municated to the author. I shall mix no other matter with this, 
being resolved for some time to withdraw myself from all the 
conversation and table of the world, so that I neither know 
nor will know what is doing abroad, but I will ever consider 
myself as particularly happy in the goodness you are pleased 
to have for me and will be much joyed to hear of the two 
chaplains that by your means I recommended have answered 
expectation or not. I give my most faithful service to your son 
and am, &c, 


Dr. G[ilbert] Burnet to [Sir Edward Harley]. 

1683, December 8. — I most humbly thank you for the kind 
invitation with which you honoured me in that letter which your 
son brought me, and if I were master of my own time I would 
very cheerfully have embraced the opportunity of enjoying so 
much satisfaction and reaping so much advantage, but though it 
has been thought fit to hinder my going on in a lecture at St. 
Clements, yet I continue at the Kolls as formerly. Last night I 
had another from you with one inclosed from Mr. Cloggy, which 
I will communicate with Mr. Fraser, and then will set about it 
very suddenly and as soon as I have put it in order I will trans- 
mit all to Mr. Cloggy before ever thinking of putting anything 
under the press. I shall in the next place beg leave to ask you 
whether Mr. Newport and Sir Thomas Wilbraham are well 
satisfied with the persons I presumed to recommend to them and 
if there is anything of which it may be fit to advertise them, for 
strangers are apt to commit errors out of ignorance. I know 
you ex]3ect nothing from me of public affairs and indeed though 
I had a mind to write concerning them I know so very little that 
I could not give any good account of them. This is still certain 
the more we look into the methods of divine providence we must 
say clouds and darkness are round about him, but when we shall 
see through these we shall be fully satisfied with this that 
righteousness and judgment are the habitation of, or rather the 
establishment and basis of, his throne. I rejoice very much to 
find myself so happy in the kind remembrances of two persons 
whom I value so highly as I do yourself and your son, and am 
with great fidelity, &c. 

Dr. G[ilbert] Burnet to Sir Edward Harley. Recommended 
to the Postmaster at Ludlow. 

[1684,] January 22. — I most humbly thank you for your 
kind present and I assure you the founder is not forgotten, 
though without any such remembrance I have such deep im- 
pressions of your worth on my mind and count myself so happy 
in the share you are pleased to allow me in your good opinion 
that I please myself not a little in so great an honour. I have 
now writ over Bishop Bedell's life, but have varied it so much 
from the dress Mr. Cloggy put it in that I am afraid he will 
think I have stripped it too much of the ornaments with which 
he clothed it. As soon as it is copied out I will send it to him, 
and I beg the favour of you that you will desire him to bring it 
to you when he gets it, for I believe I may need your assistance 
to make him pardon the alterations that I have made in it. I 
wish you and your worthy son and your whole family a very 
happy year, and am with much gratitude, &c. 

Dr. G[ilbert] Burnet to Sir Edward Harley. 

[1684 ?] April 3. — I take the liberty to ask you whether two 
bundles of papers which I sent above six weeks ago directed for 


Mr. Cloggy, but to be left at your house, came safe through or 
not, for though few things miscarry that are sent by the carriers, 
yet my not hearing from Mr. Cloggy gives me some apprehensions 
that they are not come to his hands. I have since that time got 
a great many of Bishop Bedell's letters to Archbishop Ussher 
which are indeed worthy of him, and of which if I print the life 
I will print a great many, for they relate to the chief matters in it, 
in particular two long ones of which the one is about pluralities 
and the other the spiritual courts. Whether Mr. doggy's delaying 
to answer may not flow from his dislike of the method I have 
put it in and the uneasiness he finds in telling me so much I can- 
not tell, but if this is the truth pray tell him that he may be very 
free with me for I will not take it amiss from him, nor will I stir 
one step but with his approbation. I humbly beg your pardon 
for giving you this trouble, to which I only add my most humble 
service to your son, and that I am with great duty, &c. 

Dr. G[ilbeet] Burnet to Sir Edward Harley, to be left 
with the Postmaster at Ludlow. 

1684-5, January 10. — I am much beholding to you for the 
friendly concern that you are pleased to express for me, and few 
things can rejoice me more than to find that I have been some 
way useful to any person in the best and most important of all 
other things. Now it has pleased God so to order it by his 
providence that the employment in which I was'-'' is fallen by the 
good old man's death, so that if I had been let alone I must have 
been by this time in the same state in which I am. I hope I 
shall be a gainer by my silence, and I do not think that any 
other person can lose much by it. To be forced to retire into 
one's own mind and to examine all that one has said as well as 
the principles and motives from which it has proceeded, may 
prove both a blessing to one's self and in due time, that is in God's 
time, may be .of some advantage to others. I am very glad 
that you are like to dispose of your son so much to your 
satisfaction. I am confident there is a blessing in store for him, 
he looks so little like the rest of the youth of the age, and I hope 
all these good seeds in him will grow up to a plentiful harvest. 
I pray God to prosper all he sets about, and in this more par- 
ticularly upon which so much depends. 

I am very sorry for good Mr. Garden's death, for the world 
can very ill spare such men. He is, I am sure, vastly a gainer 
by his change. As for one to succeed him, I shall endeavour to 
supply Mr. Popham very speedily with one for whom I can 
answer in all respects. There is one that has been for some 
time in my house of whose piety and discretion as well as his 
learning I can say a great deal. I am under half an engagement 
for him another way, but I have writ to know whether 
I may dispose of him this way or not, and within a week 

*The Preachership at the Kolls from which Burnet had recently been removed and 
his appointment to which would have lapsed by the death of the Master of the Rolls, 
Sir Harbottle Grimston, a few days before the date of this letter, 

6802 D 


will expect an answer ; if I cannot send him I will send another 
that was in office in Scotland and left his church upon the Test. 
I carried him with me to France last year, from whence he is 
lately returned ; he is also both a good, a wise and a learned 
young man, so you shall be sure of the one or the other of these 
persons. The former is not yet in orders, so either a title is to 
be sent hither for qualifying him to be ordained, or he must go 
as Mr. Garden did and he ordained by the Bishop of Gloucester. 
I desire to know how soon you would have the person sent 
down, and that you will write me the address to Mr. Popham's 
house. I am still more and more obliged to be with all humble 
respect, &c. 

Dr. G[ilbert] Burnet to Sir Edward Harley. 

[1685,] February 12. — When I writ to you three weeks ago 
I was not then determined as to the person whom I should re- 
commend to you for supplying Mr. Garden's room, and the great 
change that has been here had driven almost all other thoughts 
out of my mind, but without entering into melancholy reflections 
upon so great a turn of divine providence, which are fitter 
exercises for a closet than for a letter, I shall now crave leave to 
tell you that I have disengaged the young man that is in my house 
from the employment to which I had half promised him, so he 
shall be ready upon a week's warning to go to Mr. Popham's. 
He is a learned and pious man as most of his age that I have 
known for many years, and he is a very prudent and discreet 
person, so that I can answer very confidently for him ; he is not 
yet in orders, but upon the procuring a title for him as was done 
for Mr. Garden I know the Bishop of Gloucester will ordain him. 
I beg that you will be pleased to let me know when his going 
down will be expected and that you will also let me know by 
what conveyance he is to go to Mr. Popham's. I think to go for 
some time beyond seas within a few weeks, which makes me 
desirous to see this affair at an end before I go. I give my most 
humble service to your worthy son and am, &c. 

John Locke to Sir Edward Harley, M.P., at Brampton, 
near Ludlow. 

[16] 94, September 25. London. — Though I cannot doubt but 
you are assured there is nobody more your servant than I, yet I 
cannot but think a letter from me, especially of the kind this will 
be, will somewhat surprise you, for it is no less than to desire 
you lay by all that country business which you had reserved to 
the little time is now between this and the Parliament, and to 
come up to town immediately. So bold a presumption as this 
without farther explaining myself will possibly appear very odd 
to you, and I myself think it so extravagant that I should not 
venture to send it you were I not satisfied I should be able to 
justify myself to you for having done it, when you come to town, 
and should condemn myself for having failed in that respect and 


service which I owe you if I had done otherwise. It is but a 
little anticipating your journey up to the Parliament, and I 
conclude you will when you are here think, it time not lost. I 
therefore earnestly press you again, and if you do not think me a 
vain man I beseech you to believe that I would not have writ to 
you this fashion had I not had some reason. I should be very 
glad to see you here without any answer, but if you think fit to 
honour me with a line or two, pray let it be to assure me of your 
being speedily here. 

Postscrijit. — I lodge at Mr. Pawlings, over against the Plough 
Inn in Little Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

Sir Josiah Child to John Morley, junior, at Halsted in Essex. 

1694, October 26. Wanstead. — Being returned to Wanstead 
I think it necessary to desire you to hasten in my tithes, that at 
this time of general scarcity for money that sum abating your 
collection may go in part of my new purchase of the farm you 
last sold me, and pray take of my cousin Sparrow what is just 
equally with other men ; in matters of right friendship and rela- 
tion having no place, neither did I ever expect it from a brother 
in the like case, the old saying is allowed among all relations 
* what I buy I buy, and what I give I give.' 

If you have bought the other farm near my park I shall readily 
pay for it though much more money is got by the present funds 
then the best bargains of land. 

Of Mr. Gray's house and the Butt yard upon further enquiry I 
have no opinion at all, not thinking it worth above 11. per 
annum, except one should set up for building of cottages, which 
you know I never had a mind to. 

George Savile, Marquis of Halifax, to Mr. [Robert?] 


Monday morning. — I would know, sir, whether after your 
morning sacrifice for the public, you can allow yourself an idle 
part of a day so as to call upon me at half an hour past one, and 
make a trip to Acton this fine day, where we will eat a bunch of 
grapes to whet us for a piece of mutton at eight of clock when we 
return. I would know whether you would have a third, to be sure 
I want nobody when I have Mr. Harley. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury, Secretary of State, to [Robert] 


1694, October 4. — The time for the meeting of the Parliament 
drawing near occasions my renewing a request I made before to 
you, that I might discourse with yourself and Mr. Foley. If you 
continue disposed to allow me that favour I will be at home and 
alone any hour upon Saturday and Sunday in the afternoon that 
shall be convenient to you. 

Postscript. — I live now in St. James's Square. 


The Duke of Shrewsbuky, Secretary of State, to [Eobert] 


1694, November 6. Whitehall. — If it may suit with yours and 
Mr. Foley's conveniency, my Lord Godolphin and I are desirous 
to discourse again with you upon the same subject we last met 
about. If to-morrow at six in the evening be a convenient time 
for Mr. Foley and you, my Lord Godolphin and I will be at 'that 
time at my house in the Square; but if you are otherwise 
engaged at that time, I desire the favour of a line from you to 
appoint any other hour, place, or day. 

The Same to the Same. 
1694, November 20. — I am ' extream ' sorry I was not at home 
when you did me the favour yesterday to call. I should be glad 
if it would suit with convenience to call here this evening about 
seven o'clock, because I would be glad to discourse with you, and 
have your opinion in relation to some matters that deserve an 
immediate consideration. If I name a time inconvenient to 
your affairs, I desire you will be so kind and so free as to name 
any other this evening or to-morrow morning. 

[KoBERT Harley to the Archbishop of Canterbury.] * 
1701, August 11. — When I first resolved to write to your 
Grace I put my name to the letter, and also inserted some par- 
ticular passage which had passed between your Grace and myself 
formerly, but before I sent it away I altered that resolution, not 
out of any apprehension that I have done anything but my duty, 
and what becomes an honest man and a christian, but because I 
see your Grace is in the hands of some men who have neither 
religion nor common morality, and should you show them the 
letter or they get it into their hands, which is very common with 
them, it is plain they would make no scruple of prevailing with 
you to expose yourself and torment me, and though I shall readily 
own this if charged with it, yet I do not think I am obliged to 
court my own trouble. Therefore I have transcribed the letter 
over again, and altered my hand and left out my name and 
some few passages which would make your Grace easily 
know who I am. Thus far I will let you know that 
I am a lay gentleman, that my mind as well as my fortune 
render me independent any other way than as obliged by the 
laws of the land, and the duty of a good christian. I have long 
lamented the scandalous heats which have been of late amongst 
churchmen, and upon all occasions have taken your Grace's part 
in discourse relating to the affairs of the Convocation, in hope 
that some happy hours would fall out to make up this breach ; 
and it has been owing to my influence that many sober clergymen 

* We print this document as it stands in the chronological arrangement of the 
papers, but there is no other paper throwing any light on the circumstances in which 
it was written, or showing that the original letter of which this is a draft or copy 
ever reached Archbishop Tenison's hands. The deprivation of Dr. Watson, Bishop 
of St. David's, and subsequent proceedings relating thereto, seem to be the subject 
of the letter. 


here in my neighbourhood have not hitherto engaged themselves 
in this affair. But now, my Lord, I must speak plainly to you 
from the bitterness of my soul, that not only my hopes of healing 
are vanished, but I look upon a dismal prospect of ruin to 
Christianity and even morality. 

In the name of God what did you mean to send a fire- 
brand through all your province, and which I am very 
well assured you had no leave for doing, first to procure 
and indite such a letter which treats clergymen with such 
language as no gentleman gives to any one ; were you afraid 
that people would have complied, I know that was the fear of 
some people, but to be plain you have brought this home to us 
laymen and we must find a remedy. I must tell you what you 
have nobody else faithful enough to do it ; you are entirely 
under the influence of those who have not only discharged them- 
selves from all obligations of religion, but also have for many 
years been promoting, first Socinianism then Arianism and now 
Deism in the state, they have propagated notions which destroy 
all government ; in order to perfect that, they set up for notions 
which destroy all religion and so consequently dissolve the 
bonds of all society. These are the people who hire the writers, 
nay revise the books themselves, at whose charges these books 
are printed, and great numbers given away. These are the men 
who govern you, who recommend clergymen to you, who laugh at 
you — to my knowledge — for it after ; I heard one myself expose 
you for saying to an atheistical peer, ' Pray my Lord have a care 
of yourself, good men are scarce, my good Lord Macclesfield is 
gone.' Could any one that had common regard to his own 
reputation pick out two such profligate creatures. And for your 
clergy counsellors two or three who would engross preferments 
into their own hands, together with that mad Bishop of Sarum 
who has been contemned by all parties and all times for his 
intemperate fury as well as his immoralities and his falsehood. 

But my Lord give me leave to expostulate freely with you, and 
to lay before you the danger you are flying yourself and all in. 
I would use the words of our English Seneca to Archbishop Laud, 
and the case is pretty parallel. I do believe your Grace is a true 
Christian, and it is plain that Laud was no Papist, yet he did 
their business [as] effectually for them as if he were. This enraged 
them, and united people against him, and the torrent ran so 
strong I need not mention the direful consequences. 

If you are not a Sadducee what do you in their tents ? be either 
a bird or a beast, part either with your wings or your claws. If 
you will be amongst the Sadducees quit the clergy, but now under 
your protection and shadow all these execrable heresies grow up 
and are nourished whilst you are disputing whether a lower house 
of Convocation can adjourn themselves. Oh, ridiculous! and 
yet it now appears that they had even abstained from that, and 
yet you would not let them alone, so that it is very clear those 
who 'act 'you mean something else, and your trumping up a 
Legatine power, when you sit only by virtue of the Queen's writ, 
which last session you sufficiently broke through. It is time for 


the laity to examine this pretended power, and not leave it to 
the arbitrary will of a Metropolitan to deprive his com-bishops 
without law or example, to save one equally guilty. 
Draft or Copy in Harley's handwriting. 

H[enry] St. John to [Eobert Harley]. 

1701, December 26. — Dear Sir, To tell you that I long 
extremely to see you is doing a very unfashionable thing, for it 
is professing a great truth. 

I came this morning to town, and as soon as I received your 
letter went to wait upon you, but unfortunately for me you was 
gone out. This evening I am necessarily obliged to return to 
Battersea, but to-morrow I will come to London for good and all 
if possible ; however, Monday at farthest I will wait on you. Do 
me the justice to believe me. Dear Mr. Harlay {sic), your &c. 

The Duke of Marlborough to Lord . 

1703, June 10,n.s. Hannef. — I have had the honour of yours, 
and I do assure you I shall always be glad of any occasion that 
may convince you of the esteem and friendship I have for your 
Lordship. Ever since the Treaty of Portugal has been men- 
tioned I have never heard otherways but that the Duke of 
Schomberg was to have that command, for besides his experience 
his name must be of great use in that country. 

If he does not go I think her Majesty can't do better than to 
employ my Lord Kivers, who I am sure will be careful of her 
Majesty's and the Nation's honour. 

The army here being obliged to govern themselves by what is 
doing in Brabant makes me very impatient of hearing they have 

:un to act. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to [Robert Harley]. 

1703, August 11, K.s. Eome. — I cannot express how agreeably 
I was surprised by your kind remembrance and obliging letter of 
the 3rd June, which together with the manuscript I did not 
receive till two days ago. At the same time Mr. Walsh also sent 
me so engaging a message from you that all together I am 
so confounded that I can only say that, as from my first 
acquaintance with Mr. Harley I had a most sincere esteem and 
friendship for him, so these additional obligations to the others I 
have formerly received make me so entirely his humble servant 
that there is nothing I desire more than an occasion of showing 
how much I am so, and I hope in a few months to have an 
opportunity to assure him the same by word of mouth. 

Our letters had been stopped for above a month by the 
enemy's troops in the Tyrol, and coming this week four posts 
together I have had my time so taken up in answering my 
friends' letters that I have not had leisure to see the Library 
keeper of the Vatican, nor give him the MS. you favoured me 


with. Upon the encouragement you give me, if he should desire 
anything more out of the Cotton Library upon the same subject, 
I will take the liberty to trouble you upon it. 

They are very busy here about the Calendar, they see them- 
selves in an error but want knowledge to get out of it ; for I can 
assure you learning is very rare in this country, and will be 
rarer if the Cardinal Norris die, as they say he must of a 
dropsical distemper very soon, he being one of the only Prelates 
that makes a figure, who has a reputation for learning among 
them, and was at the head of those now employed in reforming 
the Calendar. It is probable they have better treatises upon this 
subject in the Vatican Library, where I believe there may be very 
valuable books, but they know little of them, looking but seldom 
into them. Here they get more preferment by ignorance and 
submission than in other countries they do by labour and 
learning; and it is very politic in them to encourage this laziness, 
for these are people who have naturally very good wits, and 
should they add a little knowledge and enquiry, the system of 
this Court and Church could not stand long. 

If there were anything in this part of the world I could serve 
you in, as books, manuscripts, prints, pictures, medals, &c., I 
should take it for a great favour if with all freedom you would 
employ your most faithful and obedient servant. 

H. St. John to [Eobert Hakley]. 

1703, September 25. — That quiet which you are gone to seek 
in the country and which you enjoy so little of in town had not 
been thus early disturbed by me if I had not met two days ago 
M. Vriebergen, the Dutch minister, who seeming very desirous 
you should know what he did not care to write, lest you should 
think he gave himself airs of familiarity (I use his own expres- 
sion), I told him that, as those who have least to say affect cor- 
respondence most, so I did sometimes trouble you with my 
epistles ; and that if he pleased to tell me what it was, I would 
write it to you as a thing I had heard and believed true. It is 
in short this — the States gave a plan to Mr. Hill wherein they 
proposed to have twelve of their ships of the line of battle and 
twenty of ours left this winter in Portugal, and next spring to 
augment these to forty-eight by six Dutch to ten English. In 
order to this they have sent orders to Allemonde in his return to 
leave six ships at Lisbon, they have directed their Admiralty to 
prepare stores of all kinds for refitting there, and their 
envoys have instructions to press the King of Portugal for 
magazines and other conveniences. He has talked of this 
scheme to the Prophet [ ], who does not think 

it proper that our seamen should spend their money out of 
England, which they must do if they lie any time to refit at 
Lisbon. I perceive by your countryman J. B [urchett ?] this has 
been under consideration, and the result was that they could not 
afford so many for this winter's service in those parts. 


There is a Dutch post just now come in, Limburgh is taken 
and the garrison are prisoners of war. The King of Spain set 
out from Vienna the 9th o.s., and Stirum has had a pretty 
sharp dispute with the French and Bavarians. He attacked the 
Marquis d' Usson, who came on one side, and beat him ; but the 
Marshal [Villars] and the Elector [of Bavaria] coming on the 
other he was forced to retreat, which he did. with very little 
loss. The Duke of Vendome is retired from Trent and marches 
back to Italy ; Stepney writes that his bombs have not done 
10,000 florins worth of damage. 

I give you frequent opportunities of showing your virtues, 
your patience I often exercise, your charity will appear in for- 
giving the length and impertinence of this letter, and your justice 
in believing me, Dear Mr. Harlay, your &c. 

Postscript. — To-morrow the Westminster scholar dines with me. 

The Duke of Marlboeough to [Robert Harley]. 

1703, October 11, n.s. Alderbeeston. — I have received the 
favour of yours of the 2nd instant [September] , and take it very 
kindly that you do me the justice to believe I endeavour to 
employ my time where it may be most useful to the public, 
and are pleased so readily to excuse my not troubling you with 
my letters, which I would not however omit, were I not satisfied 
that my Lord Treasurer communicates mine to you, and that 
you are informed from other hands of our motions here. 

I am sensibly concerned at what you mention of the heats 
that continue between the two parties, and should esteem it the 
greatest happiness of my life if I could any way contribute 
towards the allaying them. Upon this occasion you will give 
me leave to be so free as to tell you that what you write con- 
firms me very much in the desire I have for some time had 
of retiring from these uneasy and troublesome broils. How- 
ever, I shall never be wanting in my duty to her 
Majesty and my country wherever my endeavours may be 
thought useful, and I must add without a compliment that my 
greatest ease and satisfaction is in the hopes I have from Lord 
Treasurer's and your abilities and prudent managements of 
these matters, wherein upon my return I shall be ready to give 
my assistance and to be solely governed by yours and his Lord- 
ship's good advice, nor do I fail upon all occasions that offer 
with our friends here, who have any relation to the Court of 
Hanover, to put all things in the truest light. 
r^'Iam going in a fortnight to the Hague, and shall be obliged 
to stay Jour or five days before I embark for England, where I 
long to embrace you. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to [Robert Harley]. 

1703, December 15, n.s. Rome. — Having understood that 
several ' males ' have been taken by the French near Augsbourg, 
as well going to, as coming from, Holland, lest one I writ about 
a month since should have miscarried, I desire your assistance 
to Mr. Vernon in case he should want it this winter, &c. 

[Lord Godolphin to Kobert Harley.] 

1704, May 21. Sunday at two. — 'Tis a pretty hard matter to 
please everybody, and especially those who will neither lead nor 
drive. I speak now of some of the chiefs of Westminster Hall, 
who if they are angry may thank themselves. 

I must own to you, I have not the secret nor never can have, 
who won't tell it though they are pressed to do it, and yet will take 
it ill of one, if one does not find it out. 

I doubt indeed the enemy may have been [more?] indus- 
trious than we, but I cannot reproach myself for not having done 
my part. I never was near so industrious before in my life, and 
shall be very glad never to have occasion of being so again. 

If it be an objection that a Speaker should not be proposed by 
any in the Queen's service, I suppose that may be easily avoided 
by a meeting beforehand of those who will join heartily in 
carrying on the Queen's service, and the public business ; but 
[if ?] that meeting be once settled, I despair of any good to come. 
I was very glad to see Mr. Comptroller [Mansell] at the Chapel 
just now, but, by what you write and some other observations, I 
am afraid Mr. Solicitor [Harcourt] is not very right. I have 
scarce had the favour of one word from him since he was elected 
into the parliament, though it cost me more pains than to choose 
Mr. Foley. 

Mr. Churchill tells me Col. Lee is in town, he has spoken to 
him, but you must speak to him too. I have spoken myself with 
Mr. Brewer this morning. 

If you are not otherwise engaged, I should be glad to carry you 
this evening to Kensington between five and six. 

The Same to the Same. 

1704, June 9. Windsor. — Her Majesty seemed to be willing 
you should be here Sunday to take her orders upon the Scotch 
memorial about the plot. However, if you should find it any way 
inconvenient to come, I can easily make your excuse. 

If the letters sent by Duke Hamilton to the post house at 
Berwick can be looked into without his coming to know it, it 
would be an omission scarcely excusable not to do it. 

The Dean of Carlisle [Graham] , who is here now attending 
the Queen, has notice that the Dean of Wells [Bathurst] has 
broken his thigh, who was before an old dying man, and this 
accident Mr. Dean hoj^es will make an end of him. 

In that case would Dr. Atterbury care to be Dean of Carlisle ? 
And would Sir Chr. Musgrave like him there, in case we like 
Sir Chr. ? 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to Secretary Harley. 

1704, June 28, n.s. Rome. — We have this post received the 
news that her Majesty has been pleased to place the seals of 


Secretary of State in your hands, at which I have bo great satis- 
faction that I cannot forbear troubhng you with a letter of 
congratulation. At the same time I am sensible the public has 
more reason to rejoice than you who will enter into an employment 
of great trouble, but the superiority of your genius will make that 
easy to you which others have found vexatious. 

I shall not omit this occasion to give you my most humble 
thanks for your kindness and protection to Mr. Vernon. 

I have been here so long that I believe people begin to think 
I intend no more to return. I had designed it this spring, when 
an unexpected relapse after many months' good health forced me 
to defer my journey. I will no more set a time, but assure you 
it shall be as soon as my health and the season will permit, and 
perhaps sooner than I am expected. However in all places, I 
assure you, I am a true Englishman and wish well to all who 
are so, and in a more particular manner am your &c. 

Lord Godolphin to [Kobert Harley], 

1704, June 28. Windsor. — I have the favour of yours of the 
27th, and have read to the Queen the Earl of Jersey's letter to 
you, and one of the same tenor to myself ; as also Lucan's infor- 
mation, which latter she has commanded me to send to the Chan- 
cellor of Scotland with her Majesty's directions to cause the per- 
son mentioned in it to be searched for with all care and diligence, 
and to be forthwith seized and examined. 

I have likewise received her commands to write as I have done 
to my Lord Seafield in favour of my Lord Leven, though the same 
reason still subsists which made her decline to grant the remission 
desired, viz., that she thought it was more for his service and her 
own that all matters of that nature should come free and unpre- 
judiced to the consideration of the parliament. To this purpose 
I have also written the enclosed to Lord Leveh which I must beg 
your favour to send him ; and that you would send the enclosed to 
Lord Seafield to Sir Thomas Frankland to put under his cover to 
Norwich as usual. 

Ought not Capt. Byron, the commander of the yacht, to be 
examined why he refused the four musketeers demanded by 
Lucan for the seizing Sir G. Maxwell and his companions ? I find 
it seemed to him that he could not answer the doing it, but I con- 
fess it seems to me that it is harder to answer the not doing it. 

The Queen tells me the Prince will be next Monday at West- 
minster Hall, and her Majesty designing to dine that day at Ken- 
sington, and to stay there three or four days will not give the 
Lords the trouble of coming hither next Sunday. Pray be pleased 
to acquaint Mr. Secretary Hedges with this for fear a summons 
should go from the Office by mistake. 

Postscript. — I wish you much joy of my Lady Dorchester's 
acquaintance at the Office. 

Lord Godolphin to Eobert Harley, Secretary. 
1704, June 29. Windsor. — I should not have troubled you 
again so soon but that the enclosed print, more scandalous in 


my opinion than the ' Observator ' himself [Tutchin] , is fallen 
into my hands. I don't know what course can be taken with 
effect to find out the author ; but I think no pains or expense 
could be, or be thought, too much to bring him to the punish- 
ment he deserves. 

At the same time I can't but take notice from the common 
news-letters that Mr. Attorney [Northey] has no great success in 
his prosecutions of any kind, but this magnifying of France is a 
thing so odious in England, that I can't think any jury would 
acquit this man if discovered. 

H. St. John to [Robert Harley] . 

1704, July 13. — I have received from Mr. Bracebridge, the 
justice of peace that committed Lieut. Lesley,- and Sir Clement 
Fisher, two letters in answer to those which I writ in pursuance 
of her Majesty's directions signified to me by yours. You will 
find in them and the affidavits annexed a full and authentic 
account of that whole matter. I shall be in town in a few days 
to receive your further directions in this or any other thing. 

Enclosure 1. 
Sir C[lement] Fisher to [Secretary St. John]. 

1704, July 8. — About three o'clock in the afternoon of May 
29, the constable of Meriden came in great haste to my 
house and desired to me to appear and assist him in 
keeping the peace betwixt some soldiers and his towns- 
men. Upon this Sir William Wheeler a gentleman of this 
country (that was with me on a visit) and I went with a 
design to prevent the mischief, but before we met the 
soldiers they and the countrymen had fought, and several 
were hurt and wounded on both sides. Lieut. Lesley told 
me they were on the Queen's service and had done nothing 
but what they had orders for. I desired him to show me 
those orders ; he gave me a paper which only directed 
him to list such men as came to him voluntarily. I told 
him I heard he had forced several men along with them, 
and had very much exceeded those orders. 

Whilst we had this dispute there was an outcry that one of 
the country people was dead, and that two of them were 
run through the body, and one in the thigh, and that the 
third borough who came to the constable's assistance was 
almost knocked on the head. This made the neighbour- 
ing people flock together to revenge their neighbours' 
quarrel upon the officers and soldiers, and they were com- 
ing with great eagerness to fall on them. I used all the 
argument I could to dissuade them from such an attempt 
and told them I would have the officer secured that they 
might have their remedy according to law. The lieutenant 
afterwards submitted to the constable and was taken be- 
fore Mr. Bracebridge. The soldiers had four men in their 


custody taken by force, viz., an Irishman, a French watch- 
maker, Mr. Ebborn's servant, and Kichard Smith, a 

Enclosure 2. 

Copies of affidavits relating to the above disturbance, certified 
by Sam. Bracebridge. 

Lord Godolphin to Kobert Harley, Secretary. 

1704, July 19. Windsor. — I have the favour of yours of last 
night with the enclosed, which I have laid before the Queen. 

The letter intercepted to Poland seems to be matter of 
curiosity only, w^hat relates to Scotland in it had I believe been 
in their thoughts, or something of that kind, before the discovery 
of Frazer's plot. 

What Mr. Foley writes is unintelligible, the former part does 
not cohere with the latter; but it confirms he is not fit to 
continue there [at Hanover]. 

I believe your information is right of Duchess Hamilton's 
inclinations and her influence upon her son's, but as to the 
reconcilement and union of the two Dukes of H[amilton] and 
Qu [eensberry] , it may be negotiated by Lord Stair, or some 
common friend, but it will scarce be owned by Qu. 

I believe the news Mr. Vrybergh has told you, because if it 
were not so, we must have had an express. God send us good 
news from Augsburg ! 

I don't by Mr. Secretary Hedges' news paper perceive that in 
France it was expected M. Tallard could join before the 8th of 
August, our 28th of July. If that be true it leaves room for 
much to be done in the meantime. 

The same French newspaper makes me very much of opinion 
there will be a battle at sea. I don't know but that it might be 
reasonable in that view, for the Prince's Council to consider of 
sending such stores as are like to be most necessary after an 
engagement, to Lisbon by this convoy. By speaking with Sir 
D. M[itchell] or Mr. [George] Churchill, you will judge whether 
this is proper to be done, or sufficiently done already. 

[KoRERT Harley to Lord Godolphin.] 

1704, July 21. — I send your Lordship enclosed two letters 
from the Duke of Marlborough of the 16th and 20th inst. [n.s.], 
with the original letters from the Emperor and the Elector Palatine 
to his Grace. I will bring to-morrow a translation of the Latin 
letter for her Majesty, and another for the Duchess of M. ; and 
then I think after they have been read to the Lords the originals 
should be delivered to my Lady Duchess. I send Davenant's 
letter that you may see what news they had there [Frankfort ?] ; 
also Mr. Kobinson's, which is very serious and deserves con- 
sideration ; and the Lord Ptaby's, because that has a project of 
making the treaty there. Mr. Stepney's private letter is here- 
with enclosed, and Mr. Stanhope's long one with nothing in it. 


I am sure your Lordship can in a much better manner lay the 
Duke of Marlborough's letters before her Majesty ; I beg also 
you would with my most humble duty lay the rest before the 

[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

1704, July 31, half-an-hour past 5. Windsor. — The messenger 
brought me yours at five. I am very glad to hear you are like 
to make so considerable a discovery. 

I return you the blank warrant signed by the Queen for 
D[eFoe?]'s pardon. Her Majesty commands me to tell you 
she approves entirely of what you have promised him, and will 
make it good. She resolves to be to-morrow in the evening at 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1704, August 4. — The Queen is very sorry for the accident 
which has lately happened by the misbehaviour of a ' Swedish 
Captain ' [altered by Harley to ' the Captain of a Swedish man of 
war '] , and hopes the King of Sweden will give him the punish- 
ment due to his fault, to avoid future inconveniences of this 
nature, which cannot fail to happen whenever the due respect is 
denied to the right of her Majesty's flag. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1704, August 13. Windsor. — Her Majesty is very sensible of 
the great trouble you have in this affair, and very easy in your 
staying at London till it be ended. 

She asked me whether the Archbishop had taken any care 
about a thanksgiving day for the victory [of Blenheim] . I told 
her I had not seen him since the news came, but that I hoped he 
would think this success considerable enough for a solemn day 
to be appointed for the observation of it all over England at once. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1704, September 1. Windsor. — I received the favour of yours 
by the post this morning, with the papers which you enclosed, 
and return them all in one long bundle by this messenger, as 
also the letters you sent to the Queen yesterday, with one from 
the Elector Palatine to her Majesty in a very high strain of com- 
pliment. I don't know how far it would be reasonable to print 
private letters, but I think it might do well, at least, to read that 
letter of the Elector Palatine to the Lords of the Committee. 

I am not very easy at their being so far engaged in the siege 
of Landau at this time of year ; it may draw into length, and 
delay the Duke of Marlborough's coming over, besides that it 


may expose him to new hazards. All these, in my opinion, had 
been better prevented, and the Empire might have been con- 
tented with seeing the French gone back over the Ehine. 

The fears of France, as well as the desires of Holland, were 
that he should have brought his army down the Ehine in boats ; 
and I must own, that for my own part I should have liked that 
measure better, but I can believe in him (Marlborough) against 
my own senses. 

I enclose to you my letter to him by this post, and I have sent 
you also in the long bundle a paper signed by the Queen which 
you sent to her, and which I forgot to mention at the beginning 
of this letter. 

Our sea victory not proving true makes the discourse of that 
matter very disagreeable ; but the news of M. Villadarias's going 
with a great body of men to retake Gibraltar may turn to the 
great advantage of our intended expedition in Portugal. 

The Queen designing to be Monday at Kensington, I suppose 
nobody will give themselves the trouble of coming hither Sunday ; 
but I hope I shall hear from you as there shall be occasion. 

Postscript. — I wish they had offered more tempting conditions 
to the Electress of Bavaria. 

[Lord Godolphin to Kobert Harley.] 

1704, September 12. Windsor. — I beg leave to trouble you 
with my letter to the Duke of Marlborough, and the enclosed 
address, which yesterday I forgot to desire you might be 
printed in the next ' Gazette.' 

This goes by Mr. Churchill, who is in haste. 

The Same to the Same. 

[1704,] *'* September 14. Windsor. — An express arrived here 
this morning from Sir George Eooke, with letters of the 27th of 
August, old style, off Cape St. Vincent, which say they had had 
on the 13th a long and a sharp engagement with the French fleet. 
The not sending away an express till the 27th is, I doubt, a sign 
we have not much to brag of ; however, I don't find we have lost 
any ship, though several have been ill handled. He says the 
French are gone back to Toulon without pursuing their intention 
of passing through the Straits. Upon the whole it seems to have 
been a sort of a drawn battle where both sides had enough of it, 
though 'tis plain the fight was at great distance. 

We are said to have 2,800 men killed and wounded, but it does 
not appear by any account I have seen what the enemy's loss 
has been. 

*This letter bears the date '• 1705 " written some years after apparently by the 
second Earl of Oxford, but it obviously belongs to the preceding year. Dates, in 
the same handwriting, are assigned to other undated letters of Lord Q-odolphin, 
which are not always correct. 


Sir George Eooke may be probably at home in eight or ten 
days ; he has left Sir John Lake (Leake) at Lisbon with a 
squadron of eleven ships, and with instructions which the better 
to enable him to pursue, I think the Prince's Council should wait 
upon the Lords to-morrow morning to receive their direction 
what stores or provisions might be proper to be dispatched to 
Sir John Lake, because if Whetston be not yet sailed from Spit- 
head the opportunity of sending them by him might not be lost ; 
Sir John Lake being ordered to take care of Gibraltar as well 
as of the coast of Portugal. 

We are in hopes of Dutch letters to-morrow. 

[Lord Godolphin to Kobert Harley.] 

1704, September 15. Windsor. — The Bishop of Carlisle's 
perverseness [_re Atterbury as Dean ?] is very unaccountable, but 
a discreet clergyman is almost as rare as a black swan. 

When you come to Windsor I shall desire your thoughts as to 
the persons for secretary and treasurer for the First Fruits and 
Tenths ; my own are at present that they ought not (sic) to have 
but very moderate salaries out of a fund designed for charity. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1704, September 27. Windsor. — The Duke of Marlborough 
says an active stirring minister in Switzerland would be capable 
of doing more service than anywhere else, both in supporting and 
encouraging the Protestant Cantons, and in furnishing the 
quickest intelligence from all parts. I think your cousin Tom 
Harley the fittest man in the world for that post. The other 
which we have sometimes talked of is of less consequence, and 
all that is necessary there is only to have one that won't do hurt ; 
but I would not have you think I will ever press anything that 
you or he do not like as well as myself. 

The truth is, all the ministers sent abroad by my Lord 
Nottingham have hitherto done us more hurt than good, and the 
sooner they are all changed, not Mr. Hill excepted, the better. 

Sir Cloudesley Shovell being sworn of the Prince's Council, 
I take it for granted that Sir G. Kooke has laid down, but I have 
not yet heard how that matter is talked of, or understood at 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1704 [September?]. — I am not fond of the proposal of two 
statues, one for the Queen and th'other for the Duke of 
Marlborough. What merit soever a subject may have I am 
doubtful that may set him upon too near an equality with one 
upon the throne. 

My own opinion inclines most to an anniversary thanksgiving 
by Act of Parliament for so entire a victory, as the most public, 
the most decent, and the most permanent record of it to 
posterity, but if this be thought too much because it is upon a 


fact happened without the kmgdom — whereas our precedents of 
anniversaries run generally upon occasions at home — I must 
submit that to better judgments. 


1704, October 1. Newmarket. — I am sorry to hear of 
Mr. St. John's illness ; I hope he will soon recover, for I know 
nobody more able or willing to serve the Queen. 

I am mighty uneasy that we are so long without knowing the 
fate of Barcelona, and can't help fearing 'tis no good sign. 

I don't know particularly what Dr. Drake has written, but I 
can easily imagine his great patron and his great zeal together 
may have encouraged him to meddle too much. 

I am sorry the Queen has given any directions about the Great 
Seal before my Lord Keeper's coming to town, till when they 
cannot be executed, but it would have been too ridiculous to have 
continued it longer in his hands ; and whenever the Queen dis- 
poses of the Seal, all people won't be pleased, but if her Majesty 
gives it to the man who is generally thought the most proper for 
it, she takes the method which is least liable to objection. 

I wish with all my heart you may have a good account of the 
correspondence you labour so much to intercept ; that would be 
very material, but there are so few who can be relied upon — are 
you sure of Brockett himself ? 

[Lord Godolphin] to [Kobert Harley], Speaker. 

1704, November 8. — I was told yesterday that there had been 
a meeting Monday night at the Fountain Tavern, of one hundred 
and fifty members, where it was resolved that the money bill 
should lie upon the table till the bill of Occasional Conformity be 

One Gellibrand has been with me this morning, and I find he 
is able to give great lights into the smugglers' carrying over their 
correspondence, &c. I have appointed him to be at my house 
to-morrow night after Council ; if you are then at leisure, we will 
speak to him together. 

[Lord Godolphin to Egbert Harley.] 

1704, November 16. — The vote for the 5,000 men will, I hope, 
have a very good effect abroad for the public service, before the 
men can come to be made use of. 

By the enclosed you sent me the D [uke] of N[ewcastle] seems 
to be in very good humour ; if I was denied to Mr. Monckton, I 
am very sorry for it, and if he had sent in his name I should cer- 
tainly have seen him. 

I find plainly it was in the power of the Queen's servants to 
have kept out the Occasional bill. She has not much reason to 
thank them for it, not that I apprehend they can carry a tack or 
put a stop to the money, but when the bill is thrown out in the 


House of Lords, they will make use of that handle to throw dirt 
and stones at whom they have a mind to bespatter. This is what 
I chiefly expect from the event of this bill, and which might 
have been prevented if these gentlemen had thought fit. 

I doubt it will not be seasonable to press the House upon the 
matter of the subsidies due to the Allies in the last reign ; but if 
you come to the Council this evening I will speak to you of it 
there ; and if you do better, that is, stay at home and take care of 
yourself, I can, after the Council is up, come to your house, if it 
be not uneasy to you. 

The Duke of Marlbokough to [Robert Harley], 

[1704, December 16.] — I must confess by what was writ the 
former post, I could not help being under some apprehensions 
from the proceedings of the House of Commons with reference to 
the Occasional bill, so that the account you now send me was so 
much the more welcome ; and when I reflect on the dangerous 
consequences the obstinacy of some people might have produced, 
I cannot but think this happy turn as great a victory with refer- 
ence to England as any advantage we have had since I saw you, 
and I hope everybody will do you the justice to attribute the 
greatest share of it to your prudent management and zeal for the 
public. You will see what I write to Lord Treasurer, so shall give 
you no further trouble. 

[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

1704-5, January 11. — I forgot yesterday to give you the 
enclosed note for IVTr. Patterson. 

In case the question proposed last night should be agreed to in 
the House, it not being usual to send a message to either House 
which is not first considered at Cabinet Council, why might not 
the Queen return immediately an answer to the purpose follow- 
ing, viz. : — 

I am glad to find you have so just a sense of the Duke of 
IVIarlborough's merit and services. I should not have delayed to 
have made him a grant of some house and lands belonging to 
the Crown, as a proper mark of distinction to remain in his family 
for perpetuating the memory of his eminent services ; but that 
I find very remote terms granted in the Crown lands, and myself 
other ways disabled from performing my just intentions in this 
particular, without the assistance of the Parliament. 

If any of our company should think these last words, 2cith a 
stroke drawn under them, not full enough, they may be easily 
made stronger. 

[Lord Godolphin to Secretary Harley.] 

1704-5, February 12. From the D[uke of] Marlb [orough's] 
lodgings, at ten. — I return you Ormiston's letter ; he is in the 
right, in every tittle of it. 

G803 e 


Pray make my humble excuses for not coming to your meeting 
to-night. My cough is very uneasy, and the heat of that room 
would kill me, both while I was in it, and when I should go out 
of it into the air. 

I hope the judges will do well to-morrow, and that you will not 
agree to our amendments in the Prize Office bill. 


[Adam Cockburn of Ormiston, Lord Justice Clerk, to 
Piobert Harley.] 

1705, February 3. Edinburgh. — It is much more to be 
known from the tempers of men than from the weather at 
present that we are so far removed to the North and distant 
from the rest of the world ; for some you know, and not 
long ago did see, continue peevishly unsatisfied, never 
attempting anything [which] looks like bringing themselves 
or others rationally to digest what is proper and fit to be 
done in the present state of affairs. 'Tis easy to find 
fault with our predecessors, but alas ! never a thought 
how to recover that we cry so loudly ' Oh, 'tis lost.' 
Without a present remedy, indeed certain ruin seems to 
threaten, and how can it be otherwise, for a narrow enquiry 
to find faults (not out of design to mend them) and self- 
interest possess too many at this time. To be more 
plain, the new Ministry are at no pains to gain one man, 
nay all their designs are confined within the number of 
five or six persons ; and we are wholly taken up to find 
Green and his crew pirates. This I can say little of, 
the presumptions are strong, but 1 cannot neglect what 
is of more weight to me, and that is, the curbing the 
insolence of the papists and Jacobites. You may guess 
what pass we are at when the Duke of Gordon takes the 
boldness to insult the Government ; he has never been 
known to expose himself, but when he thought there was 
a sure game in the field. You may come to hear the 
Justice Clerk is too forward and will spoil all, but he 
says without some appear with vigour at present we are 
undone ; therefore he has proposed the disarming 
presently all papists and taking their horses, and what 
Highland chieftains are papists that all their men be 
disarmed, and that lists of all papists and reputed papists 
be sent in to the Council. We must next enquire after 
our non-jurant clergy, who these two years have gone 
through corrupting our people. Y^ou cannot imagine 
how far people have laid aside their reason, yea, and 
their former desire to a union, and seem rather to hearken 
to proposals for the succession. All I can say farther at 
present is that the only hope one can have is that at 
present there does not appear a fixed determined resolu- 
tion among men, so that there is ground to work if there 
were proper instruments. 


Postscript. — I forgot to write to you about our friend Col. John 
Erskine. He is an honest man and met with hard measure 
two years ago when turned out of Dumbarton Castle. 
Justice says he should be ' reponed,' and the Bevolution 
people will be all glad of it. 

[Lord Godolphin to Kobert Harley.] 

1704-5 [February 24], Saturday.— The House of Lords has left 
out the first clause in the bill of Offices, upon the uncertainty 
and absurdity of it, and have passed the second relating to the 
Prize Office with some considerable amendments, one of which 
puts the judgment of offences against that Act into the courts of 
Westminster Hall. 

I have not heard what the judges have resolved to do about 
the Aylesbury men, but I hope no writ of error will lie upon that 
occasion for bringing it to the House of Lords. 

Major-General Harvey has brought Mr. Secretary Hedges 
some letters from Portugal of an old date, which show more 
plainly than ever the very ill condition of our affairs there, and 
what is w^orse they scarce seem capable of any remedy. We 
can't send a better general than Lord Galway, and to send 
another ambassador would only give a handle to malicious people 
to lay the blame upon our changing the hand. 

If you could intercept the message to France it might prove of 
very great use at this time. 

I have a poor little grandchild of nine months old more like to 
die than live, of a fever, at this hour. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1704-5, March 24. — If you can be at leisure I think it would 
be necessary for you to come to my house about seven this 
evening, if it were only to take leave of the Duke of Marlborough ; 
but I must own I have a by-end of my own in it, for I want to 
speftk to you of several things. This matter of the Great Seal 
must not lie long as it does ; I wish you would think what ought 
to be done in it, as soon as you can. 

[The Same to the Same'.] 

1705, April 1. Monday night. — I hear by Mr. Secretary 
Hedges the Duke of Newcastle has the Privy Seal given him 
this night ; will he be so formal as to expect one should go to 
Clerkenwell tomake him a compliment, or will he be reasonable 
enough to be satisfied if one wishes him joy in a letter. I beg 
the favour of you to tell me freely your thought of him in this 
point, for I would not willingly stumble in the threshold. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1705, April 8. — I think you have filled the blanks very well in 
the Commission for the Union, and a^ree it would have been 


entirely right to have enlarged the numher of Commissioners, 
but the Scots Commission being fixed to thirty-one and, as they 
say, unalterable, they would not suffer our number to exceed theirs, 
because in all former Commissions the number of Commissioners 
has been the same, and they were jealous in case ours should 
exceed theirs it would have an air of superiority which they could 
not well excuse to their Parliament. 

For my own part I wish there were no such thing upon earth 
as a punctilio of any kind. 

[Loud Godoi.phin to Eobert Harley.] 

1705, April 12. Newmarket. — I return the letters you did me 
the favour to send me ])y the post, having first given the Queen 
an account of the substance of them. Her Majesty thinks it 
proper that all encouragement be given to Hughetan to expect 
her protection ; and I confess I think his coming over at this time 
will give a very ill impression of the affairs of France, and by 
consequence please much here. 

I have no great reflections to make upon Lord Eaby's or Mr. 
Stepney's letters. 

[Lord Godolphin] to Robert Harley. 

1705, April 14. [Newmarket.] — I shall speak to Lord Halifax 
here to send for Mr. Montague to town, but I find he is not 
without some scru})le upon the account of his friendship with Mr. 
Stepney, and wishes it might be so ordered as that Mr. Stepney 
might not have the least jealousy or uneasiness upon his 
nephew's going thither. If the instructions are ready by the 
Queen's coming to town I conclude the}'^ ^yill be ready before he 
who is to carry them. 

The Queen goes Monday to Cambridge. 

[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

1705, April 10. Newmarket. — The Queen leaves it to the 
Lords of the Connnittee to resolve what powers it may l)e proper 
for the Duke of Marlborough to have in case of any desertion of 
the Irish from the French service abroad. 

I have spoken to Lord Halifax here about his nephew's going 
to Vienna, and not finding him so forward in that matter as 1 
had reason to think he would have been, I must beg the favour 
of you not to mention it at home or abroad till I have the honour 
to see you. 

The Queen is gone this morning to dine at Cambridge. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1705, April 19. Newmarket. — I return your foreign letters, 
and am sorry to find ]\y Mr. Stepney's that Prince Eugene was 
not yet gone to Italy, where he seems to be much wanted, 


I have written to the Duke of M [arlborough] by the last post 
to try if Mr. Stanhope would be willing to go to Vienna ; if not, 
after the answer comes, I doubt we must be forced to part with 
Mr. Paget at last. 

I keep Mr. Addison's deposition till I see you, which I hope 
will be Sunday night. 


1705, May 2. — The noise which I easily foresaw would follow 
from making ' Tackers ' Serjeants [at law] is come with great 
violence, and I must own I don't see what is to be said to it, and 
therefore I think if it be not too late the call ought to be stopped 
till next term. For to do this just before the election will, I 
doubt, bring a most unaccountable ridicule upon the Government. 
But next term the same thing might be done without reproach. 

This thing joined with the delay made in my Lord Westmor- 
land's request cannot be borne at once, and must needs be the 
greatest gratification imaginable to the ' Tackers ' and their 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1705, May 31. — I have received the favour of yours for which 
I give you many thanks, and have had a mind often to be writing 
to you, but I considered that the less I troubled your affairs in the 
country, the sooner I might hope to see you in town. 

You begin to be much wanted now for the instructions to 
Vienna and Hungary, and some which will be as necessary at the 
Hague as either. These last are furnished chiefly by our Lisbon 
letters. I believe the Queen will resolve to send my Lord 
Sunderland ; his rank is proper for the compliment, and he will 
be thought to wish well to the peace with the malcontents ; and 
he must wait upon the Duke of Marlborough in his way, but he 
can't be dispatched till you come to give him his instructions, xind 
the time presses in all respects. 

Your Worcestershire news is no news here. We hear it not 
only from those sort of people but from all sides. 

I believe Parker will be the Queen's sergeant, the Chief Justices 
are for B[aniste?]r. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1705, June 3, Sunday night. — My last was to desire you to 
come to town, and this night at the Cabinet Council there were 
two letters from Mr. Stepney which came this morning, that 
will make it still more necessary. The Accommodation with the 
malcontents seems impossible unless the Emperor and his 
ministers will agree to a guarantee, and in that case there's great 
hopes it may succeed. 

The instructions for this affair being in your hands, and indeed 
much better there than in any other, the Queen has ordered 
Secretary Hedges to send this express to desire you would come 


to town in hopes that you may be able to take her directions 
next Sunday night at Windsor for anything that will require to 
be added to those instructions. 

I shall stay in town till Saturday morning the 9th, so that if 
you are here by Friday night I may have opportunity of talking 
to you before I go to Windsor. 

Lord Marlborough writes me word all the troops designed for 
his army will not be together before the 20th N.S. ; but he has 
more now than he has forage for, and has therefore been forced 
to march over the Saar into the plains, where the M. de Villars 
had an opportunity of fighting him, if he had thought fit, with a 
superior force, but they chose rather to stay in their camp, and 
to strengthen themselves there. 

The Dutch have been frighted at Huy and Liege, but I believe 
that is all. I wish they would think it worth their time to throw 
away a month or six weeks upon those places. 

All the accounts we have from Spain, or of it from any other 
place, seem to give a very hopeful prospect. 

Lord Great Chamberlain [Lindsey] has carried his election in 
the county of Lincoln, and I hear Palmer and Pigot have carried 
it in Somersetshire. 

Queen Anne to Eobert Harley. 

[1705,] June 14. Windsor. — I send you back all your letters 
but the new3 from Spain, which I have not yet reade being in 
hast to send the messenger away, that my letters for the Queen 
of Denmark and the Elector Palatin may be time enough with 
you to goe by this night's post. I think it will be very proper 
that Mr. How should be ordered to make my compliments at 
the Court of Hanover upon the marriage, as my Lord Halifax 

I am your very affectionett freind, 


[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

1705, June 21. Windsor. — Having seen the news of the Inter- 
nuncios being at the Hague in two several letters, I make no 
doubt of the truth of it, looking upon it as the most improbable 
thing in the world for anybody to invent. 

Lord Marlborough being so near them in Holland will not only 
be a bridle upon their negotiations, but taking away their fears it 
will also take away their power of proceeding upon them. 

I think you are much in the right not to take -Edwards, if you 
have any way of taking his letters. 

I shall order Mr. Taylour by this messenger to take your 
directions to whom he shall pay the lOOZ. to Ogilvy. 

I have a letter from Col. Graham who seems very unwilling to 
believe the news of his son's marriage. 

The Prince has notice that Sir George Bing sailed the 18th 
from Plymouth, which I am very glad to hear, the wind having 
been very (sic) fair as it could blow ever since. 


[Lord Godolphin to Egbert Harley.] 

1705, June 22. Windsor. — I have the favour of your letter 
with a very long one from M. de Guiscard, full of complaints ; till I 
see his book which you speak of, I cannot judge how far it is fit 
to be printed, but by his letter to me that may possibly deserve 
to be considered. 

Though I never heard before that there was such a person as 
Dorothy Ellis, I cannot but agree her vanishing just at this time 
is a very odd circumstance belonging to that affair. I hope the 
trial goes on that we may see what it will produce. 

The Queen is pleased to allow that Mr. Stratford should have 
Dr. Eatcliff's canonry of Christ Church. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1705, [June] 25. Windsor. — I have received the favour of 
your letter of 24th, and have acquainted the Queen with the par- 
ticulars of it and the enclosed letters ; that from Scotland diverted 
her, though we could but guess at "a" and "F." 

The Duke of Queensberry has promised to go down and give 
his best assistance, but I am so prepared to expect that all will 
signify nothing, that if anything should go well there it would be 
a great surprise. 

While Ogilvy is in so good a mood you will please to consider 
whether he is most like to be serviceable to the Queen there, or 
here, or at Kotterdam or at Hamburgh. If Hughetan can make 
good what he says we ought to make him very welcome, but I 
doubt this wind will not let him come ; but it must bring us news 
from sea of one kind or other. 

Mr. Secretary Hedges will tell you the Queen's pleasure, for 
what you are to lay before the Lords of the Committee to-morrow 
about my Lord Sunderland's being directed to speak to the 
Pensioner that Monsieur d'Almeto may be instructed to join with 
him in speaking a little more strongly, if there be occasion, at 
the Imperial Court ; the whole to be guided by my Lord Marl- 
borough, whom my Lord Sunderland will please to desire that he 
would give him a letter to Count Zinzendorf. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1705, June 27. — The letters yesterday from Lisbon show so 
much disorder and confusion there, as seems to make a necessity 
of some present remedy. The only one I can think of like to 
have any effect is to insist with Portugal that the General of the 
allies may have the chief command, at least of one body of their 
army, against autumn, and let the M[arquis] das IMinas act with 
the other. If Holland will join heartily and speedily with as in 
this representation, I should hope to obtain the point from the 
Court of Portugal. 


Lord Godolphin to Bobert Harley. 

1705, July 4. Windsor. — With the other letters you did me 
the favour to send me I return you also Hughetan's paper, which 
is very material and has an air of being sincere ; besides that 
Mr. Secretary Hedges' French letters of this post give a great 
confirmation of the facts mentioned in his paper, and also of the 
consequences of them. 

I wish therefore you would give him the encouragement of 
speaking kindly to him before I come to town, which will not be till 
Tuesday. Perhaps it may be necessary to consult Mr. Attorney 
[Nor they] , how far it is in the Queen's power to do what he 
desires in the paragraphs where I have drawn strokes under the 
lines of his paper. I am in doubt also whether they will be very 
willing in Holland to agree to what he proposes in the paragraph 
which I have marked in the margin. 

Prince Eugene having passed the Oglio, I don't see how the 
French can without fighting hinder him from entering into the 
Milanese ; and I find by Mr. Hill's letters the Duke of Savoy is 
much heartened from that expectation. 

I received yesterday a letter from the Duke of Argyll, which 
though it takes no notice of the particular mentioned in Greg's 
letter, yet all he says there is I doubt but too great a confirmation 
of the Duke of Hamilton's superiority. I enclose the letter. 

The Same to the Same. 

1705, July 14. Windsor. — Col. Durell, just arrived here from 
the Duke of Marlborough, brings the good news of his having 
forced the enemy's lines, beaten a good part of the French army, 
and taken prisoners two lieutenant-generals and several other 
officers of distinction, with their cannon, &c. 

The Queen would have the guns fired if there has been no 
order given for it already. This success is a great blessing and 
an earnest of more, for it will not stop here. 

[Egbert Harley to Lord Godolphin.] 

1705, July 21. Saturday. — I am justly conscious to myself 
that the utmost service I can perform to her Majesty falls infinitely 
short of what the Queen deserves, nor can it bear any proportion 
to the reverence and affection I have for your Lordship and the 
Duke of Marlborough, by whose indulgence and too kind recom- 
mendation I have those marks I now enjoy of the Queen's favour ; 
and as I cannot be without fear lest her service should sufier in 
my hand, so I shall always have a concern that I may not do 
anything unworthy of your favour. I hope therefore your 
Lordship will not think it impertinent if I take advantage of an 
expression which dropped yesterday at dinner to open my soul to 
you. The Queen I serve with my whole heart ; and to the Duke 
of Marlborough I have those obligations only as has an English 
gentleman for the great things we enjoy by his valour and 
conduct that there will be no room left for me to do more 


than remember his private favours to myself which I shall entail 
as the heirloom of my family. And as to yourself, my Lord, the 
seven years that I have enjoyed your protection and (will you 
permit me to say ?) valued myself upon your friendship, have 
united my very soul to you that I cannot allow a thought 
disagreeable to you. I have no other views, no other passions, 
than to be subservient to your Lordship, if I go astray it shall be 
only for want of your direction. I confess I am too apt to tell 
my own opinion, but then with good reason I suspect myself so 
much that I double my diligence to bring about what is better , 
designed by others. Not to trouble your Lordship with many 
words. I know my own heart, and I can die a martyr for what 
I have written, and that nothing can tear me from being &c. 
Draft in Harlcys hand witJi many alterations. 

[Loud Godolphin to Eobert Harley.] 

1705, July 30. — I have spoken to the Queen that you may 
have those rooms Sir John Stanley showed us in my Lord 
Chamberlain's lodgings till your own office can be made con- 
venient for you. 

I spoke to her also to make Mr. Fleming a baronet, and at the 
same time for one Mr. Miller of Sussex at the request of my 
Lord Scarbrough. If you have any occasion to see the Queen 
before I see you, upon your putting her in mind of these things, 
I believe she will give her order in them all. She will send you 
before twelve at night a letter to the King of Spain, which I 
suppose you must now enclose to my Lord Peterborough. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1705, September 2. — I did not trouble the Queen with the 
presentment of the Grand Jury [on the pamphlet " The 
Memorial of the Church of England,"] nor I hope the " Gazette " 
shall not be troubled with it. Whether it be proper to print it by 
itself or not, I submit to better judgments ; for my own part I 
must own I have neither skill nor taste in anything of that kind, 
only I observe when the Government is remiss upon such occa- 
sions, it is called negligence, and when it is careful, the effect of 
that care is imputed to particular industry. 

I doubt it is not a sign of any good news when we are so long 
without the packets, though the wind has been southerly enough 
to have brought them over, so I hope you will examine your 
messenger pretty stiictly upon that point when he comes. 

B}^ my Lord Peterl^orough's letter he seems to have so much 
more mind to carry the lieet and forces to Italy, than to Cata- 
lonia, that I am apprehensive a very little discouragement will 
serve to make them quit that design. 

The Queen intends to dine Tuesday at the Duke of Bolton's and 
to return to Windsor, Saturday. 

Her Majesty's servants in Scotland desire an instruction to 
pass the two Acts for trade, with that for the Cess, in case the 
Treaty miscarry. 


[Lord Godolphin to Egbert Harley.] 

1705, September 3. Winchester. — I acquainted the Queen 
with what you have written to me about the burning of the 
" Memorial," and now I think people will be satisfied there needs 
no more to be done in that matter. 

I am sorry you meet with so many difficulties in the affair of 
Hannam, and especially from the directions left by Mr. Attorney 
General and Mr. Borrett's strictness in observing them. I doubt 
there is something not very right in that matter, but you are 
certainly right in following it as close as you can. 

I am very glad you design to speak fully and particularly to 
those Lords you mention ; in the meantime till I hear how that 
has passed I wish you would let me know what the ' ' unreason- 
able things" are which you expect will be insisted upon by them. 
I have had a great deal of opportunity of speaking with Mr. 
Smith here, and I find him very reasonable and very moderate. 

Poor Sir Charles Shugborough died here last night of an 
apoplexy. I am afraid we have a great loss of him this winter ; 
he was set to have done all the service he could, and I doubt we 
must count upon an ill man in his room. 

I have left off expecting the foreign letters. Mr. Aglionby, 
who was here yesterday, told me he stayed at the Brill forty days 
for a wind. 

[Egbert Harley to Lord Godolphin.] 

1705, September 4. — I have been disabled from speaking with 
Lord Somers and Lord Halifax, though I have attempted it, 
partly by want of health and partly by the coming in of the 
letters and the dispatching other business. 

I am heartily sorry for the death of Sir Ch. Shugburg, I am 
afraid the Queen's service will have a loss in him, for such men 
as he have a turn of doing for the advantage of the Queen's 
service more than twenty others. I hope each of these cross 
accidents will excite everybody to exert themselves to promote 
the Queen's service. I can only say for myself that I will 
sacrifice health, strength, and all I have in this cause ; and 
since your Lordship commands it I will expose my crude notions 
to your correction, as I shall always submit myself to your 

I take it for granted that no party in the House can carry it for 
themselves without the Queen's servants join with them ; 

That the foundation is, persons or parties are to come in to the 
Queen, and not the Queen to them; 

That the Queen hath chosen rightly which party she will 
take in. 

The embodying of gentlemen (country gentlemen I mean) 
against the Queen's service is what is to be avoided. Therefore 
things which another time may be reasonable in themselves may 
prove dangerous to be granted at this time, if they will shock 
more persons than they wdll gain. 


If persons who serve without reproach be turned out for not 
bemg of a party it will increase the jealousy that a party who 
have once been narrow spirited will be so again, and they will 
need all the assistance imaginable to keep them frqm running 
into their old error. 

If the gentlemen of England are made sensible that the Queen 
is the Head, and not a Party, everything will be easy, and the 
Queen will be courted and not a Party ; but if otherwise . 

As to the question of the Speaker the Queen loses the grace of 
it, if they who set him are not made sensible that the best service 
he can ever do the Queen is, by having his name used to carry 
that question, and his party ought not to think they have 
imposed him upon the Court, but take it as a grace that they 
have him from the Queen's influence. 

If your Lordship can pardon this, I shall not trouble you with 
the like again. 


1705, September 5. Winchester. — Upon reading the Duke of 
Marlborough's letters the Queen suspends all thoughts of Lord 
P[embroke]'s going to Holland till she comes to Windsor, and 
will expect to see him there. 

I must at the same [time] trouble you in a matter for which 
the Duke of Marlborough, in one of his letters to me, shows more 
concern and trouble than I have known him do on almost any 
other occasion. It is upon something being omitted to be printed 
in the London " Gazette " of the account sent over by Mr. 
Cardonnel, of what had passed upon his march to attack the 
French in their camp. 

He sent me the enclosed paper with the lines drawn under the 
writing as you will see them. I suppose those lines under which 
the strokes are drawn are what he complains are left out. I 
cannot charge my memory so as to remember particularly how 
this omission came to pass, but I beg you will recollect what you 
can of it, and endeavour to satisfy him in it, by Friday's post. 
As I remember his letter to the States was printed in French and 
English ; but this is not the first, though much the sorest, occasion 
of complaint about the " Gazette." 


Basse Wavre. Aug. 19, 1705, n.s. — Yesterday the army 
decamped at three in the morning from Fichermont, and 
having passed several defiles came through the Bois de 
Soignies into a spacious plain, with only the Ische 
between us and the enemy, whom we found according to 
expectation in their former camp between Neer Ische and 
Over Ische ; [about noon our army was formed in order 
of battle, and my Lord Duke of Marlborough having 
with M. Dauverkerque visited the posts they had resolved 
to attack were accordingly giving orders to the troops to 


advance, with a very fair prospect of success, but the 
Deputies of the States having consulted with their other 
generals would not give their consent so that it was given 
over] '-•' and the army encamped at Lane, from whence 
they marched this day to the camp of Basse Wavre. 

[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

[1705, September] 19. — I forgot to ask you last night if you 
had any opportunity of examining Sir J [ohn] B [arclay] 's son, 
and what account he gives himself of his coming over into 
England. I think the more public that matter is, the better 
effect it will have. 

I am not at ease about several things we have formerly talked 

The matter of the prosecuting in which Mr. Attorney [Northey] 
is pleased to be so indifferent or worse will come to be a sore 
thing. If you don't like Mr. Borrett, who I think was recom- 
mended at first by my Lord Chief Justice Trevor, pray let us 
have another. I wish, as you have seemed to do, that the 
Attorney would be a judge, but that matter can't hang long, no 
more than the disposing of the Great Seal, in which too much 
time has been already lost, in hope something might happen to 
make that matter more easy ; but the Parliament being now so 
near it would be trilling to let it continue as it is and, as far as I 
can judge where I am concerned, dangerous for me, but that is 
an argument which would not have much weight with me, if I 
thought it safe for the Queen. 

I have heard since I came to town of several insolences of the 
clergy, which are really insufferable and next door to open 
rebellion, and I don't find the least notice taken of it, or the 
least thought or disposition to reprehend any of them about it. 
If the Parliament be of the same mind we must submit to it, but 
if not, I hope they will ])e punished ; and whether the Parliament 
approve of all the noise that is fomented in the kingdom of the 
Church's danger is, in my humble opinion, the first thing that 
ought one way or other to be cleared upon their meeting. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to [Robert Harley.] 

1705, September 21, n.s. Augsbourg. — The chief occasion of 
my writing to you at present is to inform you that yesterday 
morning I was married to a widow lady I was acquainted 
with at Rome who, though an Italian, I am thoroughly 
persuaded will be not only a good wife but a good Protestant, 
she having to my knowledge made her change to our 
religion upon arguments well grounded as to the next 
world, as she entirely satisfied the Protestant minister who 
examined her before he would join us in marriage yesterday. 

* The portion in brackets is underlined in the document as having been omitted 
from the "Gazette " Further details of this matter will be found in Coxe's Life 
of Marlborough. 


However as to the sincerity of this act, time and her behaviour 
will be the best proof, and I wish people would be contented not 
to judge till they might do it upon grounds that were reasonable. 
I design in some days to remove towards Frankfort, and 
therefore desire you will direct your next for me thither in my 
own name, since probably I shall be there before your letters. 

[Lord Godolphin] to Secretary Harley. 

1705, September 27. Newmarket. — This is to acknowledge 
the favour of yours and at the request of my Lord Halifax to 
recommend to your protection the case of Sir G. Heathcote and 
tl>e Russia merchants. I cannot enter into the particulars 
because I am not informed of them so well as you, but I know 
you will do what is best for the trade. 

I am sorry Mr. Attorney will be easy in nothing, perhaps he 
will be of another mind when he finds it is no more in his power ; 
and I exi)ect then he should say it was never offered him. 

[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

1705, September 30. Newmarket. — I must be excused if I say 
nothing as to the Electoral Prince's patent, for I have not the 
the least insight into that matter ; but if you are in doubt, 1 think 
it would be right to consult my Lord Halifax. 

I have a letter from G. Granville about the government of 
Guernsey for his brother Sir B [evil] . Pray let him know that I 
know the Duke of Marlborough has been long engaged to his own 
brother, C. Churchill. 

I send you a letter I have received Mr. Pulteney [at 
Copenhagen]. I should think it right to oblige him; if the 
Queen pleases and it be not too late, why should not G. Granville 
have a mind to go abroad to one of those Northern Kings ? I 
think that it is the readiest way for him to be made easy at 

I shall contribute to your staying in the country as long as you 
desire, but you can't but see we shall have another repty from 
Mr. B , and you can't but think you will be wanted to 

answer the Holland letters as often as they come. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1705, October 4. Newmarket. — I am extremely much 
concerned for the shame and the ill consequences of our 
disappointment in Catalonia. I must beg the favour of you to 
thank M. Vrybergh for the communication of his letter, having 
too much to write to-day to be able to thank him myself. 

I reckon there must have been some unaccountable folly in 
that matter, and the orders mentioned could be none but the 
private instructions ; however the orders sent from Windsor by 
the Duke of Savoy's courier will be said to have occasioned what 
has been done, though in truth they were subsequent to it» 


By the Duke of Marlborough's letters, I believe he will yet 
j udge it necessary to go to Vienna, which, though best for the 
service of the allies in general, will yet make our particular still 
greater here at home. 

I hope the Duchess of Marlborough and the Duke of Newcastle 
between them will be able to convert Mr. Guydott. 

I know nothing of Brockett particularly, but his looks and his 
employment together make me apt to think we can't much rely 
upon him. 

I shall be Monday next at St. Albans. 

I hope Mr. St. John is better. 

[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

[1705, October 10 ?] — The news from Perpignan does not much 
alarm me, and if Prince Eugene can't stir till he has money I 
doubt he will be immovable a good w'hile. 

I have been at Kensington this evening. The Queen wdll have 
the Cabinet Council Friday morning at St. James's, and to-morrow 
in the evening at Kensington, before or after which, as will be 
most easy to you, I would be glad to read over the project, or plan 
as 'tis called, with you, that we may agree what answer to make 
upon it ; though in my humble opinion it is so partial and at the 
same time so weak that one must have a good deal of temper to 
treat it seriously. 

I find nobody that can resolve me whether the seals are to be 
given privately to the new Lord Keeper [Cowper] , or with the 
purse at Council when he is sworn. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1705, October 23. — I return your papers without reading for 
fear you might want them at the Cabinet Council which I under- 
stand is summoned to meet this morning, but I am obliged to 
attend my Lord Keeper to Westminster Hall ; as soon as that is 
over, I shall come. 

I doubt Mr. Bromley's partisans will not be so much dis- 
couraged by the guns they heard yesterday as they may justly 
be encouraged by the noise which the folly of our own friends 
makes every day in the week. I have heard a good deal of it 
this morning and I saw it before, but I was willing not to take 
any notice of it so long as it was possible to avoid it. 

If I have no opportunity of speaking to you this morning I 
will come to your office in the evening. It is necessary I should 
speak to you with Hughetan and settle that matter, that we may 
write to the Duke of Marlborough accordingly. Though I make 
no doubt but a vessel has been dispatched with the particulars 
of what has passed at Barcelona, yet these winds may hinder us 
from hearing them that way for some time. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1705 [October 25]. — Now the hurry and the anxiety of this 
day is a little over, I must beg leave to put you in mind that the 


draught of the Speech must not be brought to-morro^Y to the 
Cabinet Council in my hand ; and besides the amendment you 
may have made in it there are some which upon reflection I 
think myself are proper to be made. 

I don't know whether it will be easy to you, to let me come to 
you anywhere to-night ; but if not, I shall be at home to-morrow 
morning till the Cabinet Council, or that may be deferred till the 
evening, if there shall be occasion. 

The majority of this day has not been so great but that it will 
concern the Court, not to be either negligent or imprudent ; any 
false step will easily spoil this session. 

I am sorry so many of our friends have played the fool, but 
unless we have a mind to do so too, it must not be resented. 

H. St. John to Secretary Harley. 

1705, October 26. Whitehall. — You was in haste when I saw 
you this morning, otherwise I would have spoke to you about 
what I write to you now. You may remember. Dear Master, that 
some time ago I complained to you that whilst the care of the 
forces abroad was in other hands, and Mr. Clark, as secretary to 
his Koyal Highness concerned himself with those at home, I 
could not think myself very well used. It was this consideration 
that made me write to my Lord Treasurer, as soon as I heard 
the " Brimmer " was out to desire that I might, if he thought 
it proper, succeed to his business, exclusive of what is to be done 
with the Council of the Lord High Admiral. If my Lord thinks 
it improper, or more for her Majesty's service to employ another, 
I am easy. I tell you what I have done and upon what grounds 
I did it, for you have been so kind in millions of instances to me 
that I really look on myself as accountable to you for all my 
actions. The only thing that made me hesitate was, that I 
should be vexed to be thought greedy after profit, which I 
despise with all my heart, and serve the Queen on a much 
better principle. All I can say on this head is, that I will 
promise to make less of both places than the two gentlemen 
that had them made of each ; and that as I design to make no 
fortune so I will spend in the Queen's service whatever I get in 
it. There are some iniquities which do make a noise, that if I 
do not begin l)y destroying I will forfeit my character with you 
for ever very willingly. 

If you approve what I have done I know your friendship for 
me and I depend on it ; if I have been unreasonable I shall 
submit to your correction as becomes one who truly values and 
ever must be faithfully and entirely yours. 

[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

1705, December 8. — I should not trouble you so perpetually, 
but that the time is short and we have much to do. The Land 
Tax and the Scots' bill ought to pass before Christmas, and by 


the printed votes which I read sometimes there seems to be 
foundation laid for otherways employinj^ some of the few days 
betwixt this and that time. 

I am alarmed also with being informed by some of the, Scots, 
as if you were not for repealing but only suspending the Scots' 
Act ; but I can't believe this, because I know how industrious 
people are to spread falsities, and because it is too plain that a 
bare suspension of that Act only makes it not possible for the 
Scots to treat, but leaves the failure at the door of England. 

I want to speak with you also about some foreign affairs, and 
should be glad if you could call upon me to-morrow l)etween five 
and six in the evening. 

[Lord Godolphin to Eobeet Harley.] 

1705-6, February. — I thank you for yours last night and 3^our 
kind enquiry after my health, which I thank God begins to 
mend. I have been abroad in my coach this noon to take the 

I return you the enclosed ; if the sickness mentioned in it has 
been a real one, might it not be of use to discover the person ? 

The report you take notice of from Holland of our being weary 
of Gibraltar has probably been occasioned by our asking them to 
bear their part of the expense of it, which is a demand that I 
think ought to be frequently repeated to them. As weary as the 
Dutch are of the Spanish war, I believe they would not be more 
easy at our taking oft' the prohi])ition of commerce with Spain, 
than our people are at their opening the trade with France, and 
therefore I cannot but wish that matter might be considered in the 
House of Commons, for the more I think and talk of it, the more 
I am confirmed that it may prove an expedient very useful at 
this time. 

H. St. John to Secretary Harley. 

1706, April 29. Whitehall. — Upon enquiry into the matters 
alleged against MacMahone, the deputy Marshal of the Savoy, 
and Murphy his clerk, of their being Irish papists, I am informed 
that they were both born in Ireland, that their relations are Irish 
papists or reputed so, and that their conversation is chiefly with 
such ; as also that MacMahone did serve as a trooper in Flanders, 
but being suspected to be a papist was dismissed the service. So 
that there is reason to believe that what is alleged against them 
in that respect is true. But as to the complaints of their ill 
usage of the prisoners in the Savoy, there being no mention made 
of any particular instance thereof, I have not been able to make 
any enquiry thereinto. 

I will give directions for the discharge of these persons unless 
I hear to the contrary from you. 

[The last parac/raph only in St, John's handwriting. ~^ 


[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

[1706, May.] — By the discourse I had with you just now at 
Kensington, I am sorry to be forced to put you in mind that you 
never take any tolerable care of your own health. 

I return the copy of M. de Villeroy's letter to you, because it is 
such a rarity that I think it ought to be kept in the Paper Office.''-' 

Should not the letters of those persons mentioned by Montargis 
be opened ? 

As to L'Apostre — there is one of that name who lives in the 
city, a nouveau converii he pretended to be. He came into 
England since the Queen's coming to the Crown, he has brought 
me projects relating to the West Indies, and appeared to me 
always very sufficient and very impudent. I never was without 
some suspicion of his being a spy. 

The Duke of Marlborough to [Robert Harley]. 

1706, May 6. — As all truths may not be proper to be in the 
" Gazette," I desire the favour of you that during this campaign 
when I send in your letter as I now do a paper of news, you will 
let it be inserted in the " Postman," and what is to be in the 
" Gazette" Mr. Cardonel will send it to the office as formerly. 

Postscript. — I shall depend on your friendship and judgment 
to leave out what you may think improper. 

The Earl of Rochester to [Earl Rivers]. 

1706, June 2. New Park. — Recommending Major Keymis to 
his protection, who was in Ireland when the writer was Lord 
Lieutenant of that kingdom, was in the first service in Portugal 
and there made prisoner with his whole regiment. He was of a 
very good family in Wales, and had raised a great many very 
good men for the Queen's and the public service. 

[Lord Godolphin] to Robert Harley. 

[1706,] June 8. — The last advices from France say the fleet 
was disarming at Toulon, and if that be true, as seems probable, 
why might not the squadron with Sir John Leak be divided, and 
25 or 30 sail sent to the coast of Italy, which might have an 

* Harley, however, appears to have kept the paper in his own hands, for annexed 
to this is copy of a letter from Villeroy to Marshal de Tallard (then a prisoner at 
Nottingham;, dated 25 May. 170G. which runs: — " Votre fils a etc pris Monsieur, 
dans une action que nons avons eu avec les ennemis le 23 dont vous entendrez 
parler. II est en bon sante. J'envoyai d'abord un trompette pour le reclamer, 
J'espere que M. d'Auverquerk me le renvoyera aujourdhui." 

An extract from a letter of Montargis tq the Chevalier de Croissy at Nottingham 
is also annexed, which will help to explain the succeeding paragraphs of Godolphin's 
letter. It runs: — "Si vous avez besoin de quelque correspondence a Londres, 
vous pourriez vous adresser au Sieur Salvador, ou a Madlle. Anne Maubert ou au 
Sieur L'Apostre. auxquels j'ordonnerai ce qu'il vous plaitoit. A Bruxelles M. 
Bombarde. Tresorier de M. I'Electeur. et a Amsterdam M, Daniel Flournois, ou M. 
Andre Petz en feront de m6me." The letter was written from Paris, 23 April, 1700. 

6802 F 


effect to make Naples declare immediately, and be a great assist- 
ance to Prince Eugene ; and the other part be still sufficient to 
assist and countenance any designs of King Charles the third 
upon the coast of Spain, and even upon Cadiz itself, in case 
there should be occasion of making an attempt upon that place 
and an opportunity of doing it ; and if we should, in great 
wisdom and security, keep our whole fleet together all this 
summer in the Mediterranean, I don't see that it is capable of 
doing any service that may not be as well performed by 
half of it. 

If there be anything in this thought worth your reflection, you 
will come the better prepared for it to-morrow to Windsor, where 
I imagine it will be proper to consider what instructions Sir J. 
Leak has at present. 

The Duke of Marlborough to [Robert Harley]. 

1706, July 8 [June 27, o.s.] — I thank you for what you mention 
of the letters, and the care you are taking to find out the authors, 
I should be glad to know them, though as long as God blesses us 
with success their writing can have little weight. It may well be 
expected in so great a crowd to find some people who are never 
satisfied. I am impatient of having your thoughts upon the 
methods for the making the Queen's business go easy in the 
winter. I am very glad you are so well pleased with Lord Keeper, 
I am sure it is my hearty desire that the Queen should encourage 
every body that serves her well ; what you desire for him can be 
no ways uneasy, but the engagement her Majesty may be under, 
but you and Lord Treasurer are the best judges as to the 

I have given Prince Eugene notice of the fleets being ordered 
on the coast of Italy. I think Mr. Cresset a very honest man, 
but would not his going to the Court of Hanover give more 
jealousy than the thing is worth? You know I have no partiality 
for Prince Lewis of Baden, but what Monsieur Vriberg told you 
is impossible. I should trouble you oftener with my own hand, 
but I am sure what ever I write to Lord Treasurer is no secret to 

If you send me the copies of the letters you have from the 
army, I should be glad to see them. 

[Addressed " To Your self " ; and endorsed by Harley as "received 
on July 3 " [o.s.]. ] 

The Duke of Marlborough " for Your self " [Robert Harley]. 

1706, July [1-] 12. — I am obliged to you for your friendly care, 
and I will have Major Cranston observed, and should be glad to 
have a copy of the letter concerning Ramillies, and if possible to 
be certain of the author. I know not well how to answer your 
demand of Prince Lewis, other than that I am afraid nothing will 
be done and yet I can see no remedy for it. I am told the 
Observator is angry with me, 


The Duke of Marlborough "to Your self" [Robert Harley]. 

1706, July [8-] 19. — I must beg your friendship in letting me 
have the necessary powers for my security, as to the two points 
you will see in Lord Treasurer's letter. And pray let me have 
a copy of the letter that speaks of Ramillies, and the reason 
you have to believe it Major Cranston's, for he has obligations 
to me. 

The Duke of Marlborough "to Your self" [Robert Harley]. 

1706, July 15-26. — What her Majesty has done to Mr. Csesar 
is very right ; if Sir George Rook has refused to sign the Kentish 
address, should he continue in the council? I am glad the Queen 
has ordered Earle to go with the descent, and if Shrimton be 
not designed to return immediately to Gibraltar, I should think 
it might be for the service to send him, for Lord Rivers can't 
have too many officers. I expect your thoughts upon the winter 

[Lord Godolphin] to Secretary Harley. 

1706, July 20. Windsor. — I am sorry, as much as you seem also 
to be, that the Imperial Court will do nothing at our request in 
relation to Hungary and the Rhine, at the same time that we are 
doing so much for them in Italy, Spain and Flanders. I think 
this ought to be put home to them not only by Mr. Stepney, who 
I doubt is not very well heard at Vienna, but also to the Comte 
de Gallas here. If I may use such an expression the Emperor 
owes it the Allies to repair in some measure the unaccountable 
and scandalous conduct of Prince L[ewis] of Baden. 

The expectation of the Queen's coming to town upon Monday 
will, I take for granted, hinder most of the Lords from being here 
to-morrow, though there seems to be as much business, and as 
little uneasiness in the journey, as there has been any Sunday in 
this year. 

The news of this post is generally so good that I conclude all 
the Foreign ministers will be here ; and though your Amsterdam 
letter may possibly give a right account of Biscay and Navarre, 
I am sanguine enough to believe both Seville and Cadiz have 
declared, which will determine all the rest. 

The Admiralty are not so lively and vigilant as they ought to 
to be; I see it every day upon twenty occasions, but yet I don't see 
how at present it is to be mended. 

I find you don't think my poor Lady Huntingdon punished 
enough yet. 

Since I had written thus far I have waited upon the Queen, 
who had been abroad early a hunting. I find her Majesty is 
desirous the Lords should be summoned to-morrow, several 
things requiring to be dispatched sooner than Tuesday, all indeed 
that relate to the expedition, the troops being all embarked at 
Ostend and the weather fair, though not the wind, 


The Queen's Instructions to Earl Rivers. 

1706, July 21. Windsor. — Having been given command of 
the forces to be employed in the present expedition against the 
enemy, Lord Rivers is instructed to repair forthwith to Spithead 
and embark the troops, then to proceed with them to the coast of 
France and to land them at such place as he shall find best for 
the service. When landed, at a seasonable time he is to publish 
the declaration which has been printed in the French language, 
in order to facilitate his success ; and he is required to take all 
possible care that the declaration be punctually observed, and the 
severest punishments inflicted on all persons who shall offend 
contrary to it. Lord Rivers is moreover empowered to issue such 
other declarations or manifestos from time to time as he shall 
judge may conduce to the furtherance of this service, taking care to 
give assurances to the people and to make it public that his design 
is not for conquest but to restore to all sorts of people their ancient 
rights and privileges ; and that no peace will be hearkened to till 
the same are secured to them on a good and lasting foundation. 

From time to time Lord Rivers is to consider and concert 
measures with Bir Cloudesley Shovell, or the commander in chief 
of the fleet attending this expedition, for the better co-operating 
with him in making any attempt on the enemy where the fleet 
can be of use for carrying it on. 

He is also empowered to treat and agree with any of the 
French nation to come in and join with him, is to give them 
assurances thr.t he is not come only to make a diversion but to 
fix himself with them till such time as they may be secured of their 
just rights and privileges, &c. 

He is to give an account of all his proceedings in this expedi- 
tion to one of the principal Secretaries of State, and to follow 
such other instructions as he shall receive from either of them. 
If he shall find insuperable difficulties in attempting to land on 
the coast of France, or in taking post there, he is to repair to 
Jersey or Guernsey, and expect further orders. Sign Manual. 

Sir Charles Hedges, Secretary of State, to Earl Rivers. 

1706, July 22. Whitehall. — Her Majesty, having received 
advice that the Dutch troops began to embark at Ostend on the 
14th inst., and that they will be at Spithead so soon as the wind 
serves, commands him to forward the above " Instructions to 
Richard Earl Rivers, commander-in-chief of our Land forces 
employed in the present expedition," dated at Windsor July 21, 
and signed by the Queen. 

Lord Godolphin to Secretary Harley. 

1706, July 26. Windsor. — I received the favour of yours last 
night with the ill news of poor Mr. Methuen's death, very 
unseasonable I doubt for the Queen's service in those parts. 

Her Majesty approves the sending for his son to Portugal, and 
appointing Mr. Chetwynd in his room, but not of sending any 
credentials at present to my Lord Galway. 


Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough to [Robert Harley]. 

1706, July 26. Windsor Castle. — A very odd accident has 
happened to me that makes it reasonable for me to see the letters 
that come from a servant of my Lord Marlborough's to one that 
lives with me, and hers to him. Their name is Forster, and I 
expect she will write one to him this post. I don't mean to give 
anybody the trouble to copy them, as it has been upon things of 
more consequence, I desire their original letters. It is no matter 
if their correspondence should fail for a post or two, and I shall 
make no ceremony after the provocation I have had to open their 
letters, and burn them without letting them know anything of 
the matter. I beg your pardon for this trouble. 

The Earl of Rochester to [Earl Rivers] . 

1706, July 27. New Park.— Wishing his " Excellency" all 
happiness in his expedition, both upon the public account and 
his own, and that he may have success and honour in it. 

H. St. John to Secretary Harley. 

1706, July 27. Portsmouth. — I have sent an express to 
Windsor, my Lord Rivers and Mr. Erie thinking I can be of 
more use here than I think myself anywhere ; and shall not see 
you till Tuesday at soonest in London. I have writ to my Lord 
Treasurer an account of what passed on board Sir Cloudesley's 
this day. He, my Lord Rivers, and Mr. Erie have no concern 
but the fear of not doing what may in some measure be of a 
piece with the other enterprises of her Majesty's reign, and 
therefore propose attempting the Groyne, if they cannot fix 
themselves in France nor hope to winter there. 

I forgot to mention to my Lord Treasurer that I find Seymour 
and Withers to be elder Majors-General than Lord Essex, and 
believe others to be so too, though the register has been formerly 
so ill kept in my office that the ranks of the army are hard to be 
found. I have therefore told my Lord Rivers that it is impossible 
to declare my Lord a Lieutenant- General ; he is, I find, uneasy, 
though unreasonably, at it, and urges that if Erie and he should 
])e killed or die Guiscard will command. You easily see how 
frivolous this is, but however, if the Queen shall please to be so 
indulgent, I send the draught of an order that signifies nothing 
and yet will make the new peers perfectly easy. 

I have received all the manifestos from London and put them 
into Lord Rivers's hands. 

I will not trouble you with particular accounts of our embarka- 
tion, in general we want nothing but the Dutch and an easterly 

Sir Charles Hedges to Henry St. John. 

1706, July 28. Windsor.— Having written to Sir CI. Shovell 
upon the proposals you mention in yours of the 27th inst., in 
which Lord Rivers and General Erie agree if her Majesty 


approves, I shall not trouble you on that subject but only to 
acquaint you her Majesty does not think fit to lead them from 
the main design by any alternative instruction. 

Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough to [Robert Harley]. 

[1706,] July 30. Windsor Castle. — I am satisfied there can 
never anything pass between this brother and sister that is 
worth giving you any further trouble. If you will pardon what 
I have done I shall be very thankful. 

Postscript. — The great packet to Mr. Forster is the same hand 
as that I had before with the prints ; without reading his letters 
one may see his impertinence, to have two packets of prints every 
week, when I suppose the same is to be had wherever he goes. 

Sir Charles Hedges to Earl Rivers. 

1706, August 1. Whitehall. — Mr. St. John having communi- 
cated a letter signed by your Excellency and Lieut. -General Erie 
wherein you say you were under some apprehension you were 
misunderstood, because an expression in my letter seemed to look 
as if you had thoughts of altering the first design, I am 
commanded to acquaint you her Majesty did not apprehend you 
had any thoughts of proceeding otherwise than was at first 
designed, but lest any other view should slacken the proceedings 
the Queen did not think fit to give any other orders. 

The Duke of Marlborough "to Your self" [Robert Harley] . 

1706, August 5 [n.s.] — If you could let me have a sight of the 
original letter of Ramillies I could then be sure of knowing the 
author, having in my custody an original letter of the major's. 
Mr. Craggs will give you the names of the Deputy Lieutenants of 
Oxfordshire. I thank you for the powers concerning Flanders, 
the other I have not yet received. The siege of Menin goes on 
very slowly, and I am afraid that some of our friends have a 
peace more at heart, than the carrying the war on with vigour. 

Queen Anne to [Robert Harley]. 

[1706,] August 6. Windsor. — " I have reason to beleeve Mr. 
St. Johns will be desired to be heare Friday or Saturday, which 
is the occasion of my giveing you this trouble to desire you would 
speak with him before he coms, and take care to order it soe with 
him, in case there should be any more horse thought necessary 
to be sent for out of Ireland, that the regiment may not be men- 
tioned that I hindred from being ordered before, which will very 
much oblidg 

Your very affectionett freind, 

Anne R." 

Postscript. — " I desire that you will take care that Mr. St. Johns 
may not think you know of his being to be heare soe soon as I 
have mentioned, that he may not suspect what you say to him 
about the Regiment coms from me." 


Saeah, Duchess of Marlborough to Robert Harley. 

1706, August 8. Thursday. — I received a letter from Lord 
Marlborough last post in which he says it is so disagreeable a 
thing to keep a spy about one, that he bids me order a servant to 
watch him, and intercept his letters, and if I find it as I imagine, 
that I should put him away. This is the occasion of my giving 
you this new trouble, to desire you would please to order that any 
letters that come to the Post Office from Windsor, directed in the 
hand of this receipt, should be stopped, and returned to me, or 
any letters directed to David Foulks, which is the name of this 
suspected person. 

You have expressed so much goodness to me upon several 
occasions that I venture to take this liberty, though I know it is 
impertinent, because I fancy you may have some servant that 
may do it without much trouble to you, and the way my Lord 
Marlborough directs I believe would not prove so effectual as this, 
for besides the difficulty of servants keeping a secret that live 
together, I have observed that they don't care to discover the 
greatest villany in the world, unless it be something that hurts 

Postscript. — I thought the best way of getting my spy's hand 
was to make him write the enclosed receipt. 

Sir R[oger] Bradshaigh to [Earl Rivers]. 

1706, August 8. — I was this afternoon with Lady Betty [Savage] 
and told her what I heard reported, which startled her very 
much, till I named the person I was told she had married, which 
when she found not to be the man seemed to make a jest of it, 
and notwithstanding all I could say to her, I could not get any- 
thing from her to convince me there was no grounds for such a 
report. But at last I have got the secret out, and which, I am 
sorry to tell your Lordship, is that she is married to my Lord 
Barrymore, and that as long since as in June ; the particulars 
are too tedious at present for me to send you, nor am I thoroughly 
informed of them, but in a day or two will give your Lordship 
a more perfect account, but must beg your Lordship will not 
take notice of it by the return of this post for some reasons you 
shall know hereafter, nor that I send you this account, but I 
could not forbear letting you know a thing that so much concerns 
you, and I am sorry to find those who should have sent you this 
account before now have kept it so long a secret ; there was my 
Lord of Kerry and Mrs. Scrimshaw present at the wedding, and 
now there is a consultation on foot whether they shall own it, 
and my Lady Elizabeth Savage to leave her behind with her 
Lord. I shall be sent for I am told to consult what is to be done 
in regard to letting your Lordship know it as soon as it is resolved 
whether I am to be trusted with the secret, which I believe will 
not be long. So since what you had from the Doctor was not 
groundless, I only at present beg you will take no notice of this 
till you hear further from me, for a particular friend of mine 
will take it ill. 


Brigadier J. Baynes to [Earl Rivers]. 

1706, August 11. Petersfield. — Yesterday morning I left 
London by my Lady Elizabeth Savage's commands, that if I could 
possibly reach your Lordship before you were sailed away I 
should deliver these enclosed letters to your Excellency, but 
finding that the fleet was gone, I thought fit to send them after. 
Her Ladyship and Lady Betty both were very desirous I should 
see your Lordship and so was I myself, but was so unfortunate 
not to be able to get time enough ; their Ladyships being under 
a great concern about your Excellency's reception of the news 
you receive in the letters. On Friday night I was at my Lady 
Elizabeth's house where I found my Lord Barrymore and Sir 
Roger Bradshaigh, and by his Lordship's desire, he obtained leave 
of both the ladies to come down to submit himself to your Lord- 
ship's favour in order to beg your forgiveness for what has been 
done without your Lordship's knowledge. 

My Lord Barrymore, who was extremely desirous of being 
admitted to your Lordship's presence, came hither on purpose 
and in hopes thereof with the advice of my Lady Elizabeth with 
all the submission to your Lordship, only by his future behaviour 
to your Lordship and his Lady expecting your Lordship's recon- 
ciliation and favour, whioh he desires me to acquaint your 
Lordship with. 

Sir Roger Bradshaigh to Earl Rivers. 

1706, August 12. — I sent your Lordship a letter by Brigadier 
"Beans " last Saturday, but I believe the fleet was sailed before he 
got to Portsmouth. He was desired by my Lady Elizabeth and 
Lady Betty to wait on you, what particular instructions he had 
from them I was not privy to, though I was with them that night 
and desired to say as much as I could to your Lordship to miti- 
gate so great a crime as Lady Betty has been guilty of. I hope 
you will excuse my presumption in concerning myself so far, but 
I hope your Lordship will not let it give you too much uneasiness 
since it cannot now be remedied. My Lady Guise and myself 
have been very free with my Lady Elizabeth upon this occasion, 
and think you have been used with so little regard and indeed 
common gratitude that we cannot expect but you should resent it 
in the greatest degree ; however I hope as she is your Lordship's 
child she will be happy, but that seldom attends disobedience 
especially to so kind a parent which I shall always justify your 
Lordship in to the world, though I believe there are some would 
have it thought otherwise to give a colour to what has been done. 
My Lady Guise has writ this post to you and I am sure she is a 
hearty well wisher to your Lordship. 

Postscript. — I am told my Lord Barrymore has in present near 
1,500^. per annum, and I find he is generally well spoken of about 
the town and indeed seems more concerned for disobliging your 
Lordship than those who have been most active in this affair. 


The Duke of Marlborough '' to Your self " [Robert Harley] . 

1706, August 16 [n.s.] . — I am very impatient for what you 
promised me in your paper of the 23rd of the last month, being 
very sure you will do it impartially ; and I am very confident you 
are so kind and just to me as to be sure I shall make no other use 
of it, but that of making myself more capable to serve her 
Majesty and the public. 

La Mott mentioned in Mr. Henry Griffith's letter I do not 
know ; Limbec who is my steward has been with me all this war, 
and is a very honest man. The Duke of Vandome will have 
to-morrow assembled all his army not far from Lille, and has 
assured the governor of Menin that he will relieve the place by 
the 20th of this month. 

Sir Eoger Bradshaigh to Earl Rivers. 

1706, August 18. Dunstable. — As your Lordship had com- 
manded me in Mrs. Colleton's letter, I immediately went to Lady 
Betty and delivered the message, who told me she would send the 
letter your Lordship required to my house yesterday, but none 
having been left there or any further answer from her, I thought it 
my duty to let you know it, though perhaps it may be sent after 
me into the country, which as soon as I receive I shall send to 
Mrs. Colleton. 

My Lord Barrymore has taken a house in Great Russell Street 
where I found them last Friday, when I went for the letter. My 
Lady Elizabeth, Mrs. Paine and Mrs. Scrimshaw, were all above 
stairs with Lady Betty and Bridget " Beans" ; and Mr. Paine below 
with my Lord. I do not know in what favour I am with these 
ladies but they look very grave upon me and perhaps think I have 
talked a little too free of the late affair, but I am sure I have 
never said or writ anything to your Lordship to do them any 
prejudice ; but what I thought should not be a secret to you I 
took the liberty to acquaint you with, and shall always do the 
same where I ever hear anything so nearly concerns you. I shall 
see Mr. Yernon at Hulms Chapel next Thursday, where we shall 
talk over this matter and in the mean time I hope your Lordship 
will excuse a hasty letter after a dusty journey. 

Lord Godolphin to [Earl Rivers]. 

1706, August 18, Sunday night. Windsor. — I have the honour 
of your Lordship's letter from Torbay, whicli having been laid 
this evening before the Queen, with the result of your Council of 
War, her Majesty finding that the thing proposed, supposing it 
should succeed, could not have an effect in this year answerable to 
the great expense of this expedition and the expectation of the 
world from it, and considering on the other hand that the present 
posture of affairs in [Spain] might make it yet necessary to 
send more forces into that kingdom for the entire reducing 
of that kingdom, she has for this year wholly laid aside the 


thought of a descent in France, and determined to send you with 
the troops under your command to make a diversion upon the 
coast of Spain. 

Your instructions, I suppose, will be to go to the river of 
Seville, to land your troops as near as you can to that town, 
which is open and very rich, and when you have reduced it to the 
obedience of King Charles, to take the best measures you can for 
making yourself master of Cadiz, either by attacking it if you 
find any encouragement to that, or by keeping their subsistence 
from them, which will not be difficult when you are once 
possessed of Seville and the country about it. 

This proposition is thought more advisable than attempting 
any port in Biscay or Galicia, though more remote, because from 
that north part of Spain you could have no communication with 
the King in case he should be obliged to retire to Valentia or 
Arragon ; but from Andalusia upon occasion you might hear 
from one another and concert measures. 

This proi)osition is also thought much better than to send the 
troops to Lisbon, because it would be inexcusable to expose our- 
selves a second time to the humours of the Portuguese ; besides 
that this is a thing of very great eclat as well as of the greatest 

You can have no instructions at this time how to govern your- 
self in relation to the King of Spain, or in case he should desire 
you to join him, we having not any certainty of his present 

The long delays occasioned by the contrary winds having 
defeated the first design I hope you will have success enough in 
this to recompense you for that misfortune. 

Upon acquainting the States with the resolution we doubt of 
their concurrence, though we must not stay for their answer, but 
the French Refugies will I doubt be much disappointed, and their 
regiments so weak that it would be well if they could be made 
fewer and stronger, and kept on with the expectation of going into 
their own country another year. 

My humble service to my Lord Essex and tell him I have taken 
care of Sir Thomas Clark and Mr. Wallis. 

Sir Charles Hedges to Earl Rivers. 

1706, August 20. Windsor. — Her Majesty having taken a 
resolution to send the fleet with the troops on board under your 
command to the coast of Spain I hereby send you the instruc- 
tions she has thought fit to give your Excellency for that 
expedition, and am to acquaint you that her Majesty depends 
upon your proceeding accordingly without loss of time. It will 
be of great importance to keep your design as private as possible, 
for if it should take air perhaps you may find some opposition at 
your landing, whereas if you arrive before it is known you will 
have none at all. 

So soon as you are landed you will take all possible care to give 
speedy notice of it to the King of Spain and Earl of Gal way, and 


such others of the Queen's commanders as you shall thmk fit, 
and immediately enter into correspondence with them for the 
mutual assisting one another and the concerting such measures 
together as may most contribute to the success of her Majesty's 
arms and the establishment of King Charles. I send this by an 
express, and Col. Kichards will follow it to-morrow morning, 
who is to accompany your Excellency in this expedition 
and may be a proper person to be sent to the King of Portugal, 
being acquainted in the country and understanding what the 
Portuguese can do for your assistance. I should have sent the 
declaration printed in the Spanish language, but there was no 
time for it, and 'twas not thought fit to make any delay on that 
account, since perhaps you may have no occasion, or if you have 
there is a press on board for printing it or any other orders you 
shall judge necessary to be published. 

I shall send your Excellency a cypher for corresponding with 
the Earl of Galway as soon as it can be got ready. I wish you 
a good voyage and all possible success. 

Postscript. — I send your Excellency extracts of the late 
Ambassador Methuen's letters relating to an attempt upon Cadiz, 
not knowing but they may be of some use to you and particularly 
for concerting measures with the King of Portugal. 

Earl Eivers to Lord Treasurer Godolphin. 

1706, August 21. Torbay. — Her Majesty's commands signi- 
fied by your Lordship in your letter of the 18th from Windsor 
shall be cheerfully obeyed, and since the thoughts of a descent 
on France are laid aside for this year, mine shall be wholly 
employed how I may most effectually carry on the service (with 
the small number of troops I have under my command) where I 
am directed. 

In order to it I have already given directions for the buying 
up of hay and oats to make good the stores already spent, but 
I find upon a strict examination that all our transports and store 
ships will not carry for above thirty-five days of hay and oats so 
that I have given order for the hiring of two ships at Topsham 
to put provisions of that kind into, the Admiral telling me that we 
must expect to be thirty days at least in our passage. 

I must beg leave to renew to your Lordship the instance I have 
already made relating to a further supply of money, the distance we 
are going to makes the reason still the stronger. I gave you an 
account that there is but one month's pay for the troops from the 
24th of this month and between 3 and 4,000/. left for contingencies, 
which will be lessened by this addition of hay and oats. If your 
Lordship, according to that proportion, would be pleased to send 
us two months' more and for contingencies in proportion we shall 
be able to subsist till your Lordship can send us a further supply, 
which Sir Cloudesley says may be done by the way of Lisbon 
and he will take care to send ships for it ; but this will take up 
some time, so that in my poor opinion we cannot be with less 
than what I mention in specie. 


I desire her Majesty's particular directions in relation to the five 
French regiments and Slonsieur Guiscard. There is but three 
hundred of them in all, I mean private men. I think the best 
way will be to put them in one regiment and give it Vimar 
with a double number of officers ; and for Guiscard his project 
being at an end he is of no use to me. I shall treat them 
at parting as I am directed what's necessary, for the number 
he has, which is upward of four hundred, are very good who 
I have put in an English brigade. If your Lordship thinks 
fitting I will take the whole clothing with me. Some of our 
English regiments are weak which maybe supplied by a detachment 
from Paston's regiment at Plymouth, I being informed by those 
that have seen them that there are five hundred good men in it. I 
beg your Lordship's speedy orders that I may take three hundred 
of them, which we can get on board with great ease. I hope your 
Lordship will send after us more ordnance stores; Lieut. -General 
Erie will send a particular what may be wanted. Mr. Onslow says 
he will pay for what hay and oats I shall buy here out of some 
money he has upon account of the Excise if your Lordship please 
to allow it ; then for what he lays out here he will have my hand 
for his voucher. I shall submit to her Majesty's pleasure and 
your commands in everything but being under the orders of my 
Lord Peterborough ; pardon me if I press you for an answer 
to this before we sail. 



1706, August 21. Windsor. — Your Lordship will have received 
the Queen's instructions for the expedition to Seville and Cadiz ; 
the first of these places is easy to be had, the second very difficult 
till you have the first, but after that I hope and believe you will 
soon be in possession of it. 

This bearer, Col. Eichards, who is a sensible ingenious man, 
has been particularly well acquainted with that place and will be 
able fully to explain to you the methods by which we hope it is 
to be gained, and the necessary steps in order to it. We have had a 
great deal of talk with him and I hope you will receive much 
satisfaction from the lights he seems to have in this affair. 
Besides that, having lately served both in Portugal, in Catalonia 
and Valentia, he can easily foresee all difficulties that you can 
meet with, and be as ready to suggest to you such remedies as 
they are capable of in that country. 

It seems to me absolutely necessary you should make what 
haste you can to Seville, that being the only place where you can 
get money for the subsistence of your forces, by drawing bills 
from thence upon the Paymaster in England ; and there is no 
doubt but you will find sufficient credit there, that being a 
place of the greatest riches and trade in Spain, which considera- 
tion will I hope incline them to assist you in reducing of Cadiz, 
and thereby restoring to them the commerce of the West Indies, 
of which they have had but little advantage since the French 


have had the government in Spain. Now our aim being chiefly 
to bring back that trade to its old channel it ought naturally to 
be a powerful motive to them to give all concurrence to this end. 
I ask your pardon for troubling you with so long letters. It is 
because I would not willingly omit anything for your information 
that may be of use for the expedition, in which I wish you all 

Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough to Secretary Harley. 

[1706 J August 21. St. James's. — The enclosed letter you did 
me the favour to send to Windsor is not from the servant I 
suspected, but from a foolish woman in another family, that is 
married to a footman of Lord Marlborough's. It is of so little 
consequence that I think I should not have troubled you with it 
again, but you are very good, and I hope will pardon me. 

[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

1706, August 23. Windsor. — I trouble you with the copy of 
an affidavit which I received yesterday in a letter from the 
Bishop of Norwich, though I know of no other use that can be 
made of it than to observe that favours to any men of that sort 
do not seem to be extremely well placed. But as to the words 
themselves which surely are no less than high treason if duly 
proved, yet not being informed of in so many months after the 
time of their being spoken, I doubt much whether they are 
questionable at all. 


The Information of Thomas Seaman, of Starston, Norfolk, 
yeoman, taken before Waller Bacon, esq., a justice of the 
peace, August 17, 1706, about some treasonable remarks 
made by Thomas Arrowsmith, rector of Starston, to the 
deponent when they were going together to Norwich on 
November 13 preceding. 

Lord Godolphin to [Earl Rivers] . 

1706, August 24, Saturday. Windsor. — I received last night 
your letter of the 21st, and have acquainted the Queen with the 
contents of it. Her Majesty approves your intentions concerning 
the French regiments. 

As for Monsieur de Guiscard, since it is by no fault of his that his 
project is laid aside, it seems not unreasonable that he should be 
at liberty to serve upon this expedition or not, as he shall incline 
to most ; but I shall be able to write more particularly to you 
upon this head after to-morrow, as also concerning the men you 
desire out of my Lord Paston's regiment. 

As for the money you desire to be sent you, all care shall be 
taken to give you credit upon the Paymaster at Lisbon by the 
next packet, and if there be any money in the hands of the 
receivers or collectors of the revenue near you, that will be 


persuaded to take the same methods offered l)y Mr. Onslow, they 
shall have notice that whatever money they furnish you with 
shall upon your Lordship's acquittance be looked upon as so 
much answered in London upon their account. I am afraid this 
will not amount to much, but, however, 'tis all the present hurry 
will admit of. 

Sir Charles Hedges to Earl Eivers. 

1706, August 25. Windsor. — Forwards certain papers and 
adds — The Lord Treasurer bid me acquaint you that he forgot to 
tell you that you should not be commanded by the Earl of 

The Duke of Marlborough " for Yourself " [Kobert Harley] . 

1706, August 26 [n.s.] — My Lord Eaby has acquainted me with 
your letter, as that came to his hands but yesterday, it is impossible 
for him to do other than take his leave at Berlin ; as to his going 
to Vienna, he insists on the same allowances Lord Sunderland 
had and that of being declared of the Council, which last can 
hardly be refused to any Ambassador that can desire it. You 
will consult Lord Treasurer in this ; Mr. Stepney has now eight 
pounds a day, and I am afraid you will find nobody of quality 
will go cheaper, his equipage being already made, and this 
commission is likely to last no longer than the war. I am of 
opinion you will not find a better choice, but in this, as in all 
things else, I submit to your better judgment. You have forgot to 
send me the copies of Cranston's letters. 

Earl Eivers to Lord Treasurer Godolphin. 

170G, August 27. — I have had the honour of your Lordship's 
of the 21st and shall obey your commands in every particular, 
which I had answered sooner but was in hopes before this to 
have had a return to a letter I writ you from hence of the same 
date. I writ so fully to you in relation to the subsistence of the 
army that I will mention that matter no further, not doubting 
your Lordship's care in it. 

I hope before I go I shall receive orders for the three hundred 
men from Plymouth. A weekly list that General Erie has sent to 
Mr. St. John will shew you how weak some of the regiments are, 
and what I am sorry to acquaint you with, that the men begin to 
grow sickly, which makes me press your Lordship to send us as 
soon as possible those regiments that were promised to be sent 
after us. If any difficulty should be found to procure transports 
for horses from Ireland, if you would send us the men with their 
their accoutrements and levy money, which will not amount to 
what the transport of the horses would come to, and which those 
that mount the horses left in Ireland must pay for, Colonel 
Eichards assures me w^e shall not fail getting them good horses 
in Andalusia. The reason why I urge this the more is because 


the five French regiments that if complete should have made 
the fourth part at least of what I have with me, are now not three 
hundred men besides officers, and there is little probability of 
recruiting them where we are to go. 

The English regiments I have with me in such a voyage must 
be supposed by death and sickness to decrease in their number. 
However, I resolve with what I have to push what I am ordered 
to the utmost of n\y power. 

As soon as Colonel Eichards came I sent him to Plymouth to 
avoid any suspicion upon his account where we are going. He is 
to join me from thence and I will take him into the same ship 
with me to consult with him on our passage, and I intend to advise 
with him on all occasions. 

M. Guiscard without taking any notice of me as I understand 
is gone to Exeter, which seems a little odd. I shall govern 
myself to him as I receive directions from your Lordship, 
though I cannot think him where I am now going of any use 
to me. 

Though the wind should come fair it will be impossible for us 
to sail till to-morrow or next day, for till then the horse 
provisions cannot all be put on board, and if I had not 
taken due measures for it as soon as we came hither but 
had stayed for Mr. Coleby it could not have been got ready this 
ten days. 

There is one Colonel Dampier, a French man that was recom- 
mended to me by Mr. Stanhope from the Hague, who pretended 
to go as a volunteer. He came from Holland with Brigadier Lisle 
Marre. I received him very civilly, but the Brigadier came to 
me and told me he believed him a dangerous intriguing man. I 
found that he writes often to the King of Prussia and the 
Electress of Hanover. Not knowing but he might keep other 
correspondence and reflecting what Lisle Marre had said made 
me order him back in some of the great ships that are parted 
froni us. This is to prepare your Lordship lest he should make 


The Duke of Marlborough " to Your self " [Robert Harley] . 

1706, [August 28-] September 7. — L did acquaint you from 
Dendermond of the surrender of that place. I now write to Lord 
Treasurer my thoughts as to the acquainting Monsieur Vriberg 
with the Queen's resolution of having Mr. Stepney at Brussels, 
as I am sure that Holland will not like his being there, they 
being so foolish as to affect everything that may make these 
people think that they have the absolute government of them ; 
when you have the Queen's commands, and have adjusted with 
Lord Treasurer, what is to be said to Monsieur Yriberg, I beg of 
you that you will give yourself the trouble of writing to Monsieur 
Buys, and my Lord Treasurer to the Pensionaire Heinsius, for 
fear that Yriberg should give it a wrong turn. I saw in a Dutch 
gazette that the English were forced back into Plymouth and the 
Dutch to Torbay, but I hope it is not true. 


The Duke OF Marlborough "to Yourself" [Robert Harley]. 

1706, August 30 [n.s.] .—I am very much obliged to you for the 
two copies you sent me in yours of the 9th. You may be sure they 
shall not be seen by anybody. That part in which he mentions 
Cadogan, he is very much in the wrong, for if those troops had 
not been brought back they must have been cut to pieces. The 
man you have named is certainly the author. 

If you will employ Captain Cowdal, he must be sent either to 
Italy or Spain, for we have here but one regiment which has not 
two hundred men hi it, and the two regiments on the Rhine are 
also very weak, so that his coming to me will be loss of time. 

Earl Rivers to Sir C. Hedges. 

1706, September 2. Torbay. — There is no part of her 
Majesty's instructions that I shall more willingly obey than what 
relates to the good order and discipline of her troops, not only 
in obedience to her royal commands but likewise for the credit of 
her -arms which heretofore have suffered so much from the w^ant 
of it. But I must needs take notice to 3^ou that there is some- 
thing wanting in my instructions which seems inconsistent wdth 
this extraordinary management of the Spaniards, for hitherto 
what means have been proposed to me, or what directions given 
how to carry the army baggage, the artillery, stores of war, and 
bread ? If it be expected that I exact the carriage thereof from 
the country which upon our landing shall render us their 
obedience, our friendship may seem to them too burdensome, 
and no ways comformable to the fair promises that shall be made 
them. But supposing that they do condescend to our demands, 
the next doubt is, whether wliat they promise may be depended 

Certainly I have been informed that in Portugal and elsewhere 
we have been disappointed by depending on the country in this 
important article, and God forbid that this expensive expedition 
should prove abortive for want of the necessary means to march. 
I say not this with a design of aggravating the public expense, 
for if the Spaniards will readily come into it, and that it is 
judged that what they promise may be relied upon, this article 
shall not cost her Majesty a farthing. In the mean time I hope 
that her Majesty will be pleased to give me some instructions 
hereabouts, and the necessary means to put them in execution. 

The same reflections are to be made as to the siege of 

[sic, Cadiz ?] , for whether it be a formal attack or blockade, great 
quantities of earth must be moved, and whoever does it, either 
Spaniard or soldier, must be. paid for it, and I have no fund 
nor indeed instructions thereabouts. 

The weakness of our horse is so great in comparison of the 
numbers which it is possible the enemy may oppose against us, 
that it may be judged necessary to mount some of our foot as has 
been practised in Catalonia, but for so doing I desire to have her 
Majesty's orders and instructions. 


And whereas my Lord Galway in his late manifesto did promise 
to all the King of Spain's subjects as well officers as soldiers, who 
out of a due sense of loyalty to King Charles should abandon the 
service of the Duke of Anjou, that they should enjoy the same 
posts or better, and enter immediately into present pay, pursuant 
to which divers regiments have been formed and paid by the 
Queen, of which there being not a word in my instructions, I 
desire that I may have the necessary orders thereabouts. 

I am likewise very credibly informed, that by reason of the 
extreme dearness of the forage in Spain, which for more than ten 
months in the year must be had out of the public magazines, so 
that the dragoon cannot subsist upon his pay, as her Majesty has 
been sufficiently informed by my Lords Galway and Peter- 
borough, I therefore hope that those under my command may be 
subsisted upon the same foot as those who serve in conjunction 
with the Portuguese, &c. 

I am informed that the irregular price of the Spanish money 
wherewith the troops in Catalonia have been paid has caused no 
little confusion and discontent, whereas in Portugal, that current 
money has been regulated at a certain price. I desire that the 
same method of a fixed price may be made with us to avoid the 
disorders which fractions and those variable pursuant to the 
irregular courses of exchange must occasion. 

Whereas it is possible (which however God Almighty avert it 
from us) that the King of Spain's person and her Majesty's 
troops which are with him may be reduced to such terms that 
nothing less than this fleet and this army could save them. The 
which it is not possible for me to know but from Portugal, and it 

may be not until we are engaged in the siege of , which 

it seems by my instructions is the only object of this present 

The Dutch troops upon this expedition do expect that we should 
supply them with ammunition as indeed they have been supplied 
in Catalonia. However I desire to have her Majesty's order for so 

Queen Anne to Secretary Harley. 

[1706,] September 2. — " I forgot when you weare heare to ask 
you whether you had writt to the Bishop of London about the 
French minister he recommended. I spoke with him myself 
when I was at Kensington, and he promised me to take care the 
book that is called my Life should not be printed, but I dare not 
trust to the Bishop in this matter, and therefore desire you 
would give yourself the trouble to enquire after this book, and 
take care it may not be printed, for it would vex me very much to 
have such a ridiculous thing as this is appear in the world. 

I suppose when you told me Lord Treasurer desired the horse 
and dragoons in Ireland should be sent into the north you only 
meant those that weare intended to be sent abroad, and I hope if 
any more should be thought necessary you will take care the 

6802 G 

regiment I am conserned for may not be ordered, and forgive my 
impertinence in troubling you soe often on this subject, since it 
is my consern for my friend that is the occasion of it. I am 

Your very affectionett freind 

Anne R." 
For Mr. Secretary Harley. 

Eael Rivers to Sir C. Hedges. 

1706, September 11. Torbay. — The Marquis de Guiscard and 
the other foreign officers being gone, I judged it proper to send 
for Mr. Richards from Plymouth, the winds being still out of 
the way. 

Upon deliberation on our present affairs, Sir C. Shovell, 
Lieut. -General Erie and Sir John Norrice being present, there 
appeared several powerful reasons to send Richards to Lisbon 
sooner than was designed. 

In the first place that he might bring away with him the 
King of Spain's envoy, Father Cien Fuegos, a Jesuit, a person 
entirely informed of the Spanish affairs and a native of Seville 
whose assistance in this present expedition is esteemed of the 
greatest importance. 

The want of money, which he must endeavour to bring along 
with him, as much as he can, and for so doing to procure the 
King of Portugal's leave. 

That if possible he may bring with him some pilots of Seville. 

That he may bring with him all the necessary advices that 
may any ways influence our affairs. 

And lastly that he may induce the King of Portugal to march 
some troops that way and particularly some horse. 

And it being judged that if he is only sent when we are past 
Faro, all or most of these expectations will be of no effect because 
they can never join us in time. Wherefore we have judged it 
necessary that I should write to the King of Portugal giving him 
an account of our design which at present can have less conse- 
quences considering that it is already communicated to the States 
of Holland and guessed at almost by everybody else. But in case 
her Majesty does not approve of this our resolution, you will be 
pleased to let me know by express her Majesty's further orders. 

Postscript. — The Colonel of the Artillery having made this 
additional demand of store of war which has been approved of by 

(sic) I hope that the Queen and Council will give the 

necessary orders to the Board of Ordnance thereabouts. 


The Duke of Marlborough to [Robert Harley] . 

1706, September [9-] 20. — I very much approve of the answer 
that is sent to Monsieur Buys, as they would also do, were they not 
cursed with the passion of jealousy. It is gone to so extravagant 
a length as that some fear the French may be brought to Loo, 
but I hope the honest party is much the greater, so that they will 


approve of a treaty for guaranteeing any future treaty of peace 
we may have with France, which must i3e our security, for there 
can be no relying on anything France shall promise. 

Lord Godolphin to Earl Kivers, Commander-in-Chief of 
Her Majesty's Forces in Torbay, Devon. 

1706, September 14. Windsor. — I have the honour of your 
Lordship's of the 10th and have also seen the letters you have 
written by the same post to Mr. Secretary Hedges, which will 
be laid before the Queen to-morrow for her Majesty's directions 
upon them. In the meantime I was unwilling to lose this post in 
acquainting you that I had received your letter, and that I shall 
do my best to send you credit at Lisbon as you desire. 

The reasons you give for sending Mr. Kichards as soon as 
possible to Portugal seem to be very well grounded, but perhaps 
it may be necessary he should have some latitude in the instruc- 
tions you give him and that he be ordered to make his application 
to the King of Portugal, according to the posture in which he 
shall find my Lord Galway upon his arrival at Lisbon ; for if 
my Lord Galway be in a condition and within any reach of 
assisting your enterprise with a body of horse, he has been 
written to these three weeks upon that subject, and informed of 
the design of your expedition that he might according turn his 
thoughts to every possibility of helping you in it ; but no certain 
directions or instructions upon this point can properly be sent you 
from hence at present because of the uncertainty we have long 
been in as to the state of the King of Spain's affairs since his 
joining the Portuguese army, the communication with Portugal 
being wholly interrupted, and even by the way of France the 
accounts we used to have fail us, there being now five posts due 
from Holland, which was scarce ever known at this time of year. 

As to the secret of your expedition, the sending away of the 
French officers has made it none, that you are not going to 
France but to Spain, but to what part of Spain, if it be guessed 
at, is not known even in Holland itself, much less in Portugal ; 
and the reason why the Queen was shy of having it known there 
till you were passed Faro was for fear of the importunity of the 
King of Portugal to have the troops landed there, and his 
uneasiness which would naturally follow upon his being refused. 

To this consideration may be added that perhaps the Portu- 
guese will not be very fond of having C [adiz ?] in our hands, 
because the consequence of that would be to transfer from Lisbon 
the expense made there upon account of the fleet, to that place. 

I do not mention these things to hinder you from sending 
away Richards immediately to Portugal, but to let you see it may 
be reasonable to give him some caution, not to apply to the King 
of Portugal for assistance till he has first learned how far my 
Lord Galway, that is to say the King's army, may be in a capacity 
to give it ; but these are only my own notions, you will receive 
the Queen's directions upon the subject of your letters, after 
to-morrow night, from the Secretaries of State. 


Robert Harlet to Earl Rivers. 

1706, September 15. Windsor Castle. — Both your Lordship's 
letters to Mr. Secretary Hedges, dated September 11, at Torbay 
were received the 13th inst., at night; and they having been 
laid before her Majesty, I am commanded (Mr. Secretary Hedges 
being gone into Wiltshire) to return your Lordship the following 
answers to all the particulars of your letter. 

Your Lordship begins with that part of your instructions 
which relates to the preserving good order and discipline, and the 
Queen is extremely pleased with the remarks you make upon it, it 
being agreeable to what her Majesty expected from your Lord- 
ship's zeal for her service and your own experience in military 
affairs, as well as from your good sense and regard to your own 
honour and that of the nation, and it is no ways to be doubted 
but you will have the assistance and compliance herein from all 
the general officers and others under your command. 

As to those points wherein you desire direction I will take them 
in the same order as they lie before me in your Lordship's 

1. Relates to the procuring of carriage for the artillery, bread 
and necessary baggage for the army. 

The answer to this is, that if you find the country so well 
inclined to you that you can have this done without money, so as 
it can be depended upon, it will be very well ; and in every 
instance your Lordship will be as saving of the public money as 
is consistent with the carrying on the service. Your Lordship is 
entrusted with power to expend money for this and other 
necessary services, and my Lord Treasurer hath taken care to 
furnish your Lordship with credit at Lisbon. 

And in case your Lordship succeeds in the first attempt upon 
Seville, you will readily find money amongst those merchants 
upon your Lordship's bills drawn upon England. 

2. The next point is that of paying labourers in case of a 
siege, &c. The answer to this is the same as the former, 
the case being parallel, and it is left to your Lordship's good 

3. As to your Lordship's mounting any of your foot, that 
also is left to your Lordship's judgment to act therein as you 
shall judge the good of the service requires. 

4. The instruction my Lord Galway had for forming troops 
out of such Spaniards as should embrace the interest of King 
Charles (how far it hath succeeded you will hear from Lord 
Galway) ; however the Queen thinks it very reasonable your Lord- 
ship should have the same power and therefore recommends it 
to your Lordship's care; but if you think it needful you shall 
have instruction sent you in form for that purpose. 

5. As to what your Lordship proposes of furnishing forage to 
the Dragoons, it is the Queen's intentions that the Dragoons 
under your Lordship's command should be upon as good a foot as 
those under my Lord Galway, but her Majesty will not allow of 
any increase upon the establishment of their pay ; but that 


douceur of their forage may be allowed them in the same manner 
as it is to her Majesty's Dragoons now in Spain out of the 
contingent money. 

6. What your Lordship proposes as to the regulation of the 
value of the money for the payment of the troops is very 
requisite ; and therefore what you receive from the paymaster at 
Lisbon will be under the same regulation as it is already ; and 
whatever bills your Lordship shall draw anywhere else it will be 
in your own power to regulate that so as to do justice to the 
Queen and to the soldiers. 

7. As to what your Lordship desires of particular instructions 
in case (which God forbid) that the King of Spain should be 
reduced to such straits and that the case should happen which 
you mention : — 

All that can be said upon that subject is this ; the forces and 
fleet are sent to recover and secure Spain to King Charles, that 
which appears at present to be the likeliest way to do it is by the 
taking of Cadiz in the method proposed, and therefore that is to be 
chiefly in your eye, but because it is impossible at this distance 
to accommodate your Lordship's instructions to every unfore- 
seen accident which may happen, therefore it must be left to 
your Lordship's judgment to do what is best for and most 
conducing to the main end and design you are sent upon. 

8. As to the furnishing of the Dutch troops with ammunition, 
they having no train with them, it is hoped they go out with a 
good proportion, but in case that should be exhausted, and they 
are not furnished by the States, you are not to let them be 
unserviceable for want of ammunition. 

I have now gone over all the particulars of this letter and I 
hope your Lordship will find the answers distinct and plain. 

And now as to your Lordship's proposal in your other letter 
to send away Mr. Richards immediately, her Majesty is pleased 
to approve of that, and that he bring with him Father Cienfuegos 
or any one else who may be proper to assist you in your designs ; 
as for his bringing of money that is answered above, that my 
Lord Treasurer hath sent you credit upon Lisbon. But great 
care hath been taken here to conceal the place you are designed 
for from the Portuguese, who it is reasonable to be supposed will 
do their utmost to draw the fleet to come to disembark the 
forces at Lisbon, if it were only from the great profit they receive 
by it, and for the same reason will be always averse to your 
succeeding at the place you are intended for, which must 
necessarily deprive them of so great advantages. 

Therefore Mr. Eichards ought to be directed to go in the first 
place to Lord Galway, to whom an account of the design you go 
upon hath been transmitted a month since, and his Lordship 
being upon the place will be the best judge what instructions 
Mr. Richards is to follow, and accordingly you are to write 
to Lord Galway to give Mr. Richards such directions as he 
thinks best for his speaking to the King of Portugal; and if 
your Lordship think it proper to write to the King of Portugal 
you are to enclose the same to Lord Galway, who according to 


the situation of affairs there will order Mr. Kichards to deliver 
your letter or not ; but it may be your Lordship may find it 
easier only to write a short letter to that King in general, 
referring yourself to what Mr. Richards shall tell him by word 
of mouth and desiring his assistance in the particulars he shall 

My Lord Galway will certainly have informed himself what 
assistance he or the Portuguese can give to your undertaking, and 
therefore can best direct Mr. Richards how to behave himself 
with the King of Portugal and his ministers. 

For the reason above mentioned your Lordship will find it will 
be best not to take pilots from Lisbon, which wdll discover the place 
designed and alarm the Portuguese, and Sir Cloudesley Shovell 
knows best whether as good pilots are not to be had at Faro or 
Lagos for the place you go to. 

This is what I have received in command from her Majesty to 
signify to your Lordship. I shall only add my most hearty wishes 
that your Lordship's success may be answerable to your great 
ability, and to assure you that I am as much your servant as any 
one in the world. 

Postscript. — The additional demand of stores of war your 
Lordship mentions did not come in your letter. I suppose it was 
forgot to be put into the packet. 


Sabah Duchess of Marlborough to Robert Harley. 

1706, September 18. Woodstock Park. — You are so very 
obliging and good to me upon all occasions, that I can't send the 
enclosed without giving you many thanks for your last favours, 
and knowing how precious your time is and how well it is 
employed, I will take no more of it, than to assure you I am with 
a great deal of respect &c. 

Earl Rivers to Lord Treasurer Godolphin. 

1706, September 19. Torbay. — I have received the honour of 
your Lordship's letter of the 14th and one from Mr. Secretary 
Harley of the 15th current, with her Majesty's instructions in 
relation to those points, which I lately writ about, which being 
so very plain and ample I have nothing more to add than my 
most humble thanks to your Lordship for the same. 

The only difficulty I perceive is about sending away of 
Richards, Mr. Secretary Harley seems to insinuate should be 
done immediately to my Lord Galway, to the end he might receive 
his directions how he should behave himself towards the King of 
Portugal, &c. But it being visible that he cannot go so far as 
Madrid and it may be further either by sea or land, and return 
in time either to do me any service in Portugal, or to be assistant 
at my landing, I have resolved not to send him until then, and 
in the mean time to send him to Lisbon, where he is to give out 


that he is returning as express by sea with the Queen's answer 
to that dispatch which he carryed over land, and only called in at 
Lisbon to deliver Mr. Methuen some letters from the Secretary 
of State. 

In effect he will not stay longer than to bring off the King of 
Spain's envoy, in case he can be induced to come. 

By means of the said envoy to dispatch some faithful person 
over land with letters to the King and my Lord Galway, which 
however shall be writ in cypher. 

To bring us what advices and informations he can of our affairs 
in Spain, and particularly those that will most influence our enter- 

And lastly to bring with him what ready money the Queen's 
paymaster in Lisbon can immediately raise upon the credit 
sent him by your Lordship. 

After which he is immediately to rejoin the fleet, and so soon as 
I am got on shore I will send him or somebody else to my Lord 
Galway. I cannot do it before because I have nobody with me 
that knows either the language or the country, whereas for the 
way we first designed I am sufficiently provided. This is, my 
Lord, what we have here agreed upon, in case it meets with her 
Majesty's approbation, and I hope it is very conformable to her 

The wind sprung up very fair on Tuesday last, but it came all 
together and so much of it that not a transport ship could weigh. 

Postscript. — Although the wind be a little slackened, the Dutch 
have not been able to get off all their provisions, but I hope how- 
ever that we shall sail to-morrow. 

I forgot to advise your Lordship that besides the lOOL which I 
lent the Dutch Brigadier pursuant to your orders signified to me 
by Mr. Taylor, I have likewise lent him 1,000L more. 

I am not as yet able to give you an exact account of what our 
paymasters have received from the collectors of the customs and 
excise, for one of them who has received considerable sums is 
absent, but he will be here to-night and by the first opportunity 
I will send you an account thereof not but they have given 
already their receipts to the collectors, from whom you may 
have it.** 


[Lord Godolphin to Egbert Harley.] 

[1706, September] 19, Thursday. — I return the papers you 
sent me last night, with the Dresden passes signed by the Queen. 
Whether the King of Sweden's assurances be real or not, I am 
of opinion it is our business at present to let him think we believe 
them to be so, and to let Monsieur Schutz see we make no 
question but the Elector his master will make use of all his 

* There was a letter to the same effect addressed to Secretary Harley on the game 
day, of which a copy is kept in this collection. 


influence to keep the King of Sweden in that reasonable temper ; 
and if the Elector were made mediator of that matter, I don't 
see how England could desire better, but whether Schutz 
has orders to advance any proposition of that nature I know 

I think the French will and must indeed abandon Italy, in 
which case our endeavour must be to make the Duke of Savoy 
follow them, if we can. I have said so much to-day to the 
Comte de Brian9on upon that subject that I hope there will not 
be much difficulty for him to engage his Master in it, if his letter 
by this post can come in time for it ; for unless we can prevail 
with him to do this, the consequence of this victory at Turin will 
be that the remnant of the French army will be sent into Spain, 
which we can't be too early in endeavouring to prevent. 

I hear the Duke of Argyll will be here to-morrow. I find by 
the Duke of Marlborough's letters to me he will expect his com- 
mission of major-general should be ready for him, and perhaps 
other things which will not be ready for him. The Duke of 
Marlborough writes also that these new commissions must all 
bear date from the day of the battle of Eamillies. 

Robert Harley to Earl Eivers. 

1706, September 22, Sunday night, ten o'clock. Windsor 
Castle. — Yesterday I received your Excellency's letter by a flying 
packet at twc in the afternoon. I sent those enclosed for the 
Board of Ordnance and Mr.Burchet as directed, and also yours to 
My Lord Treasurer together with that to myself with the Council 
of War, and the disposition of powder, &c., to Windsor ; and this 
day your letter was read before her Majesty who has commanded 
me to signify to your Excellency her approbation of your proposal 
about Mr. Richards as being what is agreeable to the service 
you are going upon, and the circumstances and particulars you 
mention relating to his going are the most proper upon this 

As to the ordnance stores I suppose that Board will give you 
an account what is ordered upon it. 

As to the arms and the clothing to be disposed to such troops 
as shall come in to you and can be formed into regiments your 
Excellency will have full order by the next post, w^hich if you 
should have a fair wind, will yet be with you before you can have 
need to put them in use. 

Earl Rivers to Lord Treasurer Godolphin. 

1706, September 27. Torbay. — Enclosed I send your Lordship 
a copy of the manifesto, which I design to publish upon my 
arrival in Spain and am now printing here in Spanish, as like- 
wise her Majesty's order for preventing the pillaging the 
country. If her Majesty thinks fit to make any declaration 
therein, it shall be published in the next which I shall have 
occasion to make. 


I intended for the greater encouragement of the Spaniards to 
come in to us to have expressed their freedom of navigation and 
trade in more general and universal terms, but finding Sir 
Cloudesley Shovell a little scrupulous in this matter I gave it over 
until I have her Majesty's further directions therein, though it 
may be there is nothing more proper to induce the Spaniards to 
come in to us than the security of their estates which they expect 
the return of from the Indies, and the freedom of exporting the 
growth of their country in as ample a manner as they practised 
during the last war when they were in our alliance ; and 
although I have offered in my manifesto to give the loyal Spani- 
ards my passports for the security of their navigation, yet upon 
further consideration I shall be very cautious in doing it without 
her Majesty's directions therein, and I find Sir C. Shovell of the 
same sentiment. 

Although I have had sufficient instructions about entertaining 
such troops as shall abandon and desert the service of the Duke 
of Anjou, it is likewise very probable that some of the most 
zealous partisans of King Charles's will offer to raise somebody of 
horse and foot for his service ; though I doubt not but that the 
country when the government thereof shall be regulated will find 
ways and means to support them, yet in the mean time it may 
be judged necessary to subsist them, we having already arms and 
clothes to give them, about which however I desire to have her 
Majesty's instructions, which I hope to make so good use of as 
not to spend a penny of the public money, more than what shall 
be absolutely conducive to her service. 

The Duke of Marlborough to [Egbert Harley]. 

1706, [September 27~] October 7. — I see by the end of yours 
that Monsieur Buys has answered Lord Treasurer's and your 
letter, if there be anything material you will be pleased to let me 
know it, for that may be of use to me at the Hague. As to what 
you say of Holland's being against the union, I have not heard 
that, but it is certain that some amongst them have very unreason- 
able jealousies; for the good of Europe I think this war must 
continue another year, so that I hope all honest Englishmen 
will be for it ; I intend to be at the Hague at the end of this 
month, or the beginning of the next ; and shall make no longer 
stay there than what will be absolutely necessary. 

As the Parliament grows near, I beg at your leisure, I may hear 
as often as may be. 

The Same to [the Same]. 

1706, October [1-]11. ■ — I have by this post sent an 
*'Observator" to Mr. St. Johns. I should be extremely obliged 
to you if you would speak to Lord Keeper, and see if there be 
any method to protect me against this rogue, who is set on by 
Lord Haversham. If I can't have justice done me, I must find 
some friend that will break his and the printer's bones, which I 


hope will be approved on by all honest Englishmen, since I serve 
my Queen and country with all my heart. When I have been at 
the Hague I shall be better able to let you know if Franco's 
coming may be of any use, but I fear the ill humour is already 
gone beyond his reach. 

Sir Charles Hedges to Earl Kivers. 

1706, October 1. Whitehall. — I have received the honour of 
your Lordship's letter of the 29th past with the draught of your 
declaration, and have laid them before her Majesty, but have 
not yet received her commands concerning the instructions your 
Lordship desires at the close of your letter. As to the pass- 
ports for the security of the Spaniards' trade and navigation, I 
believe that cannot be done effectually but by the Queen, in the 
terms and manner as have been adjusted by the Council and upon 
the memorials of the Envoy of Holland ; for other passports will 
not be a security against the English and Dutch men-of-war and 
privateers, though it is certainly very right for your Lordship to 
give them all the assistance you can for securing their navigation 
and the freedom of their trade in case it can be done without 
opening a gap for covering and colouring the effects of the enemy. 
I believe all this matter will be further considered when her 
Majesty returns from Newmarket, and what instructions her 
Majesty thinks fit to give will be sent after you, for the wind 
being come fair, it is hoped you will not be detained any longer 
at Torbay. Your Excellency will have herewith the news we 
have by the three Dutch mails come in this afternoon together 
with what the last letters bring from Lisbon, which I desire 
you will communicate to Sir Cloudesley Shovell. I have only 
to add that it is of the greatest importance to let the Earl of 
Galway hear from you as soon as possible. 


[Lord Godolphin to Eobert Harley.] 

1706, October 3. Newmarket. — I return you the letters you 
sent me with many thanks, and am glad to find by them the 
Duke of Marlborough gives over the thought of any other siege, 
since it seems to me to be only losing time and men to little 
purpose if Holland will not continue the war, and if they will or 
but only make a show of doing it, I think 'tis very plain we may 
have the peace insisted upon in our letter, with a great many 
thanks from all parties concerned, France not excepted. 

I find by the Duke of Marlborough's letter to me, as also by 
letters from the Pensionaries, Heinsius and Buys, that they were 
extremely uneasy for want of the preliminary treaty, that is to say, 
to have their barrier settled ; but 'tis impracticable to have the 
guarantee of our succession and the guarantee of a future peace 
in the same treaty, for the reason expressed in our answer to 
M. Buys' letter of the 25th September. 



The Duke of Marlborough desh'es the Queen's leave to speak 
plainly to them in Holland about the French propositions. Her 
Majesty is desirous he should not only have her leave but 
her orders to do, and has commanded me to let you know as 
much, that you signify her pleasure to him accordingly by this 

He ought to have powers, and I suppose he has, for con- 
cluding and signing this preliminary treaty, and Mr. Stepney 
ought also to meet powers and instructions in that matter at the 

The Pensionary Heinsius in his letter to me seems desirous he 
should come first to the Hague before he goes to Brussels, his 
argument is, j)our eviter des inconvenients ; 'tis easy to see what 
that means, but as far as it is now possible I think in that we 
might comply with them. 

I have no objection to the draft which the Duke of Marlborough 
proposes to print, except some literal amendments, faults only 
of the transcriber ; but the naming of the treaty of the Pyrenees, 
I doubt that may fright the people of Holland so much as to take 
off the impression which otherwise some of his arguments would 
not fail to make upon them. I have therefore drawn a stroke 
under some few lines which I submit to be left out, and in their 
room inserted one or two small additions in the margin. 

I hope your West Indies news is true. 


1706, October 10. — I herewith return the letters and papers 
you sent me with many thanks for the favour of your letter, and 
your being so particular in the matter upon which I desired your 
thoughts, though I differ in opinion. I think the matter of 
elections was but a pretext taken in the last session, there was an 
averseness at bottom to do anything that they thought would 
give any merit to the Whigs, though it was and is a demonstra- 
tion that without them, and their being entire, the Queen cannot 
be served ; but the leaning to what I take to be an impossibility 
will, I think, make them jealous and uneasy, and at best but 
passive. The consequence of which is that the majority will be 
against us upon every occasion of consequence. I hope however 
the Queen's service will go on, and for myself I am as little 
concerned as one need to^be upon such an occasion ; but I am 
not blind nor asleep. 

The topics you mention would not hurt us alone, if there were 
not a preparation to make those uneasy and jealous from whom 
only we can have, or hope for, any help. 

I think you do very well to have a watch upon Eobinson. As 
to the affair of Mr. Clement I shall be Saturday night in 
London, so I must beg it will be deferred till then. 

I wish the convoy might be dispatched that is to bring over 
the Duke of Marlborough. 

Earl Eivers to Sir Charles Hedges. 

1706, October 10. Association, ten leagues to the westward of 
Scilly. — Ever since our departure from Torbay we have scarcely 
had any other than contrary winds from the S. to the S.W. and 
sometimes so very hard that a great part of our transports have 
been forced to bear away to the number I judge of 50 or 60, and 
yesterday the Barfleur on which I was embarked myself sprung so 
dangerous a leak as to be judged incapable of continuing the 
voyage, so that with a great deal of difficulty I got myself and 
some of my servants on board the Admiral (?) . 

Sir Cloudesley Shovell having given his rendezvous orders at 
Lisbon we are in hopes that the most part of our separated 
transports will be there and therefore it is judged proper that we 
should go ourselves, the wind permitting us so to do which at 
present is [hlanlc] . 

My intentions are to tell the King of Portugal that my orders 
are for Alicant, to the end I may conceal our real design, 
and this I will persist in until I have her Majesty's further 
instructions, and in the meantime I will endeavour to put our 
troops on shore in quarters of refreshment until we are joined 
by the rest, to procure which I will send Eichards before me to 

What I have to request is that all possible dispatch may be 
given to those transports which have been forced back to England 
or Ireland, and whereas it is most probable that we have lost a 
considerable number of horses, the importance of which is so 
notorious in this expedition, her Majesty is the best judge 
whether a convenient number be sent with the first ships to 
recruit what is wanting. 


Sir Charles Hedges to Earl Eivers. 

1706, October 15. Whitehall. — I trouble your Excellency with 
a copy of my last which was in answer to yours of the 29th past. 
As to the instructions mentioned in the close of that letter, her 
Majesty thinks your Excellency as General has sufficient 
authority to dispose and direct those matters without any 
particular instructions, and does not think it for the advantage 
of her service, or that it is possible to give particular instructions 
for all cases that may happen, but that it is more proper to leave 
the direction of such matters as tend to the furtherance of the 
main design to the prudence and discretion of the General. 
Yolir Excellency will receive this by the hands of Mr. Crowe 
whom her Majesty has honoured with the character of her 
Envoy Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary for making a treaty of 
commerce with the King of Spain, in consideration of his 
being well versed in the Spanish Trade, of the interest he has 
with his Majesty, the knowledge he has of the people and 
country, and of the experience she has had of his zeal for her 


service, upon which accounts her Majesty does not doubt he will 
be of good use also to your Excellency and to the Earl of Gal way 
to whom he is to repair without loss of time with such accounts 
and proposals for the co-operation and assisting each other as 
you shall judge proper. This gentleman and the Earl of Galway 
are well acquainted and in very good correspondence. You will 
find the state of affairs about Madrid much altered since you 
left England, but if proper measures are taken and vigorously 
pursued all • will soon be retrieved. However her Majesty does 
not think fit to alter anything you have in direction for 
putting the chief design on Seville and Cadiz in execution, 
having the greatest hopes of success to her arms under your 
Excellency's command and looking on it as the surest 
and speediest way to reduce the whole kingdom; but whether 
you succeed or not, it is her Majesty's pleasure that you continue 
in Spain for the support of King Charles, and in order thereto 
that you join the Earl of Galway as soon as may be after the 
expedition against Cadiz is at an end, in case the King of Spain 
and the Earl of Galway shall judge your junction will tend to the 
furtherance of the reducing the kingdom to his Catholic Majesty's 
obedience. When you are master of Cadiz you will leave such a 
garrison there as shall be judged fit for its safety, and then take 
the proper measures for joining the King's army ; or in case you 
shall not be able to make yourself master of that town and have 
no prospect of success there, you are forthwith to consider and 
concert with the Earl of Galway of the most proper means for 
joining and proceed accordingly either by re-embarking her 
Majesty's troops or in such other way as shall be judged best for 
her service. 

All her Majesty's troops in Spain and Portugal are to be under 
Lord Galway 's direction who has the eldest commission, and the 
Queen takes it for granted that your Excellency has no objection 
to it. 

Upon the news of the Barfleur's coming back I thought fit 
to send you this by the Tartar or Sorlings, since they are now 
like to be with your Excellency before Mr. Crowe. 


1706, October 15. Brampton. — I received this morning the 
honour of your Lordship's letter of the tenth instant. I arrived 
here but last night late, and with other letters from London I 
received a private one from the Duke of Marlborough with one 
enclosed from the Elector of Hanover to his Grace, which I send 
herewith to your Lordship. The public letters are delivered to 
Mr. Secretary Hedges, who I doubt not hath attended your 
Lordship with them. Your Lordship may please to remember 
that Mr. Schutz said there was no such treaty designed by his 
master as the King of Prussia would set on foot, and that it was 
only a tentative of that Court to fish out the inclinations of the 
Queen and the Elector, and to set on foot some sort of negotiation 
with Sweden by which he might get something. 


As to the other particulars my Lord Duke mentions about 
the treaty for the succession and the barrier, as also for 
guaranteeing the peace, I wrote as fully as I could to 
my Lord M [arlborough] Thursday se'nnight, and I think 
mentioned the same to your Lordship, that I humbly 
conceive that those treaties should be finished as soon 
as possible, and also the affair of Munster, for those two points 
are made use of by the ill intentioned in Holland to the prejudice 
of England. The project Lord Halifax brought over I have left 
sealed up with Mr. Lewis, who will bring it to your Lordship 
whenever you will please to command it. I think the objections 
my Lord Halifax makes to the barriers being too generally 
expressed, and that it ought to be more particularly specified, are 
very just ; but if they are obstinate in it, under pretence they 
cannot decently particularise places which yet are not in their 
power, I humbly proposed to my Lord Duke to consider whether 
that matter might not be accommodated by putting the particulars 
into a secret article, but I doubt not his Grace will find out a 
proper method to settle that point. 

As to home affairs, what I wrote to your Lordship was in 
the sincerity of my heart, and what I could collect from my 
conversation with both parties, and of which I am at any time 
ready to give your Lordship the particulars, but far be it from 
me to espouse any opinion of my own, or to differ from your 
Lordship's judgment; I shall always be ready, when required, 
and never but then, to give my poor thoughts and such reasons 
as I have, and when I have done that I know myself too well 
to be fond of any notions of my own. I have no other views 
but the Queen's service with that attachment to your Lordship 
and my Lord Marlborough which I shall always preserve. 

The reason I mentioned elections in my letter was, because 
that occasion of stumbling is in a great measure removed ; and 
from the little experience I have had, the attempting to bend 
everybody to one measure in that affair hath proved one of the 
greatest means of ruining the expectation of that party which 
hath attempted it. I have often seen the foundation laid of 
blowing up each of the factions by that very method and the 
reason is plain ; for those gentlemen who think themselves to be 
independent, and would be thought to be so, but yet would 
support the Queen and serve her ministers, expect their compli- 
ance therein should be accepted, and that they should be left 
to themselves in personal friendships and matters which they 
will always think remote from the government's observation, 
and that if they vote for the public service of the government, 
and support of the ministers, more ought not to be expected of 
them . Indeed I have not been able to answer them when they have 
said, why should not everybody's service be accepted of as far as 
he will go, and it is not impossible that one step may draw on 
another. This I am certain, many of the most staunch Whigs 
(not whimsical) have, and do frequently lament the fury of their 
leaders, and have rejoiced when their presumption was humbled; 
and to use an expression of one of them, that if they were gratified 


in all they desire, they would immediately be undone. I am very 
far from making them jealous. I did not mean that places should 
be given to others, but I was humbly of opinion that whoever 
would come in a volunteer to the service should be accepted as far 
as he would go, and I am the more confirmed in this opinion 
because those who call themselves Whigs if united are the inferior 
number, and that they will not follow those who make themselves 
their leaders, but yet may be united in the Queen's service by her 
ministers, and yet at the same time they would make everyone 
else desperate, nay to use the words of themselves they have pro- 
scribed a great many who never differed, yet, from them ; and as 
to those who came into them, some whereof have surrendered 
themselves and gave elections to them and laid themselves at 
their feet, and yet they will not be contented with them, and 
every one who have helped to rescue them from the malice 
and rage of their adversaries and to make them a majority 
have been sensible that all that went for nothing and they 
were told more than once or twice expressly that they hoped 
in a little time to cast them off and do without them. 

I have with grief observed that the leaders (or zealots rather) 
of both parties are frequent even now, in their reflections 
on the Queen's ministers, I mean your Lordship and my Lord 
M [arlborough] . I cannot but apprehend danger from both 
sides in the extreme, and therefore I am humbly of opinion to 
increase the number of those who would devote themselves to 
the Queen's and your service would be best ; and I the rather 
mention this because so many who have been lately obliged pay 
their acknowledgments to and real dependence on other people. 
As to myself I have made all the application imaginable to those 
who would be thought the chiefs of that faction, and there is 
nothing I will not do for the Queen's service and the support of 
her ministers, neither would I have troubled your lordship with 
this long scribble, but that your lordship's indulgence has 
encouraged me to tell you the truth, and what you may when you 
please have confirmed from the mouths of those of that very 
party who have no little interest in both Houses ; and now I 
have said this I beseech you lordship to be so just to me as to be 
assured I have no measures, nor will have any but what shall be 
submitted to the test of your better judgment, and that you will 
have the goodness to impute it to my excess of zeal when I 
cannot forbear saying that this ensuing session may be made 
very easy or very difficult by either giving or sparing a few good 
words without any further engagement than to let those who are 
not stigmatised by any particular folly know that they need not be 
desperate. I have now tired your lordship's patience with my imper- 
tinence and will add nothing more than that having shot my bolt 
there remains nothing further for me but to obey your commands. 


[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

1706, October 17. — Yesterday there came letters of the fleet of 
the 10th. Fifteen leagues west from Scilly they had met with 


very foul weather and cross winds. However the weather was 
then come fah% and they were gone on to Lisbon, which it seems 
was their rendezvous in case of separation, though much dis- 
persed. The Barflciir in which Lord Rivers was had sprung a 
leak and is sent home. The Queen has sent her orders to them 
this day to Lisbon. 

Lord Godolphin to [Earl Rivers]. 

1706, October 17. — Finding by your letter of the 10th to the 
Secretary of State, dated fifteen leagues westward from Scilly 
that you had met with bad weather, which had separated great 
part of your fleet and transports and that in that case your 
rendezvous being appointed at Lisbon, the wind coming fair again 
you had resolved to go thither, and upon your arrival not to own 
your design to the King of Portugal, but to acquaint him your 
orders were to go straight to Alicante ; and finding by the same 
letters from your Lordship and from the Admiral that your horses 
had suffered very much, the Queen upon consideration of this 
misfortune seeing that it was impossible in point of time, were 
there no other difficulty, to recruit your horses from hence, and 
thinking on the other side that since you were under a necessity 
of going to Portugal it might look like too great a distrust of that 
King if you should absolutely conceal your intentions from him, 
her Majesty has thought fit to allow you a latitude to say 
that though your instructions are positive to go to Alicante, yet 
in case you see room to hope for any success at Seville or Cadiz 
as you pass there, or that the King of Portugal be in inclination 
and condition to supply you with horses for that attempt, in that 
case her Majesty has commanded you to desire his assistance in 
this affair, which if it succeeds will be an entire security to his 
commerce for the future, the French having no port to friend 
nearer to Toulon except Cadiz. 

This argument may be of some weight with the King of 
Portugal, and you will, I doubt, be under a necessity of applying 
to him, iDoth for your want of horses, and because I am afraid 
you will be forced to stay at Lisbon some time in expectation of 
your scattered transports. 

If ever you come to join the King of Spain the Queen has 
determined my Lord Galway shall have the chief command, but 
that you shall not be commanded by my Lord Peterborough. 

Sir Charles Hedges to Earl Rivers. 

1706, October 17. Whitehall. — Yesterday I received the 
honour of your Excellency's of the 10th inst. and am very sorry to 
find you have had such continual bad weather since your putting 
to sea, and that the ship you were on board had so great 
a misfortune as to oblige her to return. She is arrived with the 
Tartar and Sorlings at Spithead, and all diligence is used to send 
the two last to Lisbon, the place of their rendezvous since the 
fleet was separated by storm, in hopes of meeting j^ou there. 


The Prince's Council tell me those ships stay only for the 
Queen's orders, and I dispatch them to-night that there may be 
no sort of delay. 

The first thing in which your Excellency desires her Majesty's 
directions is, concerning the concealment of the real design from 
the King of Portugal ; her Majesty approves of your precaution 
therein, and the secret is still to be kept as much as possible, and 
the King himself is not to know but it was designed for Alicant ; 
but since by this accident of the fleet's being dispersed you were 
obliged to go to Lisbon, her Majesty would have you at such 
time as you judge proper let the King of Portugal know you have 
a latitude to stop at Cadiz, if you find a favourable opportunity 
for reducing it upon your arrival on the Spanish coast, and that 
you are at liberty to attempt making yourself master of it, if 
there be any room to hope for his Portuguese Majesty's assistance 
in that design, either by furnishing you with horses or troops or 
what else you may have occasion for to carry it on. Her Majesty 
thinks it is necessary to give some such intimation, since it is 
your fortune to be with him, for to go thither directly from 
Lisbon, without taking any notice, may give some disgust, which 
should be avoided with so necessary an ally at this juncture ; 
besides your Excellency may procure some assistance, and 
especially in horses, if the king relishes such a design, but you 
are to be careful to give this intimation in such a manner and 
under secrecy that your real design may not be public, nor make 
you liable to pressures to stay at Lisbon for other operations. 

As to the other point in your letter all possible care is to be 
taken to dispatch to Lisbon all ships and transports that shall be 
driven back to England and Ireland, but as to sending recruits of 
horses from home, it is not to be depended on, it not being 
possible to be effected in time : but if the King of Portugal can 
help you in that particular your Excellency may assure him so 
many as he furnishes to her Majesty's troops will be replaced by 
the next campaign. But that offer should not hinder your pro- 
curing all the assistance you can from the King upon his own 
account, which may reasonably be insisted on since her Majesty 
has made such an extraordinary effort, far beyond what she is 
obliged to do by the treaty, to assist the King of Portugal and 
support the King of Spain. 

I have written to Mr. Methuen, and in case of his absence 
to Consul Milner, to press the King of Portugal to consent that 
the subsidies her Majesty pays for the 13,000 Portuguese may be 
remitted directly from hence to the Portuguese General in Spain, 
which her Majesty thinks is so reasonable a proposal that the 
King can not make any difficulty in consenting to it, though the 
Portuguese Ministers for private reasons may oppose it. Consul 
Milner will be able fully to acquaint your Excellency with the 
necessity of having this done and of the abuses that have been 
committed by the misapplication of the money to the prejudice 
of the service. It will be a great advantage to obtain this point 
and her Majesty hopes your Excellency will use your endeavours, 
and press the King to consent to it now the state of the war is 

6802 H 


so much altered and his troops are in Spain, and the communi- 
cation hetween them and Portugal is cut off, so that there is no 
sending money hut hy sea, and it may easier he done from hence 
at once than hy sending first to Lishon and afterwards to Valentia. 
Mr. Crowe, who was designed to call on your Excellency, will now 
take his passage directly to Alicant and he going in a few days, 
hut will touch at Faro to learn news of the fleet, and if your 
Excellency has anything to impart to Lord Gal way I helieve it 
may he proper to lodge it in the Consul's hands at Faro, sending 
copies of the same also hy another hand. 

General James Stanhope to Earl Rivers. 

1706, Octoher [18-] 29, n.s. Valentia.— Being told from England 
that your Lordship is hound for this part of the world I heg leave 
to welcome your Lordship on the coast of Spain, where I hope this 
letter will find your Lordship attended with all manner of success 
in all your undertakings. The King of Spain and my Lord 
Galway [will] give your Lordship an account of our condition 
here, and of their thoughts and wishes how your Lordship's forces 
and the fleet should he employed. The Duke of Savoy has sent 
advice that he is certainly informed that the enemies are prepar- 
ing to emhark forty five hattalions of their heaten army, whether 
to return to Italy or to he sent to Spain was uncertain, hut the 
station of affairs in Italy makes it reasonahle to helieve they will 
give up that country, and push to make an end of the war in 
Spain, the only part where they have a prospect to succeed. A 
squadron in these parts would prevent their attempt on either side 
hy sea. Your Lordship and the Admiral can hest tell how far 
this is practicahle. 

[Lord Godolphin to Robert Hari.ey.] 

1706, Octoher 23. — I designed to have thanked you last night 
for your kind letter from Brampton, hut I had so much to write, 
that it was not possihle for me ; and you ought to he a little the 
more indulgent to me, hecause I should not have had so much 
upon my hands if you had heen here. 

I helieve Mr. Secretary Hedges will have informed you of the 
letters sent over hy the Duke of Marlhorough from the Elector of 
B [avaria] to himself and the States deputies, and also with what 
he has heen directed hy the Queen to write to his Grace upon 
that suhject. The proposal appears to have been artificial and 
ensnaring enough, and I hope the answer is worded so cautiously 
as to prevent the ill effects of it, hut that we can't he satisfied in 
till the return of the messenger dispatched with it last Monday. 
In the meantime I think we have the satisfaction of seeing 
plainly they have no hopes of succeeding by their underhand 
jMnirparlcrs, as Monsieur B[uys] terms it. By the way, I have 
not heard one word from him since you left us. 


The other affairs of your provmce want your care as well as 
this. Some measures should be concerted about the King of 
Sweden. The King of Poland, by his example, begins to be 
troublesome too, and, I doubt, the King of Prussia is naturally 
not very unapt to catch that infection. 

There is a new mystery about my Lord Eaby, more impene- 
trable than the former. Mons. Spanheim has new credentials of 
ambassador here, provided my Lord Eaby do continue at Berlin 
in that character. 

Our affairs in Spain go very ill and want the speedy arrival of 
the fleet. 

Mr. Methuen writes from Genoa that Lord Peterborough was 
there negociating for money ; but he has [not ?] vouchsafed to 
write himself, at least not to Mr. Secretary nor to me. Mr. 
Chetwynd writes he is expected by the Duke of Savoy at his 
camp. He talks of going back to Spain in a month, and his 
friends here give it out, but for my own part I expect him here 
by the meeting of the Parliament, and don't know whether I 
ought to be glad or sorry to prove deceived in that expectation. 

We have great triumphs in Scotland. Not knowing if the 
account of them has reached you, I send you a very particular one 
in my letter from the Eegister. All Mr. Johnstone's friends have 
done very well, but I don't think he thanks them for it. Mr. 
Lewis has brought me several letters to G. Mason from D. F [oe?] . 

The Duke of Marlborough to [Eobert Harley]. 

170G, [October 25-] November 4, n.s. Ghilingen. — You will see 
l)y the enclosed that it was printed before they could receive 
your remarks. AYhat you have writ in a former letter concerning 
a title for Lord Keeper I think so reasonable that I shall with 
pleasure endeavour to serve him. My next will be from the 
Hague, where I will stay no longer than what may be absolutely 

Sir Charles Hedges to Earl Eivers. 

1706, October 28. Whitehall. — I herewith send your Excel- 
lency copies of my letters of the 1st, 13tli, and 17th instant. We 
have not yet despatched Mr. Crowe, though we are doing it as fast 
as we can, and therefore it will be very convenient that your 
Excellency should give the earliest advices you can to the Earl of 
Galway of your proceedings and designs in order to your acting 
in concert one with the other. 

Her Majesty having received an account from her Consul at 
Lisbon that the King of Portugal has made large remittances of 
money to the army in Spain and intends to send more, does not 
think it so proper a time to press him about the sending of the 
subsidies from hence directly thither, as is mentioned in mine to 
your Excellency of the 17th, till such time as what he has sent 
be replaced. 


Your Excellency ^Yill see in the newspapers sent you from the 
Office what progress the Confederates are making in Italy. The 
French seem resolved to attempt the re-entering that country, 
whose opinidtrete in that respect will it is hoped be of advantage 
to the service you go upon by diverting the enemy from sending 
a greater force into Spain. 


1706, October 29. — I hope this will find you safe and well at 
Lisbon, and your transports in good measure gotten together 
again. Your Lordship) will soon be made sensible by the news 
you wdll meet at Lisbon that our affairs in Spain are in a condi- 
tion to require an immediate reinforcement of the army there ; 
and though the Queen does not recall your orders for the design 
upon Seville and Cadiz, from whence it is probable they have 
drawn what troops they can to strengthen their army, and con- 
sequently you may find those places weak, yet in case it should 
prove otherwise too much time ought not to be consumed in 
fruitless endeavours, and most especially if you should hear from 
the King of Spain and my Lord Gahvay that they desire that you 
should hasten to join them. 

All our affairs in Italy and these parts of the world go as w^e 
could wish. 

We hear my Lord Peterborough is at Genoa, but not one word 
from himself or of his intentions. The Queen seems inclined to 
send my Lord Gahvay a new commission for the chief command 
of all her, troops in Spain and Portugal that shall happen to be 
together. Lord Gal way has several times asked the Queen's 
leave to return, upon the account of his being a cripple ; if he 
should persist in these desires, and the King of Spain should give 
way to it, the whole care and weight of that service would fall upon 
your Lordship. I shall be glad to have your own thoughts and 
intentions as to this and everything else relating to the Queen's 
service and to yourself, as plainly and fully as you can when joii 
have opportunity of sending ; and in order to that I hope before 
Sir Cloudesley Shovell leaves Lisbon he will settle a constant 
intercourse betwixt that place and the coast of Spain within the 

Earl Eivers to Sir Charles Hedges. 

1706, October 29 [o.s.] . Lisbon. — The storm which I gave you an 
account of in my last did so disperse our fleet that we never came 
together until we met in this river, where the Admiral had given 
his rendezvous, thirteen ships except two which w^e hear are safely 
arrived in Ireland, two supposed to be cast away, and the other 
nine in St. Ubals (Setuval) ; but the damage which of necessity 
we must receive in so much bad weather is very considerable, as 
well in our shipping as in our troops, and especially the horse, of 
which the Dutch only have given an account of 191 lost and most 
of the rest incapable of service. The English have suffered much 
less ; but still our loss is very considerable, 1,000 foot missing, 


loo dead, half the horse spoiled and dead. Notwithstanding this 
misfortune a Council of War — a copy of which I send to you — 
held the 27th current, in which was present Sir Cloudesley Shoveil, 
has resolved to continue their voyage to the river of Seville and 
do their utmost endeavours to put her Majesty's orders in 
execution ; I having here met with not a word from the King of 
Spain or my Lord Galway, neither does there appear any sufficient 
reasons to dispense with her Majesty's first orders. 

In pursuance to this resolution I shall put the horses on shore 
for a few days until their ships and stalls be repaired, and until 
I can be provided with the necessary quantity of straw and barley 
to continue our voyage — our hay and oats being already con- 
sumed — which I presume will be about thirty days. 

I do not hear that the Marquis de Villa de Arias, who commands 
in Andalusia, has above 4,000 foot and 500 horse, and these 
militia; however, the operations of the campaign being every- 
where over it is very likely they may detach both from Estra- 
madura and La Mancha some troops, and especially horse, in 
order to oppose us. This consideration is certainly sufficient to 
induce her Majesty to hasten those troops which are to follow us 
with all diligence possible, and particularly some horse which we 
so much want, and since our late losses at sea more than ever. 

I shall immediately dispatch away to the King of Spain, giving 
him and my Lord Galway an account of our resolution and an 
exact detail of our forces, to the end that they may timely take 
their measures either to join us with some troops or to profit 
themselves by the diversion which we shall give to those of the 
enemy's. And so soon as I am past Faro I will send to the King 
of Portugal to give him an account where we are going, that he 
may likewise on his j)art move some of his troops towards 
Andalusia in order to join us, to which purpose I presume it might 
be necessary that her Majesty should write to the said King, 
which letter must be delivered to me here in case it arrives before 
I am gone, lest our secret, which as yet is in its entire, should be 
discovered too soon. 

B}^ order of my Lord Galway and of the late Ambassador, Mr. 
Methuen, here has been raised a Spanish regiment of foot, which 
regiment I take with me, out of the garrison of Alcantara, which 
at the beginning of the late campaign was made prisoners of war, 
and more might have been made had there been orders given for 
it, those people being very desirous to serve their lawful King ; 
and now the Spanish envoy here, the Father Cien Fuegos, tells 
me that there are to the number of two regiments more who are 
desirous [to be] taken on. 

T cannot imagine how the great superiority which the enemy 
have over us in horse is any other ways to be repaired than 
from Italy, which in all probability Prince Eugene can now 
spare, and which we may easily fetch in the spring from either 
Genoa or Leghorn, or rather Porto Specia. If her Majesty 
does approve of this she will be pleased to give her timely 
orders hereabouts to Sir Cloudesley Shoveil and write to the 


Father Cien Fuegos makes a difficulty of going with us upon 
this expedition, having had no orders so to do from the King his 
master, nor indeed any intimation thereof from the Court of 
England ; however, here is arrived six days ago the brother of 
the Duke de Penna Kanda, a man of great quality and related 
to the Governor of Cadiz and to the Marquis de Villa de Arias : he 
will go along with us, and hopes to have a great influence upon 
those persons who is to have one of these Spanish regiments. 

I have ordered Mr. Morrice to procure me money for three 
months' subsistence of the army, as likewise a proper sum for the 
contingent expenses of the army. 

Postscript. — 31 October. — Since I writ the foregoing part of my 
letter [I have seen?] the Portuguese Minister Don Diego Mendoza. 
They are desirous to have these troops landed and to induce 
me the more proposed several projects upon their own frontiers 
which besides the improbability of them are as you know so abso- 
lutely opposite to the Queen's orders. I told him that these troops 
were destined by the Queen to support the King of Spain (it is 
generally believed here that we are going to Yalentia), and there- 
fore I could not without her Majesty's orders change the design, 
however that there was still a very considerable detachment of 
troops which I believed upon his Portuguese Majesty's request the 
Queen would alter their landing ; this I said to silence them. 

But my fears go further, for I am apprehensive that these people, 
seeing that they cannot overrule us, wdll indirectly give us all 
the hindrance possible in the procuring the necessary straw 
and barley to continue our voyage : but of this more in my next. 


Sir Charles Hedges to Earl Eivers. 

1706, October 29. Whitehall. — The state of affairs in Spain 
being much changed, according to the advices that come by the 
way of France, her Majesty thinks it for the advantage of the 
service to give your Excellency a latitude in your expedition 
against Seville and Cadiz, which is, that in case you meet with 
such difficulties as cannot be foreseen here, and that the reducing 
those places will take up so much time as that the army in 
Valentia and Catalonia may be put to great straits and extremi- 
ties, and the King of Spain's affairs on that side may be in danger 
for want of your joining the Earl of Gal way; and in case upon 
any notices you shall receive from the King of Spain or the Earl 
of Galway, you shall find they judge it necessary to join without 
loss of time for the support of his Catholic Majesty, you are at 
liberty to act accordingly as you And the exigency of his affairs 
may require. 

Earl Rivers to General J. Stanhope. 

1706, October 30 [o.s] . Lisbon. — The expedition I am sent upon 
being communicated to you near three months ago, I need say 
no more to you than that I am got so far upon our [way] , being 


forced into this port contrary to my intentions and her Majesty's 
instructions, having met at sea with such violent weather as has 
cruelly shattered our fleet, insomuch that I have not with me 
above 8,000 foot and 600 dragoons fit for service. However, in a 
Council of War held here it is resolved to continue our voyage to 
the river of Guadalquiver pursuant to her Majesty's orders 
and instructions, of which resolution I send Col. Worsley to give 
the King and my Lord Galway an account thereof. Having not 
met here with any letters from them, nor anybody that can give 
me an exact account of your affairs, and whereas it is possible 
that it may so happen that your circumstances are so bad that 
nothing but this fleet and troops can support you, I will in this 
case sacrifice every other consideration to the honour of the 
Queen's arms and the good of my country ; but, as to a friend for 
whom I have singular esteem and in whom I have a particular 
confidence, I will tell you that I pretend to preserve the absolute 
command of these troops, which shall be kept entire, where ever 
the public service shall require them to go. With these conditions 
I accepted the command, and upon no others would I have come 
abroad. But lest you should not rightly understand me, I assure 
you that I am very willing to obey his Majesty's commands, and 
even my Lord Galway, provided I remain with the absolute and 
independent command of them, which being so very reasonable 
I doubt not but that your prudence and zeal for the public service 
will facilitate everything that shall stand in the way, if it should 
happen, which as yet I do not foresee, we should come together. 

I have to write with this freedom to anybody else {sic), and 
therefore I entirely repose in your friendship to make a proper 
use of it. 


Earl Eivers to "the King of Spain." 

[1706, October 30 Endorsed.'] — The Queen my mistress having 
nothing more at heart than the honour and interest of your 
Majesty, and therefore being sensible of the great disappointments 
which you have lately met with in Spain, she has generously 
abandoned her intended expedition against France to send me 
and the troops under my command to serve you in Spain. 

What I can assure your Majesty is that I never received her 
orders with greater pleasure, not only in consideration of the just 
engagement which we are all in to support your undoubted rights 
to the Spanish Monarchy, but that I have likewise this occasion 
to signalize my zeal among so many other brave chiefs who so 
gloriously and so successfully defend your cause. 

The Queen my mistress has judged in her great prudence that 
nothing would more contribute to your Majesty's service than the 
reducing of Cadiz and with it all Andalusia to its due obedience. 
Her Majesty's instructions do therefore oblige me in the first 
place to go up the river Guadalquiver and oblige Seville to declare 
for your Majesty, so that by possessing that important capital 
and the neighbouring country to reduce Cadiz to a necessity of 
doing the same. 


I am come thus far upon this design, but after being detained 
a great while by contrary winds at sea I met with so great storms 
that it will require near thirty days to repair our ships and put 
ourselves in a condition to continue our voyage,which by a Council 
of War we have resolved to do pursuant to her Majesty's instruc- 
tions. Wherefore I have sent this gentleman to acquaint your 
Majesty therewith, to the end that I may receive your further 
commands, and that your Majesty may take some proper measures 
to support us, or by sending us some troops, or at least to profit 
youi^self by the diversion which we shall give to those of the 

I have thought fit to take with me the Spanish regiment which 
by order of Mr. Methuen was raised in your Majesty's name out 
of the garrison of Alcantara, and the Father Cuen Fuegos having 
represented to me that there are to the number of two more who 
are willing to render their due obedience to your Majesty, I have 
ordered the raising of them, one in the name of Don Joseph 
Chaver, brother to the Conde de Penna Eanda, who came lately 
from Madrid, the other in the name of Major-General Eichards, 
whom the Queen, my mistress, has so good an opinion of as to 
send him with me in this expedition, and therefore I hope that 
it will not only meet with your Majesty's approbation, but that 
he will not any ways be a sufferer in your Majesty's favour by 
his absence. 

And as her Majesty has in a more particular manner incharged 
me to have all due care, tenderness and respect towards all your 
Majesty's subjects, and particularly in what relates to sacred 
matters, I give your Majesty my word and honour that you 
shall never have a just occasion of complaint in this point, 
and that in everything else that relates to your royal service 
nobody will receive your commands with greater obedience and 


Sir Charles Hedges to Earl Rivers. 

1706, November 1. Whitehall. — The liye frigate, on board 
which is my letter to your Excellency of the 17th past, being put 
back, I send you by another ship dispatched on purpose the 
enclosed duplicate of it and with duplicates also of my two last 
letters of the 28th and 29th, which were dispatched to your 
Excellency by the last packet to Lisbon. 

I write by this conveyance to Sir Cloudesley Shovell to signify 
to him her Majesty's pleasure, that in regard there may be 
occasion for his giving assistance with the fleet in what shall be 
resolved on according to the exigency of the King of Spain's 
affairs, he is to contribute all he can with the ships under 
his command towards putting what shall be resolved on in 
execution in such manner as shall be judged advisable by 
a Council of War and most to the advantage of that 


[H. St. John to Eobert Harley.] 

170G, November 5. Whitehall. — I cannot let this post go 
away without carrying you my thanks for the favour of yours of 
the 1st, though I hope before this arrives at Brampton the floods 
will be abated and you on your way thither. 

Nothing, dear Master, will continue long which exceeds its due 
bounds, but a short-lived inundation may prove a lasting evil. 
The torrent may make such a havoc and leave such scars in a 
little time as years will not repair. If you will give me leave to 
bring the allegory still more close, no husbandman in his right 
senses ever let that flood violently in to spoil his grounds and 
destro}^ his fruits which with care he might have guided in gentle 
streams to the improvement of both. 

I am glad you And the same disposition where you have l)een 
as I believe is in other places. It will be one of the greatest 
pleasures I can have to be instrumental under you in making a 
proper use of it ; in order to this, sure we must have a little more 
commerce with some gentlemen than has been of late kept up. 

I did not believe when I writ last to you that the application 
made to Mr. B[romley] and Sir T. H[anmer] was the effect of 
your advice, but I do imagine in fact there has been some 
negotiation of that sort. 

This day George Granville received a letter from the captain 
of the Kiusale to inform him that Sir Bevil died a month ago in 
his passage. This misfortune has touched George to the quick. 
I hear, by the bye, that his brother has brought from the Barbados 
enough to make him easy, though not in any degree such a 
fortune as governors usually amass. George is by his will sole 

Adieu ! make haste to town, where the public as well as your 
friends wants you. No man is more entirely, dear Master, yours, 
than H. 

Charles III. of Spain to Earl Eivers. 

1706, November [13-] 24. Valentia.— My Lord Comte, J'ay eu 
iin gran plaisir d'apprendre par votre letre I'arrive de la Flotte 
et de vos troupes de debarquement a Lisbonne. Vous entendres 
mes pansees par rapport a vos operations par les deux letres que 
vous receveres avec la presente dont la premiere est la duplicate 
de ma precedente. Je n'ay rien a ajuter sinon que pour ce qui 
est du commendement des troupes dont I'Envoy^ Stanhope m'a 
parle. Vous pouves center de ne recevoir d'autres ordres, que 
de moy seul. Je me rapporte au surplus a ce que my lord 
Galloway vous ecrira sur ce sujet estant bien assure que vous 
trouveres en sa personne toute la satisfaction innnaginable, et je 
suis tousjours vous tres affectionee esperant de vous bien tost 
embrasser. Charles. 

Prince de Lichtenstein to Lord Rivers. 

1706, November [13-] 24. Valencia. — Je connois asses vos 
grands merites pour desirer avec passion de connoitre de meme 
votre personne. 


Les difficultes qu'il y a a cmindre, que vous reiicontreres dans 
r expedition des villes de Seville, et de Cadix, jointes au peu de 
fond qu'on scauroit faire sur I'affection des habitans de 
I'Andalousie me font juger, que vous quitter^s sans balancer cette 
entreprise, pour embrasser avec plaisir I'occasion de servir sa 
maj ^ Cath : dans ses presentes necessites. Comme sa maj'^ la 
Regne votre maitresse dans le terns qu'elle vous ordonna de vous 
rendre avec la flotte sur les cotes de I'Andalousie ne fut 
apparement inform^e de I'etat de nos affaires d'ici, je me flatte, 
que vous entreres dans le meme avis avec tons les ministres et 
generaux ici presens, qui ont juge avec sa majeste que les forces 
de la flotte ne pourroient etre employe dans la presente 
conjoncture plus utilement, qu'en les faisant venir en ce 
Royaume ; c'est en cette pensee que j'attens bien tot I'lionneur 
de vous embrasser, et de vous temoigner I'estime et I'attache- 
ment sincer, avec les quels je suis. 

Chakles hi. of Spain to Lord Rivers. 

1706, November 24. Valencia. — J'ai ete ravi d' entendre que 
la Flotte avec les trouppes de debarquement qui se trouvent sous 
vos ordres soit entre dans la riviere de Lisbonne. J'espere que 
les contretems que vous aves rencontre en mer n'empecheront 
point pourque vous ne vous remettes bientot en etat de pouvoir 
executer vos desseins en conformite des ordres de la Regne votre 
maitresse. Des que j'apris la resolution de Sa Majeste 
Brittanique et le changement qu'elle avoit genereusement fait, en 
vous donnant les ordres d' aller sur les cotes de I'Andalousie au 
lieu de celles de France, j'ay depeclie un navire expres pour vous 
aprendre mes intentions par rapport aux operations de la flotte, 
et de vos trouppes de debarquement, mais comme je ne s^ai 
point, si cette lettre ait eu le bon sort de parvenir jusques a vos 
mains, je vous en ai voulu mander la Duplicata ci-jointe, a la 
quelle je ne scaurois aj outer auter chose, si non que mes 
affaires s'empirant ici de jour en jour et ne nous trouvant 
nuUement en etat de nous opposer aux insultes des ennemis tous- 
jours superieures sur nous, tant en Infanterie qu'en Cavallerie, 
vous procuries par tons vos soings de venir auplustot avec la 
flotte et les trouppes de debarquement dans la Mediterranee, 
pour nous mettre par ce renfort en etat de pouvoir arreter les 
progres des ennemis, et de recommencer nos operations pour le 
plus grande bien de la cause commune. Les ministres et les 
Generaux ici presens de la Regne votre maitresse, du Roy de 
Portugal, et de M'" • les etats generaux sont convenu avec moy, 
que comme les ennemis se sont rendu maitres de la ville de 
Cartagene, la flotte ne pourroit entrer dans un meilleur Port, que 
celui d'Alicante, faisant continuer la route aux freggattes, et aux 
navires de transport, pour prendre celui de Denia, pour y mettre 
a terre les trouppes de debarquement, pour la subsistance des 
quelles je vas prevenir les ordres, a fin qu'a leur arriv^e les 
vivres et les provisions pour la nourriture des hommes, et de 
la Cavallerie de meme (pie toutes les choses necessaires pour le 


train du bagage soyent a la main pour entrer aussi-tot dans les 
operations qu'on jugera le plus convenables, et d'autant qu'on a 
remarque, qu'il y a dans ce royaume et la principaute de 
Catalogne une grande disette des grains consumes par les 
ennemis et a Foccasion de la presence de notre armee, vous me 
faires un agreable service en prenant soing de porter avec la 
flotte telle grande quantite de bled et d'avoine, que vous puissies 
ramasser a Lisbonne, Gibraltar, Tanger, Alger, ou en d'autres 
ports de la Barbarie, d'autant que cette provision viendra 
tousjours tres a propos pour la subsistance de I'armee quoy 
que je ne laisserai point de faire faire en attendant toutes les 
preventions imaginables, pourqu' a vos trouppes manque de rien 
a leur arrivee. Je me flatte que la presente aura la sort de vous 
rencontrer encore dans la riviere de Lisbonne, mais en tout cas 
qu'elle paroint en vos mains dans un tems, que vous fussies 
avec les trouppes actuellement engage aux expeditions de Seville 
on de Cadix, dont le succes a ce que Ton juge ici sera expose a 
mille difficultes particulierement en cette saison, j'espere que 
vous laisseres pas pour cela de contribuer de vos bons offices a ce 
que I'Admiral Scliovel envoye a mon assistance une escadre 
de vaisseaux, pour la seurete de ces cotes, et pour pouvoir 
entretenir la communication avec les Isles de Majorque, et 
d'lvice, et pour pouvoir tacher, s'il est possible de se rendre 
maitre du Port de Maon, I'lsle de Minorque s'etant de meme 
volontairement soumis a mon obeissance, et mes bons sujets de 
cette Isle ne desirant que quelques vaisseaux pour serrer du cote 
de la mer cette place qu'ils tiennent actuellement bloque par terre. 
Je me rapporte au surplus a la duplicata de ma lettre precedente, 
en vous assurant de nouveau de mon estime et de ma parfaite 

General J. Stanhope to Earl Eivers. 

1706, November [13-] 24. Valentia. — lam honoured with your 
Lordship's letter of the 30th of October o.s., and am very sorry 
the despatches sent to your Lordship near a month ago from 
hence could not for want of shij^ping get to you. The very next day 
that we received news from England that your Lordship was 
intended to act on the coast of Spain, I sent my brother with 
letters from the King and my Lord Galway to go to your Lord- 
ship, but a man-of-war the IpsicicJi, which promised to call at 
Altea to take in our letters, did not touch there, so my brother 
was detained three weeks at Denia and Alicant, and embarked 
at last on a merchant ship. I hope he will have had the 
good fortune to kiss your Lordship's hands before this reaches 
you, but lest any accident should have prevented him you 
will by Col. Worseley receive duplicates of what was then 

Our circumstances are not mended but on the contrary since 
that time, having lost Cathagena, but the King and my Lord 
Galway write so fully to your Lordship that I have little to add 
on that subject. 


I am very much obliged to your Lordship for the confidence you 
are pleased to exi)ress in me, which I shall always endeavour to 
make use of to the utmost of my power for the service of your 
Lordship and the public. I believe the King and my Lord Galway 
will have explained themselves to your Lordship's satisfaction on 
the matter your Lordship was pleased to touch to me and am fully 
persuaded that your Lordship will be made as easy in that matter 
as you can wish and desire. The Portuguese General does by 
virtue of our treaty claim and is in possession of the command of 
those troops that are on the establishment of Portugal; over those 
which were of my Lord Peterborough's establishment, he can 
pretend nothing, much less of any distinct body sent hither by 
the Queen to our assistance over and above what her Majesty is 
by any treaty obliged to furnish. The King is too much con- 
cerned in interest to have this body join him not to comply with 
whatever your Lordship shall insis't on, and I do verily believe 
that your Lordship will find in my Lord Galway all manner of 

The great difficulty we shall have to struggle with will be 
provisions, though that will be made much easier than it now is 
when we have ships in these seas. I am promised by the King and 
his ministers that all possible diligence shall be used in making 
magazines, but I fear the country has not wherewithal. 
From Majorca we may have considerable supplies so soon as any 
shipping comes. If from Lisbon or Barbary your Lordshi}) and 
Sir Cloudesley Shovell can get any quantities of corn, and barley 
especiall}^, it will be the greatest service can be done us. 


[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

[1706, November] 15, Friday night. — I return your two Scots 
letters ; I reckon others are come in to-rday, though I have 
not had any, but I conclude they will not proceed upon the Union 
till they have perfected their Act for security of their Church. 
Their majority having fallen at one time from 70 to 32 has made 
them very apprehensive, and, I doubt, with reason. 

I shall not write to the Duke of Marlborough to-night because 
I hope he will be here to-morrow or next day. If he can con- 
quer animosity as well as armies his presence will be very useful 
in this island of Britain. 

I hear Crawford is dead, so there's a government [of Sheer- 
ness] for one of his officers. The governor of Virginia [Nott] is 
also dead ; I make no doubt but my Lord Orkney will seize upon 
that, and I don't see why one might not persuade him to go 
down to Scotland and vote for the Union, without which he can't 
be capable of it. 

What with their lingering there and the expectation of it here, 
I doubt we must take the pretext of the floods for putting off the 

Lord Godolphin to [Earl Rivers]. 

1706, November 19. — I have the honour of ydur Lordship's of 
the 30th October from Lisbon. 


You will see by the instnictions you will receive from Mr. 
Secretary Hedges by this packet that in case you are not gone 
from Lisbon before it arrives the Queen has changed at present 
her thoughts of your going to Seville and Cadiz. 

This change has been occasioned partly by the delays and 
other misfortunes of the bad weather you have met with, but 
chiefly from knowing my Lord Galway's opinion by Monsieur de 
Montandre, now here but designed to be sent to Lisbon again 
within four days, that your forces could not be so useful to the 
King of Spain's service by joining him at Yalentia as they might 
be by joining with the troops of the King of Portugal, and taking 
post now immediately upon the frontiers of Castille, that so the 
army may be in readiness to march to Toledo as soon as the 
season of the year will admit. This, M. de Montandre tells 
us, was my Lord Galway's opinion, and to this the Duke of 
Marlborough, now arrived, agrees ; and the rather because we 
find, both by the Envoy of Portugal here and by what 
M. de Montandre relates of the temper in which he left the 
Court of Portugal, that they are now as desirous and forward 
to march to Madrid as they wxre backward last summer, because 
by experience they find it is not a difficult matter, and because 
they have no other way of disengaging their army now in Spain ; 
and the Queen's consideration in leaving her troops under your 
command to act in conjunction with them will probably be so 
agreeable to the King of Portugal that he wdll give 3^ou no uneasi- 
ness in the point of command, but direct his general, who shall 
have the name of the chief command, to be w^hoUy guided by you 
in the executive part ; and we are also promised there shall be 
the same disposition to make you easy in furnishing all manner 
of necessaries for the marching and subsisting of your troops. 

M. de Montandre wdll be dispatched in a few days to Lisbon, to 
see all accomplished that has been promised by the King of 
Portugal, and from thence he is to give the King of Spain and my 
Lord Galway an account in w'hat state he has left all in Lisbon, 
that so they may take their measures according for entering into 
Castille on that side at the same time you shall begin to march 
from the frontiers of Portugal. 

Postsi^iipt. — I desire to make my compliments to my Lord 
Essex, and to tell him that he is declared Constable of the Tower. 

Sir Charles Hedges to Earl Eivers. 

1706, November 19: Whitehall. — I herewith send your 
Excellency her Majesty's instruction for continuing at Lisbon in 
case this meets you there, and you will by express, which perhaps 
may reach you as soon as this, receive her Majesty's further 
instructions for the operations of the next campaign by entering 
Spain on the Portugal side, the framing of which is now under 
consideration ; but since it is of use that your Excellency should 
be informed of her Majesty's intentions as soon as possible I here 
send you the first draught of what is designed for your instruc- 


tioiis, that you may be the l)etter prepai-ed by being apprised of 
the measures that are taking, which I desire you will communicate 
to Sir Cloudesley Shovell. You will see by this draught that 
your letters of the 29th and 31st past are come to hand, and I 
hope this alteration will be agreeable to your Excellency. 

Monsieur Montandre will bring you the instructions as soon as 
they are finished, and will more fully explain this matter to you 
wdth the inducement that inclined her Majesty to countermand 
her former orders. 

If Mr. Methuen be at Lisbon it will be necessary to communicate 
all to him, who as her Majesty's minister will give your Excellency 
assistance in all that may be needful, being well acquainted witjfi 
that Court and the temper of the people there. I enclose a letter 
from Lord Treasurer. 

Sir Charles Hedges to Earl Eiyers. 

1706, November 26. Whitehall. — 1 have received the favour 
of your Excellency's of the 29th and 31st past with the Council 
of War, which having been laid before the Queen, her Majesty 
has thought fit to send you the inclosed instructions, a duplicate 
of which for more certainty will also go by the packet boat. Her 
Majesty has therein so fully recited the motives that induced her 
to give these orders that I have little occasion to trouble your 
Excellency with any further explanations. It is hoped they will 
reach you before you leave Lisbon ; but whether you are still 
there or that these come to hand when you are advanced further 
towards Cadiz according to your former instructions, I am to 
acquaint your Excellency that you are to look upon the latitude 
you had then for joining the Eai'l of Galway as being at an end, 
upon the representations and proposals made by the Envoy of 
Portugal and Monsieur Montandre. And in case it shall not be 
found advisable to proceed upon those former instructions, now 
the season of the year is so .far advanced, the men-of-war 
shattered and the troops fatigued with the voyage, and that the 
difficulties in this enterprise appear to be such as may make your 
success doubtful and harass your men so as not to be in a good 
condition to begin the campaign early, you are then to continue 
at Lisbon, or to return thither if you should be gone from thence. 

As to the sending your Excellency particular instructions for 
giving out clothes or arms to the Spanish troops, or any other 
services that you judge tend to the advancing the interest of the 
common cause, her Majesty does not think it proper to give 
any particular directions, and leaves those matters and all 
minute particulars to your Excellency's discretion and prudence, 
not doubting but 3"ou will in all things order what shall conduce 
most to her service and the carrying on the main design for 
establishing King Charles on the throne. 

Your Excellency will receive with your instructions a copy of 
a memorial presented to the Queen by the envoy of Portugal 
with the answer which was given to it by her Majesty's command, 


She takes it for granted that all that is therein proposed will be 
effectually complied with, so that I hope your Excellency will 
have no difficulty with the King of Portugal in settling any of 
those articles, especially since he himself has proposed the same 
to the Marquis de Montandre; but whatever else occurs to your 
Excellency for facilitating the proposed design and for putting it 
in execution early in the year is recommended particularly to 
your care to be put into a good method and forwardness, so that 
nothing may be wanting when you come to take the field, and 
you are, as far as is possible, to get all necessaries provided by 
the King of Portugal on the most advantageous terms you can 
with regard to her Majesty's interest and the advancement of the 
service. At the same time, while all things are preparing for an 
early campaign on the side of Portugal, there should be no manner 
of neglect in dispatching the Portuguese recruits and all 
necessaries for the Portugal troops at Yalentia, it being 
the reinforcements the Earl of Gahvay entirely depends 
on, and the principal inducement to his proposing that 
her Majesty's troops that w^ere designed for the former expedition 
should act in Portugal, in conjunction with the ten thousand 
foot and betw^een tw^o and three thousand horse that the King 
proposes to join to them, and march to Madrid by the w'ay of 
Toledo, as the most effectual means in his Lordship's opinion for 
putting him in a condition to co-operate on the other side and 
regain the capital, which it is believed wdll most facilitate the 
reducing of the whole kingdom. 

The King of Portugal having writ to the Queen upon this 
subject, her Majesty has thought tit to return an answer, which 
you have herewith, wherein she gives your Excellency a credential 
for negociating and adjusting everything with his Portuguese 
Majesty for the carrying on of this service. This letter you will 
please to deliver to the King, giving him assurances at the same 
time of her Majesty's steady and firm resolution to carry on the 
war with the utmost vigour in conjunction w^ith his Majesty, and 
that you are ready to agree to settle all that remains requisite to 
be adjusted on the foot that his envoy here and the Marquis de 
Montandre have proposed ; I also enclose an extract of the King's 
letter and and a copy of her Majesty's answer for your information. 

I have no orders to trouble your Excellency with anything 
relating to money or what may be wanting for the army, but 
must crave leave to refer you to my Lord Treasurer for the former 
and to the Secretary at War for the latter. Whatever your 
Excellency proposes on those heads I constantly, according to my 
duty, lay it before the Queen ; but those are the proper channels 
for putting in execution all orders his Majesty thinks fit to give 
of that kind. 

If Mr. Methuen be arrived your Excellency will please to com- 
municate your orders to him, who, as her Majesty's envoy, you 
may be sure will readily assist in everything you think needful, 
and I have written to him upon this subject. 

I send your Excellency a copy of Monsieur Montandre's pro- 
posals and the answers that have been given to them, and care 


will be taken that they be complied with by the proper offices ; 
and as to the disposal of arms you will hear from the Board of 
Ordnance upon that head. 

Postsrrq^t. — Your Excellency will receive this by Monsieur 
Montandre, who will be able to explain to you more fully what I 
now wi'ite and the measures that are intended to be pursued. 


Earl Rivers to Sir Charles Hedges. 

1706, November. Lisbon. — In my last I gave you an account 
that pursuant to her Majesty's orders and instructions it was 
resolved by a Council of War to continue our voyage, in order to 
which that I had landed our horses that the ships and stalls 
might be refitted, and that I was doing my utmost endeavours to 
supply ourselves with the necessary horse meat for our expedi- 
tion ; but besides the many difficulties which are natural to this 
country the continual bad weather has l)een a great hindrance to us. 

I am more than ever surprised that I have heard nothing from 
the King of Spain or my Lord Galway. On my part I have left 
nothing undone that can conduce to the ends that I have been 
sent about. I have dispatched an officer away to Yalentia to 
give them an account of my arrival here and of her Majesty's 
orders and instructions to me, and at my request the Spanish 
envoy has sent a projDer person into the country where we are 
going to bring us account of matters thence, and we may probably 
expect his return before we go hence. The said Spanish envoy 
has assured me that there is a very good disposition among the 
great men there to second us. 

The Portuguese have given out that Alcantara was besieged, 
and the King sent to me to know^ whether I would not land any 
of my troops. I answered him that my orders were to join the 
King of Spain, and that without disobeying the Queen I could not 
do it ; but this I believe was an invention of their own to try my 

I had a general order from my Lord Treasurer whilst we were 
at Torbay to supply the Dutch with money to buy their own 
forage, victualling, &c. Upon our arrival here Brigadier Lisle 
Mare addressed himself to me that I would continue doing the 
same, for that Monsieur Schonenberg, the Dutch minister here, 
would do nothing in it, having no orders from his masters for 
so doing, which I do not wonder at, the secret of this expedition 
being kept from them, and our coming here altogether accidental. 
So that upon the whole matter I find myself necessitated to help 
them. He has brought me an estimate of about 7,000/., part of 
which I have already advanced and the rest I shall pay in a few 
days, and by the next post I shall send you his receipt for the 
same. I resisted his importunity all I could, but he having told 
me that without this money he could not proceed with me I w^as 
forced at last to comply. 

It being long since Mr. Secretary Harley promised to let me 
known her Majest}^s pleasure what should be done with the 


clothing which I have with me, designed for the French regiments, 
I am surprised to hear nothing from him. They were very 
inconveniently loaded on board several men-of-war, which being 
subject to be commanded away we may be disappointed of them, 
and therefore I shall order them to be landed here, the Admiral 
so desiring it, until I have power to dispose of them otherways. 

We are hard at work in refitting our ships and in providing of 
forage, but the continual rains are a great hindrance to us, and 
serve the Portuguese likewise for an excuse of their no better 
compliance. However, I am in better hopes than I was in the 
writing of my last that they will perform what they have 


Don Diego Mendo^a to Lord Rivers. 

1706 [November 30-] December 11. [Lisbon.] Au Palais. — 
Je presentai a sa Mageste le Roy mon maistre votre lettre de le 
ll'' du current, et sa Mageste m'ordona de vous remercier de sa 
IDart de vos souhaits pour la prosperite de son regne ; come aussi 
du chagrin ; que vous temoignes, vous a cause la mort du feu 
Roy son Pere. 

Sa ditte Mageste m'ordona aussi de vous asseurer, qu'elle 
continuera a observer I'allianse faitte par le feu Roy son Pere 
avec la Reyne votre Maitresse, et les autres Princes Allies, 
faisant observer de son cote, tout ce qu' a ete estipule dans le 
Traite, continuant la guerre avec le meme vigeur, que jusqu' a 
present ; parceque elle est dans les memes intentions, que etoit 
le Roy son Pere ; et sa Mageste a charge son Envoye a Londres 
de communiquer cela a la Reyne votre Maitresse. 

The Same to the Same. 

1706, December [1-] 12. [Lisbon.] . Au Palais. — Avant hier 
j'avois ajuste avec Mr. Richard chez Mr. Methuyn qu'on devoit 
envoy er avec Torres un ministre de sa Majeste, pour faire 
transporter ici toute la paille qu'il faudroit pour vos chevaux, et 
que meme votre Excellencie envoyera un Anglois qui parleroit 
portugais pour aller avec eux, croyant que cela seroit plus con- 
venable pour avoir de la paille, car si on arrete cet homme la, 
nous aurons de la pene a I'avoir citot : 

Le Ministre et Torres, n 'attendant que le comissaire Anglois 
pour partir faites moy la grace de mander si vous souhaitez, 
qu'on aille on bien que le dit Torres soit arrets j'attens votre 

Earl Rivers to Sir Charles Hedges. 

1706, December 3-14.- Lisbon. — I have before me yours of the 
1st, 15th, 17th, 28th, 29th of October and 1st of November, to all 
which I will make answer in the amplest manner I can, though 
as yet I have not heard one word from either the King of Spain 

6802 I 


or my Lord Galway, whose advices are so necessary for my con- 
duct I have writ them by five several occasions, and I presume 
that they have been writ [to] from home by the w^ay of Italy. As 
to Mr. Crow I have not as yet seen him. 

In all my former letters I have acquainted you that it was 
still my opinion, as likewise that of the Council of War (a copy 
of which was sent you), to pursue her Majesty's first orders and 
instructions, and in the same opinion I still remain, but under 
the restrictions mentioned in yours, and particularly that of the 
29th of October, pursuant to which we shall determine what is 
most advantageous to her Majesty's service, and the end to which 
I was sent, which is the reduction of Spain. 

I am sorry to tell you that the Duke of Anjou, suspecting the 
fidelity of his officers and governors in Andalusia, has about a 
month ago turned them all out and sent others in their room. He 
did it not without reason, for we had several good assurances 
that divers of them w^ere our friends, but as yet we do not hear 
that they have detached any troops that way. 

As to the conjunction of these troops under my command with 
those of my Lord Galway, I shall punctually comply with the 
same pursuant to her Majesty's instructions, the circumstances 
of our affairs, and the judgment of the Council of War ; but as to 
my serving in person I hope her Majesty will have the goodness to 
excuse me, it being well known that I came not abroad but in view of 
the honour of commanding alone, and yet when her service required 
me to go to. Spain I readily condescended, not doubting but that at 
least the command of these troops would have remained with me, 
whoever I had joined; but seeing her Majesty's pleasure is now 
otherwise, I will carry these troops up to Yalentia (in case it 
shall be judged necessary so to do), and so return for England, 
having resolved to serve under nobody but his Royal Highness 
or the Duke of Marlborough. 

I observe her Majesty's order to suspend for some time her 
former instructions about proposing to the King of Portugal that 
we should pay his troops in Yalentia. 

The secret of our expedition is as entire as when we arrived 
here, neither shall I reveal it until the last, when I will make all 
the efforts possible upon the King to co-operate with us, which I 
wdsh he may be induced to ; but as to his giving us any horses to 
be repaid again in specie by horses to be sent from England, I 
fear that he will scarcely condescend to, however it shall be pro- 

That the enemy infinitely exceeds us in horse if we do 
not make some extraordinary effort is certain, and consequently 
will prove an invincible difficulty to a long march, such 
as we must make if we will go for Madrid. Among all 
the projects that have been proposed to me to reinforce 
ours, there is none that in all respects does answer the design 
as to have a good body of veteran horse from Italy, provided 
they can be spared, for our transports so soon as we are secured 
ashore may go fetch them; but of this her Majesty is the best 
judge whether it be feasible or no. 


The King of Portugal has established two boats at Faro to run 
between that place and Gibraltar. Sir Cloudesley Shovell has 
ordered two frigates to attend them, to take up the letters and 
carry them to Alicant, so that provided the winds be favourable 
we shall have letters every fifteen days, but inasmuch as the 
westerly winds do reign here for months together (as at present) 
I believe it will be judged proper that a couple of feluccas be 
employed to run between Barcelona and Genoa so soon as the 
season of the year will permit them. 

Whereas in yours of the first of October, it appears that the 
article in my manifesto relating to the protection of the loyal 
Spaniards, navigation was thought too particular and that with- 
out communicating this matter with the States General it was 
not to bo done. I was in hopes to have been further directed 
therein, for want of which I have by advice of Sir Cloudesley 
Shovell inserted this clause, we having judged it necessary to 
say something to this purpose, which I hope will meet with 
her Majesty's approbation: — 

"And furthermore we declare that all his Catholic Majesty's 
subjects who shall render their obedience to their lawful 
King shall be protected in their navigation, to which end 
the Queen, my mistress, at the requisst of King Charles, has sent 
already a powerful squadron to the Spanish West Indies to pro- 
tect and secure the states and effects of those Spaniards who by 
their loyalty shall merit this grace and favour, and to convoy and 
bring back their said Spanish ships to Cadiz or Seville provided 
the said places are in the obedience of his Catholic Majesty, King 

I have often writ to have orders how to dispose of the clothing 
which I have with me, and which was designed for the French. 
I do presume that it may be her Majesty's intentions to bestow 
it upon such of the Spaniards as shall come in to us, but about 
this I desire to have her Majesty's further instructions. 

The King of Portugal is dead, and his son will be proclaimed 
to-morrow. What influence this will have on our affairs and what- 
ever else relates to this Court I entirely remit you to Mr. Methuen ; 
however, I think it proper to send you a copy of letter writ me by 
the Secretary of State. 


The Duke of Marlborough to [Earl Rivers]. 

1706, December 4. " St. Jeamses." — Finding upon my arrival 
from Holland, the Marquis de Montandre ready to return to 
Portugal with the Queen's letters to the King, and her Majesty's 
instructions to your Lordship, 'tis with great satisfaction that I 
lay hold of this opportunity to congratulate your safe arrival on 
that side after so troublesome and hazardous a voyage. I shall 
not entertain 3 ou with the measures we are taking for carrying on 
the war in the Low Countries, having fully instructed the Marquis 
on that subject for your information. 


The Earl of Sunderland to Earl Rivers. 

1706, December 4. London. — The Queen was pleased yester- 
day to give me the seals in the room of Sir Charles Hedges, and 
to allot me the Southern Province, which is particularly agreeable 
to me, as what will give me frequent opportunities of corres- 
ponding with your Lordship. I am very sensible of the 
difficulties of such an employment, but as our friends would have 
me undertake it, so I shall always endeavour by their support 
and assistance to be as useful as I can be to the honest 
interest. I wish your Lordship all good success. 

Lord Sombrs to Earl Rivers. 

1706, December 4. London. — I have the honour of your 
Lordship's of the eighth of November, and I assure you it was 
very welcome to me, for after the account we had of your 
dangerous voyage, it was no little pleasure to me to be assured 
from your own hand that you were safe and well. I have found 
an opportunity of discoursing particularly, upon the subject of 
the necessity of your Lordship being well supplied, with my 
Lord Treasurer. He gave me a fair occasion, and I laid hold of 
it, with respect to the general service, as well as of my friends! lip 
to your Lordship, which obliged me to desire that everything 
should prosper in your hands. Nobod}^ could speak more kindly 
and promise more fully. He said his whole heart was on the 
business you were employed in, and that nothing should be 
wanting. I hope what he does will be suitable and I can ask no 

My Lord Galway has proposed your acting with the Portuguese, 
as the most effectual way to advance the interest of King Charles. 
I have understood that a great deal is still left to your judg- 
ment. I believe you will find the Marquis de Montandre to 
have good sense and to be capable of acquainting your Lordshiji 
of the humour of the Portuguese and of the inclination and 
qualification of their persons. Be pleased to allow me to suggest 
that they will promise anything to oblige you to stay with them, 
for the troops they have in Spain give them a real concern ; but on 
the other side I hope that your Lordship will take all precautions 
possible that they may observe what they promise to you. 

I hope you have heard long since of the answer about 
Guernsey, that the General Ch [urchill] had an old promise of 
it. After this nothing could be said I find. 

At length Lord Sunderland is Secretary in place of Sir Ch. 
Hedges, and for the same province, for which I congratulate your 

I can wish nothing more than I do your success. I will mind 
nothing more than your affairs. 

Earl Rivers to Sir Charles Hedges. 

1706, December 6-17. Lisbon. — I have already writ you under 
the 3-14 current, but it was afterwards judged necessary to detain 


the packet boat until Col. Worsley arrived with the King of 
Spain's letter, &c., which he did two days ago, the import of 
which is to this purpose. That the enemy is so superior to 
them in both horse and foot that in case we be not already 
engaged in the enterprise of Cadiz, the King as well as the 
General Officers do earnestly desire that we may come to his 
succour, which in a Council of War, of which you have here a copy, 
we resolved to do with all possible expedition, and we now stay 
for nothing else but a little straw which I wish we may get in so far 
as ten or twelve days. 

Furthermore, the King of Spain and Mr. Stanhope do earnestly 
desire that we should bring with us all the bread and corn we 
can, and particularly barley, of all which there is there great 
scarcity, for which reason I have ordered the buying up one hundred 
days bread and corn for the troops under my command and I shall 
leave nothing unattempted to procure the same from Algiers, 
Tunis, Majorca, &c., for as to the rest of Barbary I fear they will 
not supply us with any, and yet these my endeavours are not so 
entirely to be depended upon but that I judge it would be neces- 
sary to send some ships from England laden with wheat and 
barley and biscuit to Alicant ; it is keeping so much money in the 
nation and may if not wanted be sold to profit. 

1 am informed that our troops there are very weak, to recruit 
which as well as my own, I conceive there are but three ways, 
one of which her Majesty in her great prudence will be pleased to 
make use of. The first is to send entire regiments with a very few 
officers, which so soon as they have landed their men in Spain 
will return back again to the rest of their officers in England, 
who in the meantime will be raising of their regiments again. 

The second is by breaking of the weakest regiments into the 
strongest and sending the officers back again to raise them anew. 
And if there was some such general rule, that when a regiment 
should be reduced to such a number (without having been in 
service) it should be broken into another, it might oblige the 
officers to be more careful of their men. 

The third way is by drafts, which occasions great confusion in 
their accounts. 

We received some letters from Valentia, which we might have 
had near a month sooner had there been a frigate to have 
brought them away, or indeed had not the Captain of the man- 
of-war disappointed him, of which his Catholic Majesty and my 
Lord Gal way do complain, and indeed this is a matter of such 
consequence that he does earnestly desire that three or four small 
frigates may have orders to attend that coast and to obey such 
orders as they shall receive from the King of Spain, or in his 
absence the General commanding her Majesty's forces, and 
indeed that all other frigates despatched with letters may be 
obliged upon the King's request to stay for his answer. I do 
not say this to offend Sir C. Shovell, who is very forward and 
zealous in whatever relates to the public service, that this 
precaution would not be necessary if we were always sure of 
having him here. 


We are so very weak in horses, and the enemy is so very 
superior to us that there is nothing that I will leave unattempted 
to reinforce them, pursuant to her Majesty's instructions. I am 
told that there are some in Valentia, which I will immediately 
buy up, and draw the money upon Mr. Morice, but lest these my 
endeavours should prove futile I hope that her Majesty will be 
pleased to reflect upon my former proposal of procuring a body 
of good serviceable horse to be sent from Italy upon our 

The King of Spain having lost this campaign a great part of 
his infantry, my Lord Galway has writ to Mr. Morice (not 
supposing me to be here) to pay another Spanish regiment to be 
raised out of the garrison of Alcantara, pursuant to which I have 
given the necessary orders, the plan of which regiment and its 
expense shall be sent you next packet, and I doubt not but that 
my Lord Treasurer wdll make account thereof in order to be 
regularly subsisted. 

I, having by this occasion received all the satisfaction I could 
expect both from the King of Spain and my Lord Galway in 
relation to the command of those troops which are now under 
my orders, have resolved to go with them to Valentia and to 
continue there until her Majesty shall give her further direction 
therein, the said Earl of Galway having in divers of his 
letters assured me that he was desirous of going home on account 
of his health, and that immediately upon my arrival he would 
remit the command even of his own to me. 


Earl Rivers to the Lord Treasurer. 

1706, December 6-17. Lisbon. — I will not trouble your 
Lordship with the repetition of what I have writ Mr. Secretary, 
to whom you will please to be referred. Your Lordship will be 
informed that pursuant to the King of Spain's earnest desire 
and the unanimous opinion of the Generals there, that without 
being powerfully succoured they run a hazard of being entirely 
undone. I have resolved together with a Council of War to 
make all possible haste to their assistance. 

I have here had from Mr. Morice the sum of 60,000/. sterling, 
which I judge will subsist us to the latter end of April, supposing 
that there be no necessity of any extraordinary expense as the 
buying up of horses, &c., which I am resolved to do in case 
they are to be had, and therefore I hope that your Lordship will 
be very forward in the remitting hither proportionable sums, I 
say remitting, because that I am informed that this place will 
not always afford the great sums ordinary and extraordinary 
which this remote war does require, and therefore if your Lord- 
ship should approve of it, I judge it very necessary that a 
sufficient credit was likewise lodged in Genoa or Leghorn for any 
emergent occasion. 

I have a favour to beg of you which is that in the regiments 
designed hither that my Lord Barrymore may not be one of 


them, and I have so great a confidence in your Lordship's friend- 
ship that I entirely remit whatever I shall ask or propose in 
relation to myself to your better judgement, so that whatever you 
think is not fitting to be done that you will not so much as mention 
it, and on the contrary whatever is just and reasonable I shall 
always meet with your Lordship's concurrence therein, and 
therefore I beg that your Lordship will be very plain with me 
and in that manner answer whatever I have and shall propose to 

I am informed that there comes over to us a good many 
French deserters, so that my design is to complete Guiscard's 
regiment so soon as I can, and whereas it is not to be expected 
that it should be well governed without a Colonel, I beg that her 
Majesty will either give me the said regiment or permit me to 
nominate a Colonel. 

The next thing in which I desire your Lordship's advice is 
what I should do in case the King of Spain should propose to me 
to take any commission from him which my Lord Peterborough 
did, and I hear that my Lord Galway has lately done from the 
Emperor. I must confess that I thought it so reasonable the 
ren;iaining with the command of these troops (whenever the 
service should require that I should join) that I proposed it both 
to the King and my Lord Galway, to which they having readily 
condescended, I have resolved not only to go up with the troops 
to Valentia, but to stay with them, and my Lord Galway has 
likewise further assured me in divers letters that he is still 
desirous of going home upon account of his health and that there- 
fore he will remit the troops under his command to me. I wish 
I was as able as I am willing to undertake anything for her 
Majesty's service, but I being conscious of my own insufficiency, 
I entirely remit myself to her Majesty's pleasure. 

I hope that the Spanish regiment which I take with me, as like- 
wise the other to be raised by order of my Lord Galway (as you will 
see more at large by what I have writ Mr. Secretary) , will be 
comprehended in your Lordship's calculations of this future 
year's expenses to the end that they may be regularly paid as well 
as our own troops. 


[Lord Godolphin to Earl Kivers.] 

1706, December 16. — I have had the honour to read to the 
Queen your Lordship's of the 29th of November. Her Majesty 
thinks the resolutions you propose to take in case of your forces 
joining with my Lord Galway very prudent and reasonable, but 
we are in good hopes the orders from hence to stop you at Lisbon 
may come in time to keep you there, since the accident of the 
King of Portugal's death will probably increase the delays you 
met with before in getting all things ready for your leaving it, 
besides that the season of the year, through the many accidents 
which have concurred to detain you so long, is now very little 
proper for such an expedition as was at first designed. 


These considerations, joined with our accounts from Valentia 
that they want all manner of subsistence for the troops already 
there, have determined the Queen to agree to the plan brought by 
M. de Montandre from the Earl of Gal way that your Lordship 
with the troops under your command should, in conjunction, with 
the forces of the King of Portugal, endeavour to make a diversion 
on that side as early as the season of the year will admit of your 
taking the field. 

The orders to this purpose went from hence time enough to 
have reached you before the fleet could have sailed, but they 
have unluckily been long kept back by contrary winds, which 
makes us now very uneasy under the uncertainty whether they 
have come in time to you or not. If you have received them I 
believe you will find great assistance from M. de Montandre in 
the execution of them, since he know^s all that country very well, 
is perfectly acquainted with the humour and temper of the 
Portuguese, and capable of being very serviceable to you. 

I shall only add that our Parliament here is so unanimous in 
carrying on the war next year everywhere with all the vigour 
imaginable, that whatever they gave out, or brag of, in Spain, it 
will be impossible for France to spare them any troops, since 
they will have their hands very full on the side of Dauphine, on 
the Rhine, and in Flanders. 

The Earl of Sunderland to Earl Eivers. 

1706, December 17. Whitehall. — This sudden accident of the 
King of Portugal's death makes us very uneasy here, and appre- 
hensive of some ill turn in our affairs there, upon this new 
Government. It is a very fortunate thing for her Majesty's service 
that your Lordship is there with the troops and fleet at so critical 
a juncture, and I am sure you will improve it to the best advan- 
tage. I send by this packet, credentials and commission of 
ambassador to Mr. Methuen, notwithstanding which her Majesty 
thought it would be taken as a mark of her great regard to the 
new King to have the first compliments made to him by one of 
your Lordship's figure and quality, and therefore has writ a lettrede 
cachette with her own hand to him which I send you here enclosed. 
Your Lordship will at the same time make the compliments of 
condolence and congratulation with the assurances of the Queen's 
desire of continuing in the strictest amity and friendship with 
him, and in order to it she has sent instructions to Mr. Methuen, 
her residing ambassador there, to renew the treaties now in force, 
which he will acquaint you with. 

I hope by this time you have received the last orders that were 
sent about joining the troops with the Portuguese. This accident 
of the King of Portugal's death makes that yet more necessary. 

The Same to the Same. 

1706, December 20. Whitehall. — Having received your Lord- 
ship's letters from Lisbon of the 3-14 December and of the 6-17, 
by which the condition of our affairs in Valentia seems to require 


your going forthwith thither with the troops under your com- 
mand ; I am to acquaint your Lordship that it is her Majesty's 
pleasure that you do go thither with the troops as soon as 
possible, notwithstanding any orders you may receive to the con- 
trary, those having been sent before it was known how much the 
King of Spain and my Lord Galway did want your assistance. 
By the next packet your Lordship will receive full answers to and 
directions upon your last letters. 

Prince de Lichtenstein to Lord Rivers. 

1706, December [20-] 31. Valencia. — Je me flatte que ces 
lignes auront le bon sort de vous etre rendu en chemin vers la 
Mediterranee, suivant les derniers avis de Lisbonne, par les quels 
nous aprimes, que vous series en peu de jours pret pour mettre 
a la voile avec la flotte, et les troupes de debarquement. Comme 
sa Majeste par la ci-jointe vous renouvelle ses instances pour 
venir au plus-tot a son secours, et de ces pais menaces de toutes 
parts d'un nouvelle invasion d'autant plus grande, et dangereuse, 
que nous n'avons point des forces a la main pour les opposer 
aux leurs, qui restent tousjours dans la superiorite, et s'agrandis- 
sent de plus en plus pars les grands renfors, qui leur viennent 
de la France, j'espere que votre zele et votre grande application 
pour I'avancement des interets de sa Majeste et pour la seurete 
de sa Royale personne ne balanceront aucunement pour venir 
incessamment a notre secours. C'est dans cette esperance que 
je me promets d'avoir bien-tot I'honneur de vous embrasser, et 
de vous temoigner I'attachement et la passion sincere, avec les 
quels je suis, &c. 

King Charles of Spain to Lord Rivers. 

1706, December [20-] 31. Valencia. — Quoy que je suis assure 
de votre Zele, qu' apres avoir re9eu mes lettres precedentes du 
29 Octobre et 24 Novembre vous aures fait toutes les dispositions 
et diligences possibles pour venir a mon secours avec la Flotte, 
et les troupes de debarquement, qui se trouvent sous vos ordres, 
je ne scaurois neanmoins laisser de nouveller avec cette occasion 
les instances que je vous lis de venir au plus tot dans la Mediter- 
ranee avec toutes les forces, et des provisions que vous aures pu 
ramasser, a fin qu'a leur arrivee on soit d'autant plus en ^tat 
d'entreprendre les operations qu'on jugera les plus convenables. 
Comme les ennemis tiennent tousjours la superiorite des armes 
dans ces pays, et qu'ils vont former un corps considerable dans 
le Roussillon pour assaillir derechef ma principaute de Catalogue, 
et que d'ailleurs par les avis que j'ay, je ne scaurois me pro- 
mettre aucun secours du cote de Tltalie, vous jugeres asses de la 
pressante necessite de venir avec toute la promptitude imaginable 
a mon assistance y ayant tout lieu de craindre, que faute de votre 
puissant secours, et les ennemis faissant tous les effors possibles 
pour attaquer ces terres de deux cotes, et pour me prendre au 
milieu, ma personne, et par consequent toute Texpedition 
d'Espagne pourroit 6tre reduite dans la meme extremite ou elle 


se trouva d'hyver passe. Votre claire voyance est trop grande 
pour ne point s'appercevoir que ce seroit la derniere des toutes 
les disgraces, qui pourroit arriver a la cause commune dans la 
belle situation des affaires, ou nous sommes par tout ailleur 
hormis en Espagne. Ou me vient de faire un portrait si vif de 
vos grandes qualites, et de votre application pour le bien de mon 
service et de la cause commune, que je me repose entierement 
sur votre zele, que vous ne tardere point un moment, pour 
m'ammener votre secours, comme etant le seul, qui pourra 
mettre ma personne, et toutes ces terres a convert des insultes, 
dont elles sout menacees. C'est le plus grand, et le plus 
agreable service, que vous scauries jamais rendre en cette con- 
joncture a un Prince plein de reconnaissance, et d'estime pour 
votre personne. 

King Charles of Spain to Lord Rivers. 

[1706, December 23-] 1707, January 2. Valencia. — Ayant 
apris quoy qu'avec incertitude que la Flotte avoit paru sur la 
hauter d' Alicante, Je vous envoye mon ajudant-Royal Paul 
Lipperz de Eosendal pour vous recevoir et vous feliciter sur 
votre heureuse arriv^e. Comme je fais tons mes effors autant 
que la constitution de ces pais le permet, pour qu'a 1' arrivee des 
troupes de debarquement, qui se trouvent sous vos ordres elles 
entrassent d'abord aux operations les plus necessaires pour 
I'ouverture de la Compagne. Je vous mande ci joint le projet, 
dont je suis convenu avec les generaux ici presens, et dont 
Mylord Gallway vous ecrira plus largement, sur lequel je m'en 
rapporte, esperant, que votre grand zele, application et experience 
ne tarderont guerres a le mettre promptement en execution, et que 
vous me marqueres en quoy je vous puisse assister d'ici, pour 
seconder les glorieuses expeditions, que vous alles entreprendre 
pour mon service, et celui de la cause commune. Sur quoy je 
prie Dieu qu'il vous aye Mylord dans sa sainte garde, et en 
attendant le plaisir de vous voir, et de vous embrasser bientot, je 
vous assure de ma parfaite estime, et bienveuillance. 

Lord Somers to Earl Rivers. 

1706, December 23. London. — Though I had not the honour 
of receiving a letter from you by the packet boat which brought 
an account of your being upon the point of embarking for Spain 
(which is a resolution very different from that which Mons. 
Montandre reported to be the opinion of my Lord Galway at the 
time when he was here before) , yet I cannot forbear to send this 
second letter by him, to wish you all possible prosperity in your 
intended voyage. I pray God you may meet with all things in a 
tolerable condition, and may be able to set yourself well with our 
King of Spain, which, as far as I find, may not prove a very easy 

My Lord Galway has a temper and practice in business very 
likely to have won upon this young King, but it is said he has 


not succeeded. Your Lordship will soon find how the fact is, and 
from what grounds any uneasiness or coldness has proceeded, 
and if it can be set right by any other management. You 
will also find that before any thoughts of your going to 
Valentia the Queen had wrote to the King of Spain pressing him 
in the most earnest manner to hearken to my Lord Galway and 
to be advised by him, and the Queen and ministers in their 
letters to my Lord Galway have been pressing with him to 
continue in his command. 

I have been confined by a rheumatic pain for this week to my 
chamber, and therefore am not so well able to give you an 
account of what they write now, but it is certainly to the same 
effect. The best service I can do your Lordship is to acquaint 
you sincerely of the sentiments of your friends and of those who 
mean well, upon such an occasion as this which w^as not foreseen 
or thought of when we parted. They think it would be wrong 
for your Lordship in such a juncture to refuse to serve, if my 
Lord G. should resolve to continue to command ; they think it 
would be to sacrifice Europe to a punctilio, and what would have 
a very wrong interpretation in England, where it is believed 
nobody but my Lord G. has the art of dealing with the Portu- 
guese : and give me leave to say, it would be a very melancholy 
thought to me, to have the Earl E[ivers] and the Earl of P[eter- 
borough] abandoning the service upon the same ground. 

Perhaps I have said too much upon this subject but it is out of 
the sincerity of my heart, and therefore you will interpret it 
rightly. I will ask your leave to add a few words more. If this 
be the case I hope your Lordship will go along with my Lord 
Galway, who has expressed great respect for you in his letters, 
and who is certainly a very easy man to be lived with. But if he 
will persist in declining to serve longer, which by all his letters is 
most probable, I am promised that everything shall be done to 
form a good opinion of Lord Rivers with the King of Spain and 
to increase and improve his credit and weight with him. Our 
new Secretary assures me he has orders to write this to you, and 
my Lord Treasurer said to me he would not fail to write fully 
this night to this effect. My dear Lord, do not take ill anything 
I may write out of want of knowledge of military affairs, but let 
me deal plainly with you ; I have long desired to see you in a 
circumstance wherein you might shew what you could and would 
do for your own honour and that of your country. I am sure 
no man alive is better qualified. I am not sure that things in 
Spain are in a very hopeful posture, but for God's sake if it be 
any way ^practicable make the best of it, and do not let men have 
a pretence to say you threw away the opportunity out of a 

The Earl of Sunderland to Earl Eivers. 

1706, December 23. Whitehall. — I have received your Lordship's 
letters to Sir Charles Hedges of the 3-14 and 6-17 of December, 
and must acquaint you that her Majesty does entirely approve 


of the resolution yon have taken of going as soon as possihle 
with the troops under your command to Valentia, where the 
King of Spain and Lord Galway seem to be so much in want of 
them, and it is her pleasure that you should go on forthwith, 
notwithstanding any orders you may receive to the contrary 
(such orders having been sent some time since, upon former 
advices from Portugal). As for Lord Galway's staying there, it is 
her Majesty's opinion that, if he can be persuaded to it, it is abso- 
lutely necessary for the service he should, considering the influence 
he has upon the Portuguese, and that nobody has been able to 
manage them but him. My Lord Treasurer and I have writ to him 
accordingly by the Queen's command. If he is persuaded to stay, 
the Queen is disposed to do whatever is possible to make your 
Lordship easy in the service, but of this I beg leave to refer to 
what my Lord Treasurer will write, who I know intends to write 
very fully to you upon this subject ; however, at all events in 
case he should retire, or that his indisposition should not allow 
him to act, I do by her Majesty's command send to your Lord- 
ship a commission to command in chief all the forces in Spain 
in the absence of my Lord Galway ; and your Lordship may 
depend upon it, that there is nothing in the Queen's power to do, 
to engage the King of Spain to be influenced entirely by your 
advice, that she won't do, and in everything to give you that 
credit and authority which is so necessary for the service. 

I must also acquaint you that since her Majesty is willing that 
your Lordship and the troops with you should join the King of 
Spain and the forces in Valentia, it is expected that all the troops 
there should act together as much as possible, in order to march 
straight to Madrid, and not amuse themselves in lesser projects, 
which possibly some about the King may be too fond of. There 
will also be such assurances given to Portugal of sending some 
troops to join theirs as may engage them to make a diversion on 
that side and also to send their recruits to Valentia. 

As for the want your Lordship mentions of horse, if there be 
any to be bought in Valentia, or from any other part, her Majesty 
leaves it entirely to you, but desires that what are bought may 
be in the first place for the English troops. 

As to any veteran horse, which may be had from Italy, that 
must be left to the King of Spain's management with the Emperor, 
though I fear that will not be found practicable ; and I hope they 
may be of as great use there, for I must acquaint you that there 
are measures now taking in Italy, that I hope will effectually 
prevent the French from sending more forces into Spain. 

As to the provisions, there is a great quantity of biscuit pre- 
pared to be shipped for Valentia, as much as will serve 20,000 
men for thirty days, which will be sent by the first convoy. For 
any other provisions, you may doubtlessly have them from Algiers, 
Tunis and Majorca ; however if more is wanted they will be sent. 

As for the clothing which you have with you, and which was 
designed for the French, it is her Majesty's pleasure that you 
offer it to our regiments that want, provided they will take it upon 
their own account, and if they won't, to the Spanish but upon 


the same terms. As to the methods your Lordship proi3oses of 
recruiting the troops, that of breaking the weakest regiments 
into the strongest, and then sending the officers to England to 
raise them anew, is the method that has been taken and 
directions have been given accordingly. 

I send you here enclosed a copy of a letter of Mons. Cavalier to 
the Queen. If you think the design practicable, and that the 
circumstances of affairs do permit it, her Majesty thinks it should 
be encouraged. 

Postscript. — I must not forget telling you that her Majesty has 
recalled my Lord Peterborough, and that I have accordingly sent 
letters of revocation. 

Lord Godolphin to [Earl Kivers]. 

1706, December 23. — I have had the honour to read to the 
Queen your letter of the 6th December, with the account of 
Colonel Worseley's return to you, and the desires of the King of 
Spain that you should forthwith bring the troops to Valentia, 
and your resolutions to do so accordingly. 

Her Majesty approves of all you have done, and seemed very 
well pleased with the freedom you allow me of writing my 
thoughts plainly to you upon all occasions of importance to the 
service in which you are engaged. 

In pursuance then of that method I must acquaint your Lord- 
ship that in case my Lord Galway can by any means be prevailed 
with to stay with the army or with the King of Spain, the Queen 
and all her Council are fully of opinion that is in the first place to 
be endeavoured for the good of the service ; and in that case they 
also think that your Lordship will do yourself right in the 
opinion of her Majesty and the whole kingdom if you continue to 
stay with the troops ; and, in case of my Lord Galway's absence, 
the Queen sends you a commission to command the whole in the 
same manner as my Lord Galway does, and will also recommend 
you as effectually to the King of Spain's favour and con- 

As to the commission you mention from his Christian Majesty 
of the same nature with what my Lord Galway had from the 
Emperor it is thought here more for the Queen's honour that you 
decline it, unless you evidently find the service is like to suffer for 
want of such a distinction. 

You should not expect now that any troops should follow you ; 
whatever can be spared from hence will be sent to Portugal to 
contribute to a diversion on that side. 

Monsieur de Montandre, who will give you this, was despatched 
ten days ago with a plan of another nature, but having been 
forced back by contrary winds he has been sent for up hither, 
upon the news of your going to Valentia, and new instructions 
given him accordingly. 

I refer to him and Mr. Walpole to give you a particular account 
of the vigour and dispatch of our Parliament. 


The Duke of Marlborough to [Earl Rivers]. 

1706, December 23. London. — This is the second letter you 
will receive from me by tlie Marquis Montandre. Since I wrote 
my first we have advice that you are preparing; to sail in few days 
for Valentia, where I hope this will find you safely arrived with 
the troops, and preparing to take the field. I exhort the King in 
the most earnest manner that no time be lost in entering upon 
action before the French can have any considerable succours, and 
that his Majesty would please to afford a greater share of his con- 
fidence to the Queen's generals, to the want whereof we may in 
some measure attribute our past misfortunes. I intimate the 
same thing to Comte Noyelles and tell him that as you are old 
acquaintance I doubt not but there will be a perfect friendship 
between you. Your Lordship will soon find I ])elieve that he has 
a great deal of credit with the King, and doubt not but you will 
be able to improve it as may be most for the service. 

I must refer you for what passes here to the Marquis of Mon- 
tandre, and pray you will believe me with much truth, &c. 

Earl Rivers to the Duke of Marlborough. 

1706, December 25. Lisbon. — I had done myself the honour 
to have writ to your Grace before, but that I have been so unfortu- 
nate in everything that I was to undertake that I had nothing to 
communicate to you worth your acceptance. These last instructions 
I received for my landing here will I fear prove more fatal still, 
for they are neither in a condition to do what is promised by 
Montandre and their envoy, nor, I have great reason to l)elieve, 
willing if they were. This King is very 3^oung and entirely 
governed by the D [uke] of Cadaval, and his ministers are much 
the greatest part of the same principle ; this by all that I can 
learn is certain, that if the King of Spain is not by me or speedily 
by some number of troops from England or L-eland supported, 
he will be forced to quit Spain. His expression in one of his letters 
is that if I did not come soon to his assistance he should be in a 
worse condition than he was last year. In order to which I had 
embarked the dragoons and, had not instructions come to the 
contrary, had sailed in two days. 

I have by the advice of the general land and sea officers com- 
municated to the King of Portugal by writing those conditions 
which her Majesty does expect he should agree to. Had it been 
left to me upon refusal not to have put my troops on shore in 
case any material matter demanded had been refused, then I 
could have known how to have acted, but I am ordered to insist 
upon some things which I shall heartily do, and not told how to 
act if denied ; however I shall upon their answer, with the advice 
of the general officers and envoy of England and Holland, and if 
there be any room left that I can be safe, proceed still on and 
endeavour to save the King of Spain, who I fear will be lost 
before I can assist him ; the Duke of Berwick being much 
stronger both in horse and foot. My Lord Galway has dealt 
ungentlemanlike by me, never so much as to mention the messa^^e 


he sent Montandre about to En^i^land as to my landing here, but 
on the contrary presses me to come forthwith and land at Alsen 
and Denia or the King of Spain will be lost, or to that effect. All 
that he says of Portugal in a letter of an old date is, that if the 
Admiral does think it too late in the year to venture into 
the straits the next best thing is to land here. This I say in 
confidence lest the King of Spain suffer by its being known and 
not on my own account, for I value no one's displeasure of a sub- 
ject but your Grace's and Lord Treasurer's which* I will always 
endeavour to preserve. 

The Portuguese envoy has put in his memorial what is false, 
wherein he says these troops under my command are furnished 
with equipage which will be of great use, the country not being 
able to supply them. Your Grace will be informed that there 
were but three horses to a battalion allowed to be transported and 
most of them were lost at sea or dead since. I am very well 
assured that the rest of his proposals has as little truth in them, 
but I shall let the King know^ we can not, if we are so unfortunate 
as to land here, march but b}^ the same appointed [way?] as the 
troops under Lord Galway did. 

Co})!) in Lord Rivers' haiulwriting. 

Earl Rivers to the Earl of Sunderland. 

1706, December 25, o.s. Lisbon. — Under the 5th current I gave 
Mr. Secretary Hedges an account of the resolution here taken by 
a Council of War, pursuant to her Majesty's instructions, and 
the unanimous desires of the King of Spain and my Lord Galway, 
as likewise the generals and ministers that assist in that Court, 
all which import that they were not in a condition to take the 
field, by reason of the great superiority of the enemy both in 
horse and foot, that they were apprehensive that they would 
attack Alicant, and that without our coming they would be 
exposed to the last extremities, and the King of Spain went so 
far as to conclude that without my coming he would be reduced 
to a worse condition than he was last year, besieged in some 
miserable town. 

Pursuant to the said resolution I had actually embarked the 
dragoons and should have sailed within a day or two. Your 
Lordship may therefore believe that it was very surprising to me 
to receive her Majesty's instructions, which were brought me by 
this packet boat, to land all her forces here, and that the Queen 
should })e advised thereto by my Lord Galway, who but a little 
before insisted so hard upon my joining him. 

It is true the Queen does order me in her instructions to insist 
not only upon what the envoy of Portugal and Montandre have 
offered there, but likewise some other points, but there being no 
instructions given me what to do in case the King should not 
perform what his envoy has promised or the Queen does expect 
from him, which in truth J fear he cannot nor will not do, his 
answer therefore can only be referred to the judgment of a 
Council of War of our sea and land officers, \^herein I designed 


the Ministers of our Allies shall he present, pursuant to which I 
shall stay or go, and I having already given to the King of 
Portugal in writing a demand of what the Queen expects from 
him (a copy of which I send you), I am in hopes to have his 
answer hefore the packet boat goes, if not, it must he the subject 
matter of my next. 

If after all the Queen does judge it for her service to liave a 
body of troops in this country, I cannot but esteem myself a very 
improper person to command them. The just resentment which 
I have shown of their unfair dealing with us in detaining us 
here so long, the affront they have lately put upon the Queen's 
fleet, the particulars of which I refer you to Sir C. Shovell, who 
on this occasion has exerted himself in a manner becoming an 
English Admiral, and my constant though civil refusal of landing 
any of her troops without her orders has put me upon such a 
foot as I fear does unqualify me to serve with them, and besides 
I know neither their language nor their customs. But my Lord 
Galway who by his long service and experience in this 
country has judged that they are capable of doing great 
matters, I take to be the more proper person to see them 

I have here with me part of the clothing of the French 
regiments, the rest remaining in Ireland with the commissary 
who is incharged with them. I have often writ for orders to dispose 
of them and without them I will not do it, so that until then 
they will be of no use to us, 

I do not doubt but that Mr. Methuen does fully inform her 
Majesty of the state of the Portuguese troops in this country, 
and yet I think it is my duty to let her know what I am credi})lv 
informed of that their foot exceeds not 4,000 at present, and 
their horse exceeds not 1,500 effective; what probability there is 
that they can send 6 or 7,000 recruits to Valentia, and put the 
number which they have promised into the held may be easily 
comprehended l)y anybody that has the least knowledge of the 

The King of Spain and my Lord Galway having writ to me 
so positively to bring with me what corn I can procure, more 
especially barley, and saying that this could have been furnished 
in great measure from Majorca and other places, had they had 
some men-of-war and transports to fetch it, and I having men- 
tioned in my last to the Secretary of State that I thought it 
proper that some men-of-war should be left under command of 
the King of Spain and her Majesty's generals, but upon further 
inquiry I find that Sir George Bing had ordered some for that 
purpose, which men-of-war are by chance since hobbled to Genoa. 
The Admiral tells me that he will leave some for that service. I 
cannot help upon this occasion saying that never any man was 
more zealous for her Majesty's service, nor more kind to her 
troops in assisting them with everything that is necessary. I do 
not doubt but Sir G. Bing will do the same when he is 



Earl Rivers to the Earl of Sunderland. 

1706, December 31. Lisbon. — In my last I sent your Lord- 
ship a copy of the proposals which pm'suant to the Queen's 
instructions I presented to the King of Portugal, to which I had 
some days since his Majesty's answer (a copy of which I do like- 
wise send you). By it you may perceive that as to the first point 
they assign neither the number of their recruits nor the time for 
their shipping off, and we are very well assured that it would be 
to no purpose if they did, they having few or none in the country, 
and that in Valentia they want 7,000. 

As to the second point, they positively refuse that the Queen 
should have the paying of those subsidies which she and the 
States give them. 

As to the third, they expect that the Queen should be at the 
expense of transporting their troops in case they should send any 
to Valentia. 

As to the fourth about the 10,000 foot and 3,000 horse, they 
were to join me, their answer is only in general that they will 
raise the most they can, but we are assured that they can never 
comply in this point and indeed had they had any real design 
they would have begun their levies a great while ago. 

As to the fifth about the carriage of the train stores of war and 
mouth provisions and the baggage of the army, they will be at no 
expense, but put it all upon the Queen and troops. 

As to the sixth, the command of the army, they will have it 
whether they understand it or no. 

It concludes that the country is indeed in great want of 
provisions and carriage so that it is not possible to provide for so 
great an army, and therefore demands but 4,000 foot and all our 
horse, the rest they desire may be sent to the King of Spain who 
they are very sensible is in want of them. 

Upon the receipt of this answer I called a Council of War, of 
whose resolutions I here send you a copy, and I hope that what 
has been so maturely deliberated and so unanimously resolved 
will likewise meet with her Majesty's approbation. 

It being therefore resolved that we should sail for Valentia it 
is very proper that your Lordship be informed of the number 
and strength of our forces there, which by the exactest account I 
can get is from 11 to 12,000 foot and 8 to 4,000 horse, compre- 
hending the English, Dutch, Spaniards and Portuguese, as you 
may see more particularly by the enclosed list. What I carry 
with me is about 9,000 men. 

From Spain we are informed that they have, given out 
commissions for levying of 16,000 men in order to complete their 
army to 40,000 of which 10,000 will be horse. This is more likely 
because the extraordinary successes which they have lately had, 
and particularly the taking of Alcantara has mightily raised their 
drooping spirits. What expectations they have from France is 
better known to your Lordship. By what I have said the Queen 
may judge what is wanting to give us a superiority, and whereas 
our weakness will chiefly consist in horse I hope that some 

6803 K 


proper measures will be taken to reinforce us. I can think of 
none more proper than to negociate for a good body of German 
horse which our transports may easily fetch from Italy. 

I carry money with me to subsist the troops until the latter 
end of March, and by that time I cannot doubt but that there will 
be proper measures taken for the continuance of the same. 

There is in Valentia a great want of corn and particularly bar- 
ley, of which I have given an account home, from whence I hope 
that we shall be speedily and plentifully supplied, and in the 
mean time I will endeavour to get what I can from Majorca and 


Earl Eivers to Lord Halifax. 

1706, December 31, o.s. Lisbon. — I have met with so many 
disappointments since I first engaged in this expedition, that I 
thought it to little purpose to write my friends of what I was so 
uncertain of doing myself. But of all the counter orders that I 
have had from home, there is none that has so much surprised 
me as the last, which was to land all my forces here to serve in 
conjunction with' the Portuguese. My surprise was still the 
greater because I found that it was chiefly by the advice of my 
Lord Gal way that the Queen was induced to this resolution, 
who to this purpose sent home Montandre, who touched at this 
Court in his Avay, wdien measures were further concerted (con- 
formable to the late memorial given to the Queen by the 
Portuguese Envoy) for which good service the said Montandre 
was I hear pretty well rewarded ''antemano " {sic). 

In conclusion I cannot but judge this the most pernicious 
advice that was ever given to the Queen, which in my Lord 
Galway could not be ignorance, he knowing better than anybody 
that the Portuguese are not in a condition, nor indeed ever 
intended, to perform what they promised the Queen, which is 
better seen by their answers to my proposals, than by anything 
I can say, a copy of which I send you here inclosed. Further- 
more my Lord Galway could not be ignorant of our weakness 
in Valentia, and the great superiority of the enemy there both in 
horse and foot, which is reiterated and exaggerated in all their 
letters, as well the King's, his own, and the other Generals' and 

What other consequence could this project have, but that the 
King should be either made a prisoner or drove into the sea, 
whilst we should be drivelling awaj^ our time in Portugal. 

This conduct of his, I do assure your Lordship, has made as 
much impression upon me, as whatever I have since heard to his 
disadvantage, and has so alarmed everybody else that wishes us 
well, that one of them some days since put a paper into my hands 
of which I send your Lordship a copy, not doubting but that 
in your great prudence you will make a good use of it 
in reference to the King of Spain, whose circumstances will 
be rendered but the worse if this should be talked of. The poor 


Prince knows all this and a great deal more, but whether he has 
given the Queen any account thereof I know not. For my part I 
am under no such necessity of managing anybody. I relate simply 
what I hear, and have just reason to fear is too true, for so it is 
credibly reported by a great many of the better sort of people in 
this country. 

Mr. Methuen being very young may be very ignorant of 
his father's practices; he seems weary of this employment and 
desirous to go home. A man of quality and of an estate is 
certainly the more proper person to reside here, who will take 
upon him to see that what has been promised in that very ill 
treaty is performed, particularly as to the troops, for by the said 
treaty we were not to pay any until 15,000 of the Portuguese 
were made out to be on foot, and then we were to pay 13,000 
Portuguese more provided they were actually in the field, otherwise 
in proportion only to what they had, for I can safely say that at 
present, all that they have both here and in Valentia exceeds not 
15,000 men. The Dutch envoy Mr. Schonenbourg is so certain of 
this that he pays nothing, and tells us that we are a very generous 
people taking every thing upon content which he cannot answer 
for to his Masters. 

Pursuant to the unanimous judgment of a Council of War of 
the Land and Sea Officers in which were present the Queen's 
Minister, as likewise those of Holland and Spain, we are resolved 
to go to Valentia. This resolution may save the King of Spain 
and cannot hurt the Portuguese, for if the Queen is resolved to 
send hither troops, which I hope in God she will not, they may 
be here before the Portuguese can take the field and be in readi- 
ness with their carriage, &c., to march them. I depend upon 
your friendship that you will represent these reasons to the Duke 
of Marlborough and Lord Treasurer which if they approve of them 
I am desirous it may be communicated to me by the Secretary of 
State at the Queen's orders. 

I carry money with me to pay the troops under my command 
to the last of March, and I do not doubt but that my Lord 
Treasurer will support this great work, which cannot be done but 
by a very regular subsistence of the troops. 

In my last I represented to the Queen the great want of corn 
in Valentia, and particularly barley, with which I hope we shall 
be very speedily and very plentifully supplied from home, not that 
I shall leave anything unattempted to help ourselves from 
Majorca, &c. 


Earl Kivers to Lord Halifax. 

1706, December. Lisbon. — If so pernicious advice'"'"^ had been 
given by any other but the Earl of Galway, who better than 
anybody knows these people and country and the impracticability 

* That is, the advice referred to in the first paragraph of the preceding letter, 
which is word for word the same as the opening paragraph of this letter, omitted on 
that account. Much of it is however repeated towards the end of the letter. 


of performing what he advised to, I should the less have wondered 
at it, but this his conduct has so scandalised all honest English 
men, that I must confess I have since opened both my eyes and 
ears to those reflections, which before were impenetrable to 
everything that reflected upon the fidelity of this otherwise so 
valuable a person. 

I was soon let into the secret of the most infamous practices 
that ever were managed by men of the characters of the 
late Mr. Methuen and Lord Galway, the story of which 
you must have the patience to hear, because it is the 
grounds of those just suspicions which we have of their 

About the time of the King of Spain's embarcation for Barce- 
lona there was a Frenchman taken upon these frontiers with 
divers letters in cyphers for the Courts of Madrid, France &c. 
He pleaded the pass of Mr. Ambassador Methuen which he had. 
Notwithstanding which the Marquis de la Frontierra, governor 
of that country, sent him prisoner to this Court, as likewise the 
intercepted letters to the King. 

In Portugal they have a secret tribunal called the Inconfidentia 
where all matters of treason against the State are privately 
examined and finally judged, of which was president Senor Eoco 
Montero, until then esteemed the partial friend of Mr. Methuen, 
and as Minister of the King of Portugal made with him the late 
treaty with the Allies. 

The delinquent upon his examination confessed that Madam 
Armada, a French gentlew'oman who is here married to a 
Portuguese, the French Vice-Consul and Mr. Methuen were 
complices. Accordingly the three French people were seized and 
imprisoned but in separate places, and their examination w^ent 

Mr. Methuen at first denied that he had, given any such pass, 
but ne soon perceived that his pass was to be produced. He then 
denied that he knew anything of the letters, but the taking up of 
Madam Armada and the French Vice Consul soon put him upon 
other measures to secure himself before the matter came to such 
a height as to render his case irremediable. He therefore twice 
threw himself at the King's feet to implore his clemency, and at 
the same time negociated with his Ministers (it is to be supposed 
by those ways which are commonly practised in Courts) ; and he 
was very successful therein. 

The King moved with compassion for the lady, by whom he 
has two children, and by his Ministers who represented to him 
that although Methuen was an ill man, yet his Majesty could 
not have a more useful one at his Court, for being master of his 
life and honour they could oblige him to condescend to whatever 
they would. Hereupon the King ordered Koco Montero, the 
aforesaid President of the Secret Tribunal, to pronounce them 

Queen Catherine, who was at this time Eegent of Portugal 
during the indisposition of her brother, was so far convinced of 
the guilt of Methuen, that she deliberated how to suspend him 


from the functions of Ambassador, which she so positively 
insisted upon, that the Ministry found no other expedient by the 
King's resuming the government which he did. 

Koco Montero, who lived and died in opinion one of the 
honestest men in Portugal, shewed no less constancy than the 
Queen, for he refused to comply with what the King commanded 
him, to whom he replied, that his life and estate were in his 
Majesty's power but not his conscience, that they were all con- 
victed of treason which his Majesty might if he pleased pardon, 
but that for his part he was never to be induced to give any other 
sentence than according to his conscience and the laws of the 

The King and his Ministers seeing that there was nothing to 
be gained this way, it was resolved to deprive this honest man, 
who for many years had managed the principal affairs of State, 
of all his employments. All the papers that related to the trial 
and examination of the aforesaid persons were sent for out of his 
hands and other judges were named to examine them, who, more 
obedient to the orders of the court, smuggled up the business. 
The Marquis de Algrete, the Prime Minister of this Court, gave 
Mr. Methuen a Carta Absolutoria of whatever was imputed to 
him, in consequence of w^hich the prisoners were likewise set at 
liberty ; but as secret as this matter was managed it could not 
but arrive to the knowledge of several worthy, as well as the 
principal nobility, who cannot but reflect with horror and shame 
at the weakness of their Prince and the ignominy of his Ministers. 

Methuen is dead and incapable of doing good or hurt, so that I 
should not relate this long story if with his death I could hope 
that there was an end of treasonable practices, but the aforesaid 
Eoco Montero did constantly and positively affirm that not only 
Methuen was convicted but, by the confession of the prisoners, 
that my Lord Galway was complice and knew that the foresaid 
letters were sent to the Courts of Spain and France, and this he 
persisted in to his death, which soon after happened as w^ell as 
that of Queen Dowager. That which is certain is that my Lord 
Galway left nothing unattempted to bring Methuen off, w^hich it 
seems it mightily imported him to do, for could the papers re- 
lating to this secret trial be produced, it is not to be doubted but 
that we should discover the most infamous practices that ever 
men of their characters were guilty of. 

Your Lordship may judge in what melancholy condition the 
poor King of Spain must be in who was not ignorant of all these 
fine doings, but the fair prospect which the declarations of his 
kingdoms of Arragon, Valentia, Catalonia and its dependencies 
gave him of getting to Madrid without any further dependence 
on either my Lord Galway or the Portuguese did a little alleviate 
his grief and induce him to dissemble ;' and being other ways 
doubtful of the success, should he attempt the communicating 
this matter to the Queen, for the laws of England may require 
a more positive conviction and should it not be judged sufficient 
to remove this man it would render the King's case worse than 


But now that the state of war is so unexpectedly changed, 
partly by the neglect of those advantages which we had the last 
campaign, and partly (it is to be feared) through roguery, this 
poor Prince is once more in the hands of those people he had so 
much reason to avoid, and I am very credibly niformed that he 
is advised by his friends in Spain that above 30,000 pistoles have 
been given this campaign by the Duke of Anjoufor private service, 
but what measure he will take to disengage himself I know not. 

As to what relates to my expedition I cannot but judge it the 
most pernicious advice that ever- was given to the Queen to land 
her troops in Portugal, which in my Lord Galway could not be 
the effects of ignorance, he knowing better than anybody that 
the Portuguese are not in a condition, and indeed never intended 
to perform what they promised the Queen, w^hich is better seen 
by their answer to my proposals (which I here enclose) than by 
anything I can say. Furthermore my Lord Galway cannot be 
ignorant of our weakness in Valentia, and the great superiority 
of the enemy, which is reiterated and exaggerated both by the 
King himself and their Councils ; what consequence therefore 
can this have, but that the King should either be drove in the 
sea, or nljle a prisoner whilst we should be drivelling our time 
away in Portugal. This conduct of his I do assure your Lordship 
has made as much impression upon me as whatever has been 
elsewhere said to his disadvantage. 

As to Mr. Methuen the present envoy I have nothing more to 
say, than that he is the son of such a father, and it may be 
reasonably expected that he cannot be entirely ignorant of his 
father's \jvords omitted'] . 

I do likewise know that there are people who have reflected 
upon his conduct when he acted here alone, but for my part I 
would rather attribute it to the levity of his youth than anything 
else, but this I ought to say, that we have not here that value 
and esteem which the dignity of our Queen and country deserve, 
the great figure we make in the world and the mighty expense of 
blood and treasure which we are exhausting to deserve it. 
This in a great measure depends upon the qualifications of the 
Minister, who to manage these proud conceited fools ought to 
be a man whose birth, riches and integrity might make him 
respected, who being entirely ignorant of the infamous practices 
of this Court, might oblige them to compliance with this treaty as 
disadvantageous a one as it was to us. 


Eabl Eivers to the Earl of Sunderland. 

1706-7, January 2. Gibraltar. — Since our departure from 
Lisbon we have met with very bad weather as well as contrary 
winds, but we being to touch at Gibraltar I judged it neces- 
sary to quit the fleet off Cape Mary's and go before. Upon my 
arrival I met with several letters from the King of Spain and 
Lord Galway, the copies of which I send you to avoid the repe- 
tition of the same. 


The King does judge the danger he is in to be very great, and 
especially if the enemy should invade Catalonia by the way of 
Rousillion as it seems they intend, that unless we come to his 
succour both he and we are undone. My Lord Galway says that 
he can get no bread nor horses from Majorca, and expresses the 
great difficulties of getting mules for the army's baggage, artillery 
and provisions. 

As to the force of the enemy and their undertakings I have 
nothing to say, relying as I do upon her Majesty's great prudence, 
who will undoubtedly send a sufficient number " of troops to 
qualify us to act offensively; but as to the difficulty about the 
carriage of the army's baggage, the stores of war and of mouth, 
I very well apprehended them before my departure from England, 
and therefore I obtained her Majesty's sufficient instructions 
therein, that in case this great expense could not be otherways 
avoided whatever I should be forced to disburse upon this account 
should be allowed. To which purpose I writ at large to my Lord 
Galway in hopes to engage the King and those provinces in this 
expense, which by his answer your Lordship will perceive is not 
to be done, and the troops not being in a condition to defray this 
great expense themselves, your Lordship will judge it but very 
equitable that her Majesty's troops serving in the same country 
and in the same army be put upon the same foot. I have with 
me but three months' pay for my troops, so that when I shall be 
obliged to make this extraordinary expense, I am not without fear 
that we shall want money before more will come, which must 
entirely ruin our affairs, and therefore I cannot but insist that 
timely remittances be made, and such other measures taken 
to support us. As to the rest, her Majesty may be assured that 
I shall husband the public money as if it were my own. 

I have frequently represented the great want of provisions in 
Valentia and therefore I earnestly desired that a large supply of 
wheat flour, barley and biscuit might speedily be sent and I hope 
that it is upon the way, for unless it comes very soon, we shall be 
so far from being able to undertake anything that I see not how we 
can subsist in the country pursuant to the advices they have, and 
besides it is highly advantageous to the Queen and country that 
we should supply as great a part as possible from thence of the 
foreign expense by the growth of England. 

Your Lordship will perceive how much the King of Spain 
depends upon the assistance of a squadron of our ships to stay 
with him, but I very much fear whether the shortness of their 
provisions will permit them to remain there any longer than to 
put us ashore, which cannot but be highly prejudicial to the 
public service, and seeing the Queen is at the expense of main- 
taining this garrison it is more than to be wondered at there is 
not lodged the necessary magazines as well of naval stores as of 
provisions to supply the necessities of the fleet. 

I am informed that my Lord Peterborough is returned from 
Italy to Valentia with new projects not to be executed in Spain, 
and that he knows nothing of his being superseded in his com- 
mand, about which he makes no little stir. It is easy for your 


Lordship to apprehend the ill consequences which such confusion 
must produce, which I hope her Majesty will soon remedy one 
way or another, for as there is no man more forward to serve her 
Majesty than myself when I can do it with her honour and the 
public good, so I want not personal reasons enough not to be a 
spectator of such a campaign at the last was in Spain. 


[1706-7,] January 4, Saturday. — I am sorry the Bishop of 
London is so very refractory, it is certainly for the Queen's service 
to oblige the country and my Lord Chief Justice [Holt] in giving 
this living to Clegatt, and the claim of the Bishop upon which 
he surprised the Queen into this promise is founded upon 
nothing but silly nonsense ; but something or other must always 
hinder right things from being done. 

Mr. Strangeways is very desirous of the honour of seconding 
Lord Granby. Pitt is also ready to join in the motion, but, by 
by what I hear, the former will take it ill if anybody should be 
pointed to before him. 

I think there is not much to be said upon your Scotch letters 
more than to ask you what should be given to D [e] F [oe] . 

The Duke of Cambridge's patent being passed, should not a 
messenger be sent with it by the next packet boat to Mr. Howe ? 

I should be glad to hear what answer you have from Sir G. 

General James Stanhope to Earl Bivers. 

1707, January 5-16. Valentia. — I am honoured with your Lord- 
ship's of the 12th of Dec, for which I return you my most 
humble thanks. So soon as I hear the fleet is on this coast, I 
will not fail to come and pay my respects to your Lordship, and 
receive your commands. 

Your Lordship will have heard that my Lord Peterborough is 
returned hither from Italy ; he expects orders from England in 
relation to a project sent thither which his Lordship had 
concocted with the Duke of Savoy and Prince Eugene, and 
which is not to be executed in Spain. 

King Charles of Spain to Lord Rivers. 

1707, January [6-] 17. Valencia. — J'aprens avec bien de 
plaisir par votre lettre du 23""' de Decembre la resolution que 
vous aves prise de venir a mon secours avec les trouppes de 
debarquement, qui se trouvent sous vos ordres. J'espere que 
vous contribueres de tous vos bons offices, a ce, que la flotte ou 
au moins une bonne et forte Escadre demeure dans cette mer, 
pour po avoir mener toutes les trouppes en Campagne, dont sans 
cela je devrois laisser une bonne par tie pour la seuret^ des 
cotes et particulierement de ma principaute de Catalogue. Je 
n'ay rien a ajouter a ma lettre et au projet, que je vous ay envoys 


avec mon Ajudant Royal Rosenthal, si non que je demeure dans 
les memes sentimens, a scavoir qu' apres le debarquement des 
trouppes vous entries immediatement en operation vers la ville 
d'Orijuela, Elclia, Cartagene, et la Murcie pour etendre nos 
quartiers, et faire rafraichir la Cavallerie. Pour le surplus je 
me rapporte de nouveau au Comte de Galloway, et en attendant 
avec empressement leplaisir de vous embrasser je vous assure de 
ma parfaite estime et reconnoissance. 

The Eael of Sunderland to the Earl of Peterborough. 

1706-7, January 14. Whitehall. — Her Majesty having been 
informed by letters from Genoa the last post, from other persons 
as well as by your Lordship's of the 12th of December, n.s., to 
my Lord Treasurer, and of the 14th of December, n.s., to Mr. 
Bridges, that your Lordship has taken up great sums of money 
there at a most extravagant price, has commanded me to 
acquaint you that she has ordered the bills for the said money 
not to be accepted, the same having been drawn without any 
authority or permission from her Majesty, and at such a price 
which, if answered, must affect all the remittances that shall be 
necessary to be made for the public service the whole year; 
and also because it appears that some of the persons at Genoa 
with whom your Lordship has transacted for this money had 
notice from hence that their bills would not be accepted, and that 
provision was otherwise made for the supplying with mone^/ the 
army in Valencia, and at a much cheaper rate than could be done 
from Italy ; the Queen thinks this the more extraordinary, in 
that your Lordship never acquainted either her Majesty or any 
of her ministers with your intentions to take up such great sums 
of money for her service. 

I am commanded at the same time, to take notice to your 
Lordship of the extraordinary manner in which you left Spain, 
where you had so great a trust committed to you by her Majesty's 
commissions to go to negotiate matters with other Princes, with- 
out any orders from the Queen for so doing, or any credentials to 
those Princes. Upon all these accounts, I am commanded by her 
Majesty to let your Lordship know that it is her pleasure that 
you return forthwith to England to acquaint her Majesty with 
the reasons and grounds of your proceedings. 


The Earl of Sunderix^nd to Earl Rivers. 

1706-7, January 14. Whitehall. — I had the honour of yours 
of the 25th of December, o.s., and am very sorry you received so 
unluckily the first orders that were sent you to stay, just as you 
was going, but I take for granted, as the winds have been, you 
must have received in very few days after the last orders that 
were sent for your going on to Valentia, as the King of Spain 
desires. However, lest any accident should have happened to the 
packet, I am commanded by her Majesty to renew those last 


orders to you of going on to Valentia as soon as possible ; and 
perhaps the backwardness of the Portuguese in consenting to 
what you have demanded will make your going easier both to 
you and them ; however, in order to keep up their spirits, I 
have directed Mr. Methuen, from the Queen to assure the Court 
there that the troops which were to have followed your Lordship 
from Ireland shall be sent to them as soon as possible, and that her 
Majesty will do all in her power to forward any projects they may 
have on the side of Portugal, provided they do send forthwith their 
recruits to Valentia. As to what your Lordship mentions as to the 
clothing of the French regiments, that is left with a commissary 
in Ireland, care will be taken that it shall be sent with the troops 
that are to go from thence. We were very much surprised with 
the account of their firing upon our ships and her Majesty 
does entirely approve of what Sir Cloudesley Shovell has done, 
and in order to prevent the like for the future, has sent directions 
to Sir Cloudesley Shovell in case the like should ever be done to 
take his own satisfaction, and has ordered Mr. Methuen to 
acquaint the Court of Portugal with these directions. I hope this 
will find you in Valentia. 

Postscript. — Lord Somers and Lord Halifax have charged me 
with their compliments to your Lordship. 

I send your Lordship here a copy of a letter [see ahoiu^ I have 
writ to my Lord Peterborough, by her Majesty's order. 

Earl Godolphin to Earl Rivers. 

1706-7, January 24. — I am to acknowledge the favour of two 
letters from your Lordship by Mr. Bradshaw, and am glad to 
find you had the satisfaction before you left Lisbon to know the 
Queen approved of your going to join the King of Spain, accord- 
ing to his desire. 

Your Lordship commands me to write freely my thoughts to 
you upon all occasions, and I shall willingly do so, both for that 
reason and because I hope it may be for your service. 

I think it w^as pretty strong to insist in your memorial to the 
King of Portugal that you could not obey anybody but his 
Majesty, because it differs from the Treaty, and also from the 
precedent of my Lord Galway submitting to be commanded by 
the Marquis das Minas. 

As to what your Lordship seems to think you have reason to 
take ill of my Lord Galway, you may please to consider that 
when my Lord Galway sent Montandre to Lisbon, and from 
thence hither, he sent but his own thoughts ; he did not know 
how they would be approved at Lisbon, or at London, he did not 
think perhaps that we should ever agree to carry so great a 
transport as far as Valentia, at that season of the year. Besides 
that, Cuenza was not then lost, nor the army so much straitened 
as they w^ere afterwards by that and some other misfortunes of 
the same kind, upon which the King of Spain called the Council 
of War, which came to the resolution of desiring your Lordship to 
join him with the troops under your command. This being the 


case, I find it is not only mine but the general opinion of all 
your friends here, that my Lord Galway has in nothing deserved 
ill of your Lordship or of the public. 

But now to look forward. Since my Lord Galway in all his 
letters for many months together seems desirous to retire, in 
case he persists in that resolution the chief command must 
necessarily fall upon your Lordship. 

The Parliament has voted supplies for the army in Spain, and 
40,000Z. for the personal expenses and equipage of the King. 

It is fit that you should be informed the Queen and the States 
seem to agree in opinion that all your force should act jointly, 
and by no means to divide the army, which we are told is the 
Count Noyelle's inclination, but still all things of this nature 
must be in great measure submitted to the prudence and 
discretion of those upon the place, and I doubt not but you will 
govern yourselves according to the strength and motions of the 
enem}^, and according to the carriages and provisions you are 
masters of for your own troops. 

One thing only, I think, one may venture to assure you that 
whatever brags of that kind are given out, France cannot 
possibly be in any condition of sending troops to the assistance 
of Spain this next campaign ; and therefore we ought not to be 
so much afraid of an enemy behind us as intent upon pressing 
before us. I wish vou prosperity and success, and am ever, 

LoBD Halifax to [Eael Rivers] . 

1706 [-7], January 27. — I am honoured with three letters from 
your Lordship, that of the 31st December is I believe the longest 
you ever writ, which I esteem as a particular mark of your favour 
and friendship to me. It contains so many matters of the 
highest importance, that I wish I may be able to make that use 
of it that the confidence you put in me deserves. I showed it to 
Lord S [omers] and he is extremely surprised at what is said of 
Lord G[alway]. He is very much a friend to Lord G. but 
may be trusted with anything that comes from Lord Rivers. I 
find your Lordship has wrote to the same purpose both to the 
Duke of M [arlborough] and Lord Treasurer, and we are all un- 
willing to believe so ill of a man we have long had a good 
opinion of. The appearances are very strange, but he had so 
much partiality for the old Rogue [John Methuen] that is 
gone, and was so much governed by him, both in Ireland 
and Portugal, that I hope he had no share in 
the guilt, though he has so great a one in the scandal. I have 
always thought Methuen was the ruin of our affairs in Spain, he 
was truly the Minister of Portugal, and not of England. He 
diverted the war from being made in the West Indies which 
would have enriched us, and touched Spain most sensibly, to 
carry it into a place from whence we had no assistance, but they 
had our money, and France the silver of the Indies. 


Count Zinzerling is now here from the King of Spain and, as I 
have heard, in a private audience which he desired of the Queen, 
complained of one of the Portuguese Generals which the King 
suspects, but he carried his suspicions no further. 

I hope when you see Lord Galway, you will in some manner 
or other be satisfied with him; the King of Spain's Court is so ill 
disposed, you will meet with difficulty enough there, to keep them 
right, though you were more united and acted in concert. I may 
tell you one thing in confidence ; they take it ill here, that you 
were so peremptory to refuse to obey any but the King of 
Portugal, which was contrary to the treaty which must be 
observed till we get a better. I have a nephew, Aid du Camp 
to Lord Galway, which I must recommend to your Lordship's 
favour and protection. There is also another gentleman, Major 
Kemp, who is under your Lordship's command that I hope you 
will be kind to. Lord M [arlborough] makes difficulty in giving 
General Erie that command, and says he has writ to you about 
it. I shall give your Lordship some account of our affairs as 
occasion offers. 

The Earl of Sunderland to Earl Eivers. 

1706-7, January 28. Whitehall. — I have the honour of your 
two letters of the 31st December and the 2nd of January, by 
Major Bradshaw, and am very glad to find that you had received 
mine of the 20th of December ; her Majesty does entirely approve 
of the resolution you have taken, of not dividing the troops, but 
of carrying them all to Yalentia, and has ordered me to recom- 
mend you, that when you are landed, you do all you can to 
prevent any division of the troops, which by all the letters from 
thence seems to be the design of Comte Noyelles, but will doubt- 
less be fatal to the service if not prevented. 

I hope this good success in Aragon will make everything easier 
to you when you are in Yalentia, and particularly with respect 
to the want of corn, which by the taking of Mequinenza you may 
be more easily supplied with. However, all that can be done from 
hence will be. 

As for what money you may want after the end of March for 
the subsistence of the troops you may depend upon my Lord 
Treasurer's care in it. 

We shall be very impatient till we hear of your being landed. 
You will be very well pleased to hear that the Parliament has 
voted 150,000L extraordinary for the support of the King of Spain 
and the paying of 6,000 of his own troops, which he promises 
shall be actually in the field, by Mons. Zinzerling who is come 
over from him. 

The Earl of Peterborough' to Earl Eivers. 
1706-7, [January 28-] February 7. Yalentia.— I most heartily 
wish that your Lordship may have less trouble and as much 
good fortune as I have had in this country. I believe you 
will soon be sensible that I have had infinite fatigues and that I 
have done my duty. 


I have talked with Britton that is much your servant ahout all 
manner of things, which had I seen your Lordship, I should 
have spoke to you about. I am glad to find you have that good 
opinion of '' Gorge " [Galway ?J that he deserves. 

If the enemies come into Catalonia, as the present news seem 
to intimate, I doubt the campaign here may have its difficulties, 
otherwise the body of good foot will make its way. 

From Italy I shall be able to supply you with good intelligence 
and good wine, both which are sufficiently wanting in the 
country, and my Lord I hope you believe, that upon all accounts 
for your public character, for your own, and having the honour 
of being your relation, upon all these motives you may depend 
upon the utmost of my services. And if things should go ill, assure 
yourself that if I can procure any remedy I will even return 
myself rather than omit anything in my power for the public 

[H. St. John to Robert Harley.] 

1706-7, January 30. — I was this morning by Lord Marlborough's 
direction at your house to enquire after your health, and whether 
he might see you before he went to St. Albans, from whence he 
will not return till Sunday night, perhaps till Monday. He 
commands me to let you know (and this I imagine is the least 
troublesome way of doing it) that he hopes at his return to find 
you quite recovered; and desires you would prepare an answer 
against Tuesday from the Queen to the States concerning his 
going back to Holland, which cannot possibly be in the middle of 
March, as they desire. 

I cannot finish this note without telling you that when I waited 
on the Queen yesterday she enquired after your health, and 
expressed her concern for your illness in such terms as I am sure 
came from the bottom of her heart. She said so much of your 
having prejudiced your health in her service, and showed so much 
trouble, that I thought it was proper for me to tell you par- 
ticularly of it. 

Adieu, my dear friend ; I love you without affectation or 
reserve, and wish you health not only in this character, but as I 
am a good Englishman. 

King Charles of Spain to Lord Rivers. 

1707 [January 30-] February 10. Valencia. — Ayant receu par 
Mr. Richards une de vos letres, et dans le mesme temps ayant 
entendeu la heureuse nouvelle de I'arrive de la flotte, et de votre 
chere personne a Alicant, et comme j'etois deja longtems 
auparavant informe du Fere Finfuegos de votre grand zele et 
particuliere affection que vous professies pour ma personne et 
interests, Je n'ay pas pu m'empecher de vous embrasser par 
cette letre et me rejouir avec vous de votre heureuse arrivee, en 
vous remerciant que vous ayez vouleu bien venir icy avec vos 
troupes a mon secours, et vous temoignant la particuliere 


confiance et estime que j'ay pour votre personne comme pour un 
si zele pour mes interest. C'est pourquoy pour vous pouvoir 
moy meme embrasser et vous temoigiier plus emplement de 
bouche ce que contiene cette letre, comme je desire fort de tenir 
avec vous une particuliere bonne harmonie, et secrete confiance ; 
je souhaitrie fort [meme j'el trouve tres necessaire] si sa fiis 
possible, de m'aboucher avec vous meme seulment que sa seret 
pour '24 heures, et que vous [ne disant si se pent a aucune rien 
de havoir receu celle cy] sur des autres pretext tachies de venir 
ici parsque je desire de concerter tout avec vous en confiance et 
n'entrer dans aucune operazion sans votre sentiment. Sur quoy 
et sur plusieurs clioses j'espere de vous entretenir plus emple- 
ment, et je vous embrasse en vous asseurant de ma particuliere 
estime et affection que j'ay pour votre chere personne. 

[Lord Godolphin to Eobert Hirley.] 

[1707, January.] Sunday at two. — I should be glad you 
would do me the favour to carry me to Kensington this evening 
in your chariot. I will stay for you at home. 

We have settled the representatives in Scotland, and poor 
Lord Stair is dead, which is a loss and would have been a much 
greater loss, if it had happened sooner. 

Ea.rl Kivers to the Lord Treasurer. 

1707, January — . Gibraltar. — Upon my arrival here I met 
with several letters from Valentia the copies of which I do send 
to my Lord Sunderland. The King more than ever is apprehen- 
sive of his security unless I go speedil}^ to his succour, the enemy 
being forming of troops in Rousillion to invade Catalonia on 
that side, which if it be true, will undoubtedly very much 
puzzle us. 

I was in hopes to have saved the Queen the expense of carrying 
the army's l)aggage, the artillery, and bread by putting the King 
of Spain and his country upon doing of it, but by my Lord 
Galway's answer your Lordship will perceive that at last it must 
be at the public charge. 

Your Lordship knows very well what money I have with me, 
so that being forced to make this great expense at my first 
landing, I am aj)prehensive that money will fall short before I 
shall receive any more, unless your Lordship will take some 
extraordinary measures to supply us therewith, which should it 
happen must entirely ruin our whole affair. 

The King presses very hard that a squadron may stay with 
him, but I fear that the fleet has so little victuals as not to be 
able to remain in the Mediterranean any longer than to put us 
ashore, the situation of this place is so very advantagous that it 
were to be wished that magazines were here established as well 
of naval stores as of jDrovisions for the fleet, for want of which 
our ships have been frequently distressed, 


I hear that my Lord Peterborough is at Valentia and that he 
has brought from Italy a new project, of which I know nothing 
but that it is not to be executed in Spain. He knows nothing 
of his being recalled home, and therefore continues in the exercise 
of his command to the great confusion of the public affairs, which 
I hope her Majesty will one way or other put an end to, for so 
much disorder cannot produce any advantage to her service, nor 
any pleasure to them who are to command. At least I shall very 
unwillingly be a spectator of such another campaign as was the 

I have often writ home of the great scarcity of provisions 
which there is in Valentia, and that without a speedy succour 
was sent of wheat, meal, barley and bisket we should be scarcely 
able to subsist in the country, much less to undertake any thing, 
and therefore I hope that we shall not be long without it, it being 
so visibly for her Majesty's service and the good of England that 
whatever part of the public expense can be supplied by the 
growths of our country should be done. Cojyy. 

P[aul] Methuen to Earl Kivers. 

1707, February [9-] 20, n.s. Lisbon. — I hope this will find your 
Excellency and the forces under your command safely ashore, but 
we have no news of the fleet since your departure except what 
was brought by a Dutchman who says he left you near Cape de 
Gatt. It happens well that this frigate has staid a little longer 
than was intended, for she now carries 3^ou the latest which came 
from England by the last packet boat, and I have taken care to 
send those that are for your Excellency in a bag to Mr. Stanhope. 
Everything goes on here with its usual slowth and though the 
Portuguese still talk of entering Spain and going to Segovia, I do 
not think their preparations answerable to their j)i"omises, and 
therefore as I am assured from England that those forces which 
were designed to follow your Excellency will be sent hither, so I 
have used my endeavours that if upon their arrival here the 
Portuguese were not in a condition to undertake something 
considerable they may be sent forward to your Excellency where 
they may be of some use. 

General James Stanhope to Earl Rivers. 

1707, February [9-] 20. Valencia.— My Lord Galway having 
writ several times to your Excellency on the points you did me the 
honour to mention to me, I have not thought it necessary to 
trouble your Lordship ; but the King having now declared that he 
intends in about eight days to go towards Catalonia I think it 
my duty to acquaint your Lordship therewith, imagining your 
Lordship may think it convenient to wait on his Majesty, which 
if you do not do before he goes it may be some time before you 
can have an opportunity to do it. No motion of the troops on this 
side can be made within these ten days for want of provisions 
which are gathering and providing as fast as is possible, so I am 


in hopes to have soon the fortune of kissing your Lordship's 
hands here, which I very much desire hoth for the pubHc and my 
own sake. I need not repeat to your Lordship that I hope you 
will do me the honour to accept of an indifferent quarter with 

My Lord Galway who is now with me, does not write to your 
Excellency because I do, but flatters himself he shall soon have 
the honour of seeing you here and thinks it will be for the ser- 
vice you should take measures together both for the intended 
expedition on the side you are of, as likewise to settle a plan for 
the whole campaign. By his Lordship's command I send the 
enclosed paper relating to the charge of the mules. 

Postscrij)t. — I shall find a bed and a few bottles of claret for 
my Lord Essex if his Lordship have a mind to see Valencia. 

The Earl of Sunderland to Earl Kivers. 

1706-7, February 14. Whitehall. — I have before acknowledged 
your Lordship's of the 31 December and 2 January, o.s., as I do now 
that of 5 January, o.s., in which you sent me enclosed a copy of 
one from Monsieur Montandre, to Lord Galway. One can't very 
well judge by that letter, not knowing what passed between him 
and the Court of Portugal after that was writ, for it appears by 
that very letter that they were not come to a final resolution then. 
As for my Lord Galway, he has had a great many difficulties to 
struggle with which probably have hindered him from acting 
vigorously, as he would have done ; but on the other side it is as 
certain, that he had once done the business, and if he had been 
supported we had continued masters of Madrid and probably by 
this time had been so of all Spain. Upon the whole matter, your 
coming there with such a body of men as you have with you I 
hope will restore all our affairs, and I don't doubt but my Lord 
Galway's temper is such that you and he will have no uneasiness. 

As to what you write about Major Kussell, it is certainly very 
reasonable that officers should either attend their posts or not be 
kept in, my Lord Marlborough has desired me to tell you that he 
has spoke to this Kussell, and that he does intend to go to his 
post in Spain forthwith. As to what you desire to have a 
positive answer, aye or no, to all material matters, I assure 
you it shall not be my fault, if you have not, I will do my best 
to obtain it, and always let you know it as soon as I can. 

Lord Somers to Earl Eivers. 

1706-7, February 17. London. — I have been very desirous to 
lay hold of the first opportunity of acknowledging the honour of 
your Lordship's of the 3rd of January. I perceive, with a good 
deal of concern, upon comparing it with what your Lordship 
wrote to my Lord Halifax, that I went much too far in what I 
ventured to say in a former letter I took the liberty to send to 
your Lordship. I confess ingenuously to your Lordship that I 
thought myself so well established in your good opinion, that it 


had not been possible for you to have thought that in any hint I 
should give to your Lordship I should have any other considera- 
tion than that of your interest and service. I assure you I had 
no other, I had no regard to anybody else, not to him you call 
my friend ; and since it is necessary to say it, I had not written 
with so much freedom, but at the importunity of all your 
particular friends, with whom I am acquainted, who would not 
be satisfied but that I, whom they knew to be so entirely your 
servant, had credit enough to presume to write all their 

Your Lordship knows my thoughts of Methuen, and that no 
man in England had better reason than I to have those thoughts 
of him. I knew as well as anybody the partiality the Lord G. 
had for him, and have blamed it as much, but if I had disliked it 
more, yet the march to Madrid would have cured me of any 
suspicion of his entering into any wrong measures designedly 
till I was better informed. I never heard a tittle of his doing any- 
thing disobliging to your Lordship, till I received your letter, and 
no servant you have should more enter into a resentment of that 
kind, but as 1 know nothing of the particulars, so perhaps your 
Lordship may find it a mistake upon further information, which 
I say only from former observation of the natural temper of the 
man. My Lord, I may say you know how passionately I have 
longed to see you at the head of an army, and all our friends 
know how positively I have always asserted, that you 
would make as great a figure in such a station as the nature of 
things would bear. I am still of the same mind. Nobody living 
wishes it more, nor shall anybody take more pains to contribute 
what he can to make you easy in such a station, therefore pray 
forgive my freedom in telling you the thoughts of your friends 
in England, especially when they happened to agree unanimously 
with the opinion of those who were in the administration. Any 
advice at this time would be impertinent because the matter 
must have taken its turn one way or other. But I beg your 
Lordship to be assured that I will lose no opportunity of giving 
you all the proofs I am capable of that I am your particular 
servant preferable to anybody whatsoever. I have talked of this 
whole affair with my Lord Treasurer at large, and all he would 
conclude with to me was, that he had answered your request, 
which was to use freedom with j^ou as a friend, and that he had 
sent his whole heart to you very plainly. I wish all success to 
your Lordship very heartily. 1 hope you will find great credit 
with the King and be able to keep him right. I am bound to 
tell you the notion of all people here, that the troops ought to be 
kept together, and that all should be done to act offensively, the 
charge being so excessive that it will not bear delay, and 
according to the intelligence here, the French not being in 
circumstances to send any considerable number of troops into 

My dear Lord, pardon any fault I have been guilty of, since I 
am sure I said nothing but with a good intention, and that no 
man is more your faithful servant than Somers. 

G802 L 


[Lord Godolphin to Kobert Harley.] 

1706-7, February 20.— Monsieur Scliultz showed me this 
morning a letter from Hanover in which those ministers assure 
him of the King of Sweden's not having taken measures with 
France, and of his intentions to prosecute the war against the 
Czar, but at the same time they say he is resolved not to stir 
from Saxony till the treaty with King Augustus be fully complied 
with, and that he is very pressing for the meeting of the ministers 
of those who warranted the treaty of Travendale in order to the 
execution of that treaty. He added it was the opinion of the 
Elector, his master, that it would be very clearly the interest of 
the Queen and the rest of the Allies to gratify the King of 
Sweden in these particulars. 

I must own myself to have been long of the same opinion, both 
because neither of these points seem to be unreasonable in them- 
selves, and though there were more objection to either of them 
than I think there is, yet we ought to avoid as long as possibly 
we can the giving any handle to the King of Sweden to act 
openly to the prejudice of the Allies ; but I have little hopes of 
prevailing with Holland to make a reasonable step in this, any 
more than in other things. 

In the mean time, I think it is extremely necessary that Mr. 
Eobinson should be written to, that he should undeceive the 
King of Sweden of the false impressions France has endeavoured 
to give him of the Queen's having contributed to excite the Czar to 
continue the war in Poland, which he may be otherwise but too 
apt to believe, because the Dutch are certainly enough inclined 
that way. 

Upon the whole, I think Mr. Eobinson should do his best to 
take off these impressions, and to encourage the meeting desired 
by the King of Sweden about the treaty of, Travendale. 

If I have troubled you too much with my politics, it is because 
I think France has no solid prospect of any relief, but from the 
false steps of the Allies with the King of Sweden. 

Earl Rivers to Lord Halifax. 

1707, February 23. Alicant. — I have from Lisbon given your 
Lordship an account of those just and reasonable difficulties 
which I had of serving with my Lord Galway, and of my desires 
to return home. At Gibraltar I met with letters from Lord 
Treasurer and Somers, which laid such a stress upon my pro- 
ceeding that I could not but have a regard to the judgment of so 
good a friend. About the same time I received assurances from 
my Lord Galway that I should remain with the independent com- 
mand of my troops, so I resolved to continue until her Majesty's 
pleasure should be further communicated to me — not doubting 
of her goodness that she would propose anything to me unbecom- 
ing my quality and post as the serving in the nature of Lieu- 
tenant-General under my Lord Galway would be. 


Being come here to Alicant and having occasion to treat of the 
public affairs with him, I have great reason to suspect that he 
only meant to impose upon me, and no ways to comply with what 
he promised, for which ungentlemanlike dealing as well as for 
many other more weighty reasons, which are by this time well 
known to your Lordship, I hope that neither your Lordship 
nor any other my good friends will wonder that I should refuse to 
support so poor a character, together with a great share of the 
shame which their unaccountable conduct has hitherto occasioned ; 
for so great is the power and influence which my Lord Galway 
has over the Portuguese that he neither would, or at least did not, 
persuade them to quit Madrid and march to the Ebro, whereby 
he would not only have hindered the French from getting out of 
Navarre, but likewise the conjunction of them with the Duke of 
Berwick, which would have put an end to the war of Spain. After 
which they resolved to retire to Valentia not only contrary to the 
sentiments of the King but the very protestations of the Spaniards 
in general, who much better than they knew the country, and when 
they did retreat it was in such disorder that besides many thousands 
of men which they lost mal ap7'opos the country was plundered and 
burnt without regard to anything sacred or profane, that what- 
ever passed at Port St. Mary's was but a jest to it, with this only 
difference, that there was not so much to steal. This cruelty, 
together with the little deference that was paid to the King, has 
made him resolve that unless it be remedied, he cannot retake 
the field to be a spectator of so great disorders, where he is so far 
from being treated as a king in his own country that they pay 
him not the respect of a general, to the great scandal of the 
Spaniards and the great prejudice of the common cause. 

The truth of the matter is, that the Portuguese are to ruin 
Spain beyond recovery, and, if they could, pull it to pieces, that 
they may never be under any further apprehensions, and let the 
war last ; so far as my Lord Galway conforms to them in 
these points he can influence them, but no other ways. The 
first step to be made to remedy so great disorders must be to 
take proper measures that the King of Portugal will pay his 
troops, and if it be true that my Lord Galway has so much 
interest in Portugal as he makes you believe, why is he not 
employed there, when it is so much apprehended that they will 
either not take the field at all or will do it to little purpose. 

I have not as yet seen my Lord Galway, it may be when I do, 
he may be inspired with something more reasonable than what 
at present he insists upon ; but should he still persist in his senti- 
ments I see not how it is possible for me to stay, which I would 
very willingly do because my Lord Treasurer does me the honour 
to desire it, for these misunderstandings will be a perpetual source 
of difficulties to the great prejudice of the service ; and therefore 
seeing that her Majesty has that entire confidence in Lord 
Galway, it were much better that he only commands. As to 
General officers they are here in such numbers that the service 
will not be prejudiced should Mr. Erie and I go home. 



General J. Stanhope to Earl Rivers. 

1707, February [15-] 26. Valencia. — I did myself the honour some 
days ago to write to your Excellency that the King was to make 
a journey to Catalonia in a few days, which letter I don't know 
whether your Lordship has received ; I told your Lordship also 
that want of bread and corn for men and horses would for ten 
days hinder the troops on this side to draw together. These 
reasons made me hope your Lordship might incline to come 
hither, where I believe your Lordship's presence will be much for 
the service, in order to settle as well these matters your Lordship 
did me the honour to speak about, as the scheme and plan of this 
(enemies' ?) operation. The King holds his resolution of going in 
ten days, as I believe, at farthest. My Lord Galway commands 
me to acquaint your Lordship that he is to meet the Portuguese 
Generals to-morrow to see whether and how soon our troops 
on this side can be put in motion, if it be still thought 
serviceable to attempt Orihuela and Murcia. His Lordship 
is advised the enemies are drawing some forces together about 

The Same to the Same. 

1707, February [16-] 27. Valencia. — The advices we have here 
from the frontiers make us a little in pain for your Lordship, it 
being said the enemies have drawn together a considerable body, 
and we here being in no condition to move for want of provisions, 
though we are made to hope by our new assentistas that in a 
few days we shall be supplied. I am the more concerned at 
this, because it may perhaps prevent your Lordship's coming 
hither, where I should have hoped your Lordship and my Lord 
Galway might have come to a right understanding in what 
concerns both your Lordships and which is of such consequence 
for the public service. I know not what to wish may be the 
effects of the issue on which my Lord Galway puts this matter, 
but am thus far of Lord Galway's opinion, which I believe also 
to be your Lordship's, that unless there can be a perfect good 
union and understanding between your Lordships, 'tis better 
there stays but one here, and whosoever' s lot it shall be, I have 
too much reason to fear he will meet with very great difficulties 
from the extravagance of the several people we have to do with. 
I need not tell your Lordship how great a mortification it is to 
me to see things brought to this pass between two persons for 
whom I have the greatest respect and value ; and that since this 
unhappy situation of affairs gives me too much reason to fear 
they cannot both serve her Majesty here, I shall to the utmost 
of my power be subservient to him that shall undertake this 
troublesome task. Signed. 

Postscript, — I shall dispatch the pacquet boat from hence in 
two days, but send orders to the captain to call at Alicant for 
your Excellency's letters. 


The Duke of Berwick to Earl Kivers. 

1707, [February 22-] March 4. Orihuela.— Finding here a 
drummer of your army, I could not let slip the occasion of 
renewing our old acquaintance, and at the same time desire 
your Lordship will be pleased to let me know how my mother is 
in her health, for you may easily believe that at this distance 
I seldom learn news of my friends beyond sea; if there be 
anything in this country wherein I may be serviceable to you, 
be pleased to honour me with your commands. 

General J. Stanhope to the Earl of Sunderland. 

1707, [February 26-] March 8. Valencia.— The Earl Kivers 
will probably be with your Lordship as soon as this letter, and 
give your Lordship an account of the situation of affairs here. 
His Lordship and my Lord Galway have thought it for her 
Majesty's service, as it certainly is, that there should be but one 
General and one establishment. My Lord Galway offered his 
Lordship the command of the whole, which he would by no 
means accept of so long as my Lord Galway could be persuaded 
to stay. I shall not trouble your Lordship with any detail relating 
to the troops nor with the views of our campaign, which my 
Lord Galway I know does very fully. The King went yesterday 
towards Catalonia, from whence his Majesty promises to join the 
army as soon as the Generals shall acquaint him they are ready 
to enter Castile. Our time has been so taken up in conferences 
and preparations for the King's journey, and mine particularly 
with my Lords Rivers and Galway settling what might be necessary 
before his Lordship left this place, which he did this morning, 
that I have not had a fit occasion to enter into negotiation about 
our treaty of commerce, and this journey of the King's will 
occasion a further delay in that matter. I shall follow his 
Majesty in a few days and lose no opportunity of posting this 

My Lord Rivers will acquaint your Lordship with some 
particulars relating to the subject matter of my letter to your 
Lordship of the 24th of last month, which letter was by a 
mistake of mine, as I perceive by reading over the copy, dated 
wrong, for it should have been the 23rd. 


Earl Rivers to General J. Stanhope. 

1707, March [6-] 17. Alieant. — I having forgot to take in 
writing what was agreed upon between my Lord Galway and 
myself, you being present when I was at Valentia, I have therefore 
desired my Lord Galway to sign a paper to that purpose, a copy 
of which I send you. I cannot imagine that he will refuse it, 
but in case he should make any difficulty, I desire that you will 
persuade him to what is more reasonable, which if you cannot 
do, do pray sign it yourself, for I would not have our friends in 
England who are in the same interest imagine that we are parted 


otherwise than friends, which would give our adversaries an 
opportunity of prejudicing the interest of our party. In case 
this finds you in Valentia pray dispatch this gentleman with 
all expedition. In case you desire a copy of what you now sign, 
I will send you one signed by me. 

General J. Stanhope to Earl Rivers. 

1707, March [7-] 18. Valencia. — I have received your Lord- 
ship's letter of the 16th, but have no letters from England for your 
Lordship in my packets, and my Lord Galway's secretary tells 
me there are none in his. There is but one letter come from the 
office, which served only to cover one to my Lord Peterborough 
of which a copy is sent me. It orders his Lordship to return 
forthwith to England to acquaint her Majesty with the reasons 
and grounds of his proceedings. 

The business of provisions for our army is not so forward as 
we hoped, and will I fear occasion some delay in our taking the 
field. I am going in two days to Barcelona, w^here I shall be very 
proud to receive any commands your Lordship may have. 

Postscript. — Pray my most humble service to Lord Essex and 
Mr. Erie if with you. 

Queen Anne to Robert Harley. 

[1707, March.] Wensday. — This is to desire you when the 
Act of Union exemplefyed is finished that you would order one of 
the messengers to cary it into Scotland. I beleeve it will be 
proper for you to writt to the Duke of Queensberry on this 
occasion, or Sir David Nairn will be better able to inform you of 
the form then I can do. 

For Mr. Secretary Harley. 

[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

[1707, March 19.] Monday night at 11 [ejidorsed by Harley 
as received on March 24, 1707] . — As to the matter of the ship 
Worcester, if a method can be found to make it be forgotten before 
next winter it is well, but whether any such can be found or not 
I think it was right to keep it out from this session till the 

Union was over. 

As to the preparations making to carry goods to Scotland, 
however the lawyers may vapour in private, I should have been 
very sorry to have rested upon the expectation of any opinion 
from them in public so as not to have had a bill brought into 
Parliament concerning that affair. If the bill be either made 
insignificant or the matter be too difficult for the Parliament, yet 
when it is once laid before them and fairly stated to them, though 
no proper remedy is found, I don't well see how there can lie any 
just ground of clamour against the Queen or those who have the 
honour to serve her upon that account. 


I hope they will endeavour to terrify people from attempting 
this practice from England and Ireland, but when all is done it 
is not in our power to prevent it from Holland. 

I return your two letters from L and D [e] F [oe] , what 

he says of Patterson I dare say is exactly true. 

The wind seemed to be this evening southward of the east, 
which makes me hope it will not last forty-eight hours longer. 

General James Stanhope to Earl Rivers. 

1707, March [8-] 19. Valencia. — In obedience to your Lordship's 
commands by Captain Humphries I have been with my Lord 
Galway who made not the least difficulty of complying with what 
your Lordship required, as you will see by the paper he 
sends back to you signed by himself and me. The paper 
your Lordship sent to me being likewise signed by us it remains 
with my Lord Galway ; so that your Lordship need not be at the 
trouble of sending any other. I send your Lordship enclosed the 
copy of my last letter to the Earl of Sunderland by which you 
will see that I had already writ much to the same purpose, the 
latter part of that letter relates to the discourse I had with your 
Lordship concerning the papers shewed you by the Earl of 
P [eterborough] of which I had touched something in a former 
letter. So soon as I join the Court I will get that matter 
explained, and sent to England what particulars I shall learn. 

I take the liberty your Lordship is pleased to allow me of 
troubling you with some letters for England whither I wish your 
Lordship a happy voyage. 

The Same to the Same. 

1707, March [9-] 20. Valencia. — I have received the letters from 
England but have found none for your Lordship nor has my 
Lord Galway any in his packet. I do not pretend to tell your 
Lordship any news supposing that you have had it. All we have 
very material is the Union of Scotland which had passed the 
Commons upon a division of 211 against 105, and had had a second 
reading in your Lordship's House. There had been also a great 
division about continuing the Bank carried by a considerable 

My Lord Galway and I desire of your Lordship that if you are 
upon your departure your Lordship will stay twenty-four 
hours for our letters. 

Duke of Marlborough to Robert Hariey. 

1707, March 28. Margett [Margate] . — I have had the favour 
of your obliging letter of the 25th and am very much surprised at 
what you tell me of my journey, for nobody knows of it from me 
but the Pensioner of Holland. The wind continuing so very 
contrary makes me apprehend that I shall not have time to go to 
Saxony, but my first letters from Holland shall let you know the 
certainty, so that you may be the better able to give your orders 
to Mr. Robinson. 


Duke of Marluorougii to Robert Harley. 

1707, March 31. Margett. — After having been seven leagues 
at sea yesterday, I was beaten back by a north-east wind, 
which still continues, so that my stay here is like to be some 
time longer. This, with what Mr. Stepney writes in his letter of 
my journey, makes me desirous you would advise with Lord 
Treasurer and know the Queen's pleasure, whether it might not 
be proper to defer no longer the acquainting Mr. Robinson with 
the resolution her Majesty had taken of sending me to the King 
of Sweden, but that she apprehends these contrary winds may 
make it impossible for me to go, so that he should lose no 
time in endeavouring to gain to her Majesty's interest the Count 
de Piper and those others by pension he has formerly mentioned 
in his letters, and that till he hears from me from the Hague, 
he should take no notice of my journey ; and if I should 
not be able to come but send an officer to the King, that he 
should be assisting to him in the execution of such instruc- 
tions as I shall give him at the Hague. 

The Earl of Sunderland to Earl Rivers. 

1707, April 1. Whitehall. — This is to acknowledge your 
Lordship's of the 22 Jan., o.s., from Gibraltar. I am very glad 
to hear your Lordship and the forces are landed safe at Alicant. 
We are very impatient till we hear directly from your Lordship, 
not being able to make any judgment of the affairs in Spain 
till then. As to what you mention concerning the remittances 
of money to you, my Lord Treasurer says that all care is taken 
that Mr. Morrice may supply you with it and in time. As for 
biscuit and provisions of that kind, a very great quantity was 
sent from hence, but those ships fell in unluckily with the Brest 
squadron, and most of them were taken. However, Mr. Morrice 
has bought up nine thousand sacks of wheat at Lisbon, to supply 
that loss, and I hope it will do it pretty effectually. As to what 
relates to the command, everything has been done that was 
possible to rectify the past disorders, as your Lordship by this 
time knows, and I hope to your satisfaction. 

Postscript. — The King of Spain having represented to the 
Queen the great want his troops are in of arms, I am to acquaint 
your Lordship that it is her Majesty's pleasure that of the ten 
thousand you have with you whatever remain, that are not dis- 
tributed among the Queen's own troops, you should give the 
rest to the troops of the King of Spain, and the value will be 
deducted out of the money given by the Parliament for that 

Duke of Marlborough to [Robert Harley] . 

1707, April [5-] 16. Hague. — The reception I have had and the 
assurances of esteem they have for her Majesty makes me hope 
my journey will be of some use. I hope to leave this place a 
Friday night, and the first day's rest I have you shall be sure to 
hear from your faithful friend and servant. 



1707, April 11, Good Friday. — This is only to recomraend the 
enclosed to your care, and to wonder we are so long without the 
Dutch letters, when the wind is so perfectly fair. 

All the Scots will pour in upon us next week, I wish before 
they come we could pour out the English, and that I might go 
Monday to Newmarket ; but be that as it will I should be glad 
you would call me by five upon Sunday, because I must speak to 
the Queen before Council. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1707, April 15. Newmarket. — ^As soon as I waked this 
morning I received the favour of yours by the flying packet, but 
don't send back another with my answer, because I found by the 
label it was more than twelve hours upon the road, so I 
concluded it would but disturb you by coming at an unseasonable 
hour, and I have nothing to write to the Duke of M [arlborough] 
but what may go as well by Friday's post. 

I return you his Grace's and Mr. Stepney's letters. You may 
please to let Mr. Stepney know, I will endeavour to remit the 
70,000 crowns next week, but when I come to town I must also 
have the Queen's commands to do so signified by you, in 
pursuance of a treaty made to that effect. 

I hope the million mentioned in yours is but a million of 
florins and not of pounds sterling. 

The last lines of your letter are very obliging, nobody in the 
world is more truly sensible of your kindness nor more entirely 
your faithful humble servant, G. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1707, April 17. Newmarket. — I give you many thanks for 
the favour of your letter and the votes of the House of Commons, 
by which I find they persist in their first thoughts of that matter, 
as I always believed they would; but though this be their 
unanimous sense and the sense of all England, yet if it be against 
the sense of Scotland and contrary to the apprehension of the 
Treaty, I doubt it may bring a very great difficulty at this time 
upon the Queen. 

You were in the right certainly not to be at the head of this 
thing, and perhaps your appearing in it before has been the 
occasion of all this broil ; but more of that when I see you, 
which I hope may be Sunday at five or six, if you please to call 
upon your humble servant. 

Geneeal Thomas Erle to Eael Eivers. 

1707, April [17-] 28. Alcira near Valentia. — Ever since I had 
the misfortune to part from you it has been a continual series of 
misfortunes to me. The troops that came with you have had no 
rest, instead of a march that I could have made in one day to 


have joined the army, which I proposed, I was ordered five days' 
march over such precipices as are about Alcoy, by which I lost 
above 500 men. When I joined we made a march to Yecla, from 
whence the Duke of Berwick retired, as he did from Mont Alegro, 
not having then assembled his troops, but we gave him time to 
do it with a witness by amusing ourselves five days about taking 
the foolish castle of Villena, which noble siege we were forced 
to raise because the Portuguese train had not materials to 
take it ; but it was thought then it would be no disgrace 
because we resolved to march directly and fight the enemy, 
which I own that all the Generals were unanimously for ; 
but it seems we had little intelligence of their strength till 
two young French officers that came to us the day before the 
battle and gave us an account they were fifty-eight battalions, 
of which thirty four were French, and one hundred odd 
squadrons, which proved too true, but then it was too late to 
avoid fighting : the consequence was we were entirely beaten, 
which we should have been had their numbers been less by the ill 
execution of the disposition we made to attack them and by the 
worse behaviour of the Portuguese horse, which was the greatest 
part of our cavalry. All our infantry broke to pieces, and all 
my friends and companions that come over with you are either 
killed or taken prisoners. I wish with all my heart I had gone 
with them. I cannot give you an exact account of particulars, but 
we hear that Count Dona, Shrimpton, Macartney and Briton 
made a brave retreat, after being abandoned by all the horse, 
to the mountains, where they were obliged to surrender them- 
selves as prisoners of war. My own escape was next to a 
miracle, Charley Dormer, Eoper, Jo. Lawrence, we are sure, 
are killed. God knows what is become of poor Jack Hill 
and Kirke as yet. I looked upon myself as a sacrifice when 
I resolved to stay behind your Lordship, for I will appeal 
to yourself what opinion I had of the management I should 
be under here, I am now confirmed in that opinion. Judge of 
our circumstances, and you will think I am like to be so. We 
are now here with about 800 English and Dutch horse, and 
above, as they say, 2,000 Portuguese that are not to be depended 
on, with which we pretend to make our w^ay to Cortosa, above 30 
Spanish leagues, if we can, and a victorious army that has 
10,000 horse in it will give us leave. God knows whether I shall 
write to you any more. 

Postscript. — I send this to your mich (?) to Alicant and it will 
be under cover of Mr. St. Johns, who I desire may see this for I 
have not time to write particulars to him. 

[Lord Godolphin to Eobbrt Harley.] 

1707, April 22. — I called at your office about eight this evening 
to have told you what I had several times forgotten to do, viz., 
that I had no objections to what the Duke of Marlborough seems 
to desire so earnestly in behalf of the Muscovite ambassador, 
about the Queen's allowing him a house, except the precedent of 


it ; and since he thinks it may be of use to gratify him in this 
request I can submit to his judgment, though it does not agree 
with my own. 

I hear some of the Scots are very warm against the bills de- 
pending in the House of Lords, and talk of making a representa- 
tion against it to the Queen. I have told those who mentioned 
it to me very plainly that I thought it would be very undesirable 
for them to meddle at all with what our Parliament was doing, 
and I hope they will have patience at least till after to-morrow. 

The Queen seems very impatient to have an end, and to put 
out the proclamation for declaring that this Parliament shall be 
the first Parliament of Great Britain. 

My Lord Seafield seems to have a mind the proclamation 
should bear date upon the first of May, and that then in the 
same proclamation the Queen might also approve the choice 
made by the Parliament of Scotland of their representatives ; 
but this does not seem consistent with my Lord Keeper's notion 
of dropping our English Parliament before the first of May. 

I foresee a thousand difficulties and inconveniences during 
this whole summer, and perhaps longer, of making the manage- 
ment of the revenues of that Kingdom but tolerably practicable. 

Why might there not be a particular Committee of Council 
appointed to consider how^ the government of Scotland shall be 
carried on till the Parliament of Great Britain shall otherwise 
provide ? 

[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

[1707, April] 25. Friday at five.— If I had known you had 
had the least concern for this Welsh judge or any other, nobody 
could ever have persuaded me to open my lips in it, but the 
truth of this case is that before my Lord Manchester went 
away he made it his earnest request that Mr. Pocklington might 
be made a Welsh judge before the first of May, upon which I 
spoke to the Queen, and to my Lord Keeper, who alone can 
change this, and I hope he will if you say as much to him as 
you have done to me. There are some of these judges for whom 
nobody will be much concerned. 

The Earl of Sunderland to Earl Rivers. 

1707, May 6. Whitehall. — Her Majesty having been informed 
by my Lord Treasurer of your Lordship's readiness to comply 
with her desires, that you should return again to Spain, has 
commanded me to assure you that she takes it as the greatest 
mark that is possible of your zeal for her service, and that as 
she thinks it absolutely necessary for the public service that 
you should undertake this journey, so you may depend upon 
everything being done, that may make you easy in it. The 
Queen has ordered the Lords to meet at Mr. Secretary Harley's 
office on Thursday morning at eleven o'clock, where they beg 
your Lordship would meet them, to have your opinion and 


advice, and to settle and agree upon the instructions to be given 
you, and whatever else shall be judged necessary upon this 

Lord Coningsby to Eakl Rivhrs. 

1707, May 12. — I yesterday delivered your Lordship's letter 
with the commands you gave me by word of mouth to my Lord 
Treasurer, who this morning was pleased to tell me he had laid 
them before the Queen, and that her Majesty being apprehensive 
of so long a negotiation as your Lordship's demands seemed to 
require, had resolved to send away immediately expresses both 
by sea and land to the King of Spain with such despatches as 
were most requisite to help the present exigencies ; and as she 
does not intend to send any others till there came news more to 
be depended on from thence than any we have hitherto received, 
your Lordship would have more time to recover your health and 
to consider, when there shall be greater certainty, whether it will 
suit with your affairs to undertake this expedition. 

Postscript. — My Lord Treasurer commands me to give his 
service to your Lordship. 

H. S[t. John] to [Kobert Harley]. 

1707, May 13. Whitehall.— When I heard to-day at the 
Cockpit that Pepper was tho man pitched upon to go express to 
the King of Spain I imagined you did not know how scandalously 
he procured this year a commission of brigadier by imposing a 
false date of his colonel's commission on the Duke of Marl- 
borough. The thing deserved cashiering, and he seems to have 
a mark of favour conferred upon him. 

Good night ! I have- writ to you concerning a demand of 
marines from the Admiralty. 

The Same to the Same. 

1707, May 13. Whitehall. — The Admiralty require the usual 
number of marines to be immediately sent on board the several 
ships in the margin [Albemarle, Ramillies, Hcwipshire, Dover, 
Pool, Northumberland, Canterbury, Devonshire, Mary, and Defiance, 
550 men] . This will prevent the sending such a number with 
the squadron designed for Spain as may furnish a battalion to 
join the troops which are to land there, unless these ships are to 
be of that squadron. Orders are given for recruiting the marine 
regiments, but the raising of them is not to be relied on. Signed. 

The Duke of Marlborough to [Robert Harley]. 

1707, [May 22-] June 2. — I have hitherto given you no trouble 
but by my letters of form. The apprehensions in Holland of the 
French being stronger than we will I am afraid make them so 
cautious that it may give me great trouble, and then you as a 
friend must be troubled, for I can't open myself to many. It is 


true that by the treaty the French have made this winter in 
Italy they have been able to strengthen their army to that degree 
that they have thirty squadrons, and twenty-four battalions, more 
than we. However, I am verily persuaded with the blessing of 
God we should beat them, which would put a happy end to this 
troublesome war, of which your humble servant is very weary. 

The Duke of Marlbobough to [Earl Kivers]. 

1707, [May 26-] June 6. Meldert.— I have had the honour of 
yours by Captain Terill, and I should have been extreme glad I 
could have been so happy as to have seen you, so that I might 
have been the better able to have known in what I might have 
been useful to his Majesty. If I could be of any use I am sure 
my heart is sincerely his. His letter is so just and kind to you 
that I hope you will excuse my sending the enclosed copy. 

The late treaty in Italy has so far enabled the King [of] 
France to draw troops from thence, that he has now a superiority 
over us in this country that, joined with the necessity we lie 
under of covering Brussels and the other great towns, hinders us 
from giving Monsieur Vandome that uneasiness we might other- 
ways do. Our army is in good heart and good condition, so that 
for the public good it were to be wished we could meet upon 
equal terms. 

You say nothing to me of your returning to Spain, but as I see 
by the King's letter it is what he much desires, if it be not uneasy 
to yourself I should think you might do good service. Where'er 
you are I wish you happiness, and desire you will believe me 
what I am with truth, Your, &c. 

The Duke of Marlborough to [Robert Harley]. 

1707, June 5-16. — I have sent the Queen's letter to the King 
of Sweden. I do hope it may do good, but it is certain the 
Emperor's behaviour is unaccountable; the warrant for the 
10,000 arms were ordered to be bought in Holland upon the 
desire of the Duke of Ormond and Lieutenant- General Ingolsby. 
The warrant should have been signed at the same time. Y'^ou will 
be pleased to let it be signed, and I promise you hereafter to 
take the best care I can that there may be no more leave given. 

I shall be very uneasy till I hear the Duke of Savoy is in 
Provence, for if the Emperor should spoil that project this cam- 
paign must go wrongs for our friends will not venture, unless we 
have an advantage, which our enemies will be careful not to 

[Lord Godolphin] to Secretary Harley. 

[1707, June] 14, Saturday at noon. — Finding by the Bishop 
of Winchester [Trelawney] this morning that he goes for Windsor 
to-morrow to do his homage after chapel, and knowing so much of 
my Lord Sunderland's mind in that matter, that in case you are 


not there it is probable the Bishop may be disappointed, which 
would make a great deal of noise and uneasiness, it is my humble 
request that you would be at Windsor to-morrow, letters or 
no letters, since otherwise I find something will happen which 
may be shocking and uneasy to the Queen. 
I can take care to get you a lodging. 

The Duke of Marlborough to [Eobert Harley]. 

1707, June [16 received] . Meldert. — I give you the trouble of 
so many copies of letters by this post, that I would not trouble you 
with this, but for an expression in yours of the 6th saying you 
will not trouble me with home affairs since you must have them 
from others. I do assure you from none that I so willingly 
would hear, as from yourself, so that I conjure you as a friend 
that whenever you think there is anything in which her 
Majesty's service is concerned that you would let me know it. 

[Lord Godolphin to Korert Harley.] 

1707, June 17. Windsor. — I give you many thanks for the 
honour of yours and the papers enclosed, which I have had the 
honour to read to the Queen. Her Majesty continues to leave it 
to the Duke of Marlborough to direct the Saxons' march as he 
thinks best, as also to do what he thinks most proper upon the 
French proposal for the exchange of prisoners. 

I agree with you that no time must be lost in adjusting with 
the Imperial Court the number of troops they will send to Spain, 
and the terms of their being sent. Upon these points I think 
the Comte de Gallas should be spoken to, and Sir Ph. Meadows 
instructed by this post. The Duke of Marlborough is certainly 
right in his advice to offer them subsidies for their better support, 
but not to charge the Queen with the entire payment of these 
troops ; but I think he is not in the right to defer this treaty till 
September, since as you observe 'twill then be too late for our 
fleet to receive orders for their assisting in that matter. And by 
the way I think it will now be time to think what orders, or at 
least suggestions, ought to be sent to Sir CI. Shovell, in case 
either of succeeding or miscarrying at Toulon, for it is probable 
that matter will be determined one way or other by the time 
that such orders can reach him. In the mean time I was glad 
to find in some of the French letters that our fleet had been from 

I think the Elector of Hanover is in the wrong to decline the 
command of the army on the Khine, for his own interest as well 
as for that of the common cause. Is it yet too late to offer it to 
the Landgrave of Hesse? Why should not you hint that to Sir 
Ph. Meadows ? 

I wish the zeal in which my Lord Eaby describes the King of 
Prussia may continue as warm after he hears of the death of the 
Duchess of Nemours, but I can't be without my apprehensions it 
may put him upon measures that may prove inconvenient to the 


[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

1707, June 19. Windsor. — I have this morning received a 
letter from my Lord Chancellor by which I find the Chief 
Justices have condemned me, and that I must prepare very soon 
for my execution.''-' 

I beg leave to desire your favour of sending my answer to my 
Lord Chancellor, which is chiefly to prepare him for the trouble, 
Sunday or Monday, of hearing the objection of the Prince's 
Council against the expedient proposed of leaving out of His Royal 
Highness's new commission the clause relating to their salaries. 
They seem to think it will not afford them the least shelter in 
the House of Commons, against the objection of their having 
accepted a new office. All I could say to them was I would beg 
of my Lord Chancellor and of Mr. Attorney to hear them Monday 
next after Council, and I believe they would be glad if you and I 
were there at the same time. 

The wind here seems fair enough this morning for us to hope 
we may have the foreign letters to-morrow. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1707, June 20. Windsor. — I have received the favour of your 
long letter, and I assure you it is always a satisfaction to me to 
find at the opening of it that it is a long letter. Much will 
require to be thought upon the main subject of it, but I shall 
reserve that point till Sunday night for a walk upon the Green. 

I return you my Lord Poulett's letter without knowing very 
clearly what he would have done for Mr. Wood ; but if you can 
make me know it I believe at this time either you or I can make 
the Bishop [Trelawney] do anything. I had last night a letter 
from his Lordship to acquaint me, my directions, as he called it, 
would be necessary to you for the restitution of his temporalities ; 
he desires to have them from the death of Bishop Mew. The 
Queen consents to it, and I always think 'tis best not to oblige a 
man by halves ; if afterwards they won't make a right return of 
it, let them answer for that. 

I have had so many papers to day from the Treasury to read 
that I have not had time for your Scot's letter. What you say 
of Mr. Scot is extraordinary and worth tracing as far as it can 

*An undated paper among Godolphin's letters at Longleat throws some lighton this 
paragraph. The first sentence of it is in Harley's handwriting, and runs thus: — 

I cannot find any reason why your Lordship is so much urged to be Treasurer of 
Great Britain, when I found yesterday both the Chief Justices are of your Lordship's 
opinion that it is not necessary, and so is the Attorney. 

Below this Godolphin has written: — If the two Chief Justices are of that opinion, 
they will say so to my Lord Chancellor, and then there is an end of it. 

To this Harley replies : — The two Chief Justices are now pressed to be of another 
opinion, and declare themselves for the necessity. If the Attorney spake with them 
first, and took their opinion, then they would be better prepared to discourse it with 
Lord Chancellor and the Chief Baron all together. 

Godolphin adds : — I hoi^e the Attorney will speak to them as soon as he can. 


My brother [Henry] sent me word from Eton yesterday that 
the Dean of St. Paul's [Sherlock] was dead; the Queen gives 
the deanery to him, and his prebendary to the Duke of 
Marlborough's chaplain, Mr. Hare. 

Earl Rivers to the Duke of Marlborough. 

1707, June 27. — I had acknowledged the honour of your 
Grace's letter before, had I known what to have said on the 
subject of my returning to Spain, and I am still in the dark of 
what is intended. I shall be ready to do the best service I can 
whenever her Majesty commands me. I own I thought it un- 
reasonable to be sent away without any troops, only of a message 
to the King of Spain with assurances of speedy succours, and I 
did complain that I was always the worse in point of my fortune 
for any service I have been employed in, not being used as Lord 
Galway and others have been ; if these are crimes to be laid 
aside for, I am contented. 

I have given my Lord Treasurer the best light I can both as to 
the affairs of Spain and Portugal. I did not expect such a fatal 
blow, but I saw plainly nothing could be done to our advantage. 
If I have been too plain 'twas by the King of Spain's order and I 
don't repent it. 'Tis impossible to write what I could say to 
your Grace if I had had the good fortune to have met you, and I 
flatter myself you would have thought it of some weight, though 
some of my friends, as they are called, cannot think so hard of 
one of them in Spain. This I can assure you that the King of 
Spain is so well satisfied of his infidelity that he will never trust 
his person with him if he can avoid it, and he has told me of so 
many odd circumstances that I can't blame him. If they would 
send five or six battalions immediately to Catalonia till more 
troops can be ordered, it may happen to be the saving of the 
kingdom : for those projects of sending troops from Naples and 
the palatines from Savoy may meet with such difficulties that 
Catalonia may be lost for want of such a number for the present 
as I mention. As for Portugal expect nothing from thence but the 
loss of the troops you send. This is so difficult a point that I 
can't tell what to say upon it, for if you send none they may 
take that pretence of making peace with France, but be assured 
that if they dare do it with safety and to their own advantage 
nothing that you can send them will hinder it. I hope let what 
will happen I shall have your protection, for I can safely say you 
don't wish yourself more happiness and better success than, &c. 

Coi^y in Lord Rivers' handwritim/ . 

[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

1707, June 27. Windsor. — Comte Briangon having acquainted 
me yesterday that the Palatine recruits going to Italy had been 
detained by the Governor of Bavaria as needing them there, I 
desired him to speak to you of it, looking upon it indeed to be a 
matter of fresh occasion of complaint, and that Sir Philip 


Meadows ought to have directions upon it by this post. These 
Palatines are the troops which, after the Duke of Savoy's 
expedition, I find the Duke of Marlborough thinks the most 
proper to be sent to Spain. When does Zinzeling go ? 


1707, July 4. Windsor. — I hear the wind so strong in my 
windows here that I have no hope you can have any foreign 
letters at London, unless from Lisbon, which will not bring much 
when they do come. However I believe the Queen will expect 
you here on Sunday, and that before that time there will be some 
business to be done. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1707, August 7. Windsor.— I have the favour of yours with 
the enclosed from D [e] F [oe] , in which he tells me he will 
write more fully to you by the next post, so I think it will be 
best not to make any answer till you have that letter and I have 
seen you, as I hope I shall upon Sunday. 

I have read to the Queen what passed betwixt you and Mr. 
Schultz relating to Mr. Sc [ott] . 

What you write of Mr. Stepney gives me a great deal of con- 
cern. I think he ought to have immediate leave to come over, if 
his strength will allow him to make use of it ; but how to 
supply his station I own myself wholly at a loss. 

After all the care that was taken of the outward bound Kussia 
fleet, I am sorry to hear so ill news of them, their being taken at 
so very great a distance gives shrewd suspicions they had intelli- 
gence of our intentions. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1707, August 14. Windsor. — I return the letters you sent by 
the messenger yesterday. 

By those from the Duke of Marlborough the French have 
escaped his hand very narrowly ; and now, I doubt they will 
come no more in his reach. 

Whatever the French brag of their preparations to drive home 
the Duke of Savoy I cannot but hope and think that affair. will 
succeed ; and I am very glad to find by Sir Ph. Meadows there 
is some hopes of troops from Naples for the strengthening of his 
arms, which is of as much use to us as if they were in Catalonia. 

The news from Leipzic is not so bad as I expected, for since 
the negotiations are still continued hostilities will hardly be 
begun on that side before winter, which is a great point if it 
be gained. 

The Queen sees no reason to refuse the French prisoners any 
of their requests mentioned in yours. I shall send Mr. Taylour 
to you for your directions concerning their plate. 

6803 M 


I don't like D[e] F[oe]'s letter, but I have often observed 
that he gives you the worst side of the picture. 

My Lord Peterborough has written to my Lord Sunderland 
for a convoy. Before that be sent for him the Queen thinks the 
Cabinet council ought to consider and agree in what manner he 
is to be treated at his arrival. 

Duke of Marlborough to [Kobert Harley]. 

1707, August [18-] 29. — I am obliged to you for the copy of the 
Electress's letter, it does not become me to contradict what her 
Electoral Highness says, but I hope her Majesty will let Monsieur 
de Shutes have for answer, that till she has satisfaction of the 
dispute concerning Monsieur Blanzac, and other French officers, 
she has taken a resolution of giving no further leaves; besides 
Sieur de Lassey has been two years in France. 

I shall take care to exchange Macartney as soon as possible, 
but it must not be for Plessis Chatillon, for we must break the 
French of that arbitrary way of imposing upon us, in all the 
exchanges they make. I am afraid neither the business of 
Toulon, nor that of the King of Sweden, goes as were to be 

[Lord Godolphin to Eobert Harley.] 

1707, August 21. Windsor. — I am sorry I can't look upon the 
French news of retaking St. Catherine's as a slight thing ; I 
am afraid of the consequences of it, though I find the Hague 
letters don't set much weight upon it. 

The news from Vienna is very good, and from Leipzic not so 
bad as I think might have been expected. 

In case my Lord Peterborough comes to you in my Lord 
Sunderland's absence, the Queen would have him told it is 
expected he should attend her Majesty and the Cabinet council, 
with the reasons which induced him to quit the army in Spain 
and go to the Duke of Savoy, without order or leave upon that 
occasion, though in case any forces had been sent thither he had 
indeed leave to command those forces. 

As to Mr. Scott, her Majesty approves of your speaking upon 
that matter to Monsieur Schultz, as you propose in your letter. 

H. St. John to Secretary Harley. 

1707, August 27. Whitehall. — I have received your letter of 
this day's date, intimating the consternation the people of 
Harwich have been in upon an appearance of some French ships, 
together with a postscript of the Mayor's letter concerning the 
ill condition that Landguard Fort is in, there being but one com- 
pany of foot there, and the walls down and not capable of de- 
fence. In answer to which I am to acquaint you that the large 
detachments that have been made from the forces in England 
for service abroad have reduced all the garrisons to the lowest 
complement of men ; and till the six regiments which were lately 
reduced in Spain and are returned home have recruited again 

179 5. 

it is not practicable to reinforce any of the garrisons, which will 
be done as soon as possible. And as for the condition which the 
walls of Landguard Fort are in for defence, the Board of 
Ordnance have the care of those matters. Signed. 


1707 [August] 27, Wednesday. Winchendon. — The news of 
Toulon is extremely dejecting, and I dread the consequences of 
it, abroad immediately and at home in the winter, if we do not 
heartily unite ourselves to struggle with the difficulties of both. 
I will do my part for one. 

I do not trouble you with what I wish might be written by 
Friday's post, because I design to see you at London before it 
goes, and to return this night to Windsor ; and I will carry the 
letters with me to the Queen. 

Duke of Marlborough to [Kobert Harley]. 

1707, September [1-]12, n.s. — I do entirely agree that something 
more should have been done then only sending Mr. Scott back to 
Hanover, for I think his proceeding ought to have been more 
publicly known, to have been disavowed by the Elector. You 
will certainly do good service to the Queen in finding the agent 
you mention, who solicits a pension ; they live so much within 
their own revenue, that I think it must appear extravagant, to 
expect a pension from England, when we are at so vast an 
expense for this war. Now that the King of Sweden is agreed with 
the Emperor, I beg for the service of her Majesty, and the common 
cause, that you will be watchful, that nothing be done with the 
Moscovite Ambassador that may give offence to the Swedes. 

I believe one of the reasons of the French having taken the 
the resolution of venturing nothing in this country, proceeds 
from the encouragement they have from some of their friends in 
Holland that there may be a peace before the next campaign, 
which I think is not possible, if w^e will have a good one. 

[Egbert Harley to Lord Godolphin.] 

1707, September 2. — I desire your lordship will permit me to 
trouble you in this letter with what I did intend to have spoken 
to your lordship more at large if I had met with a proper 
opportunity at Windsor. I am very sensible of the difficulties 
which, for one reason and for another, are like to attend public 
affairs next winter, it would be very impertinent in me to trouble 
your lordship with my poor thought of the true occasions of 
them, I am sanguine enough to think I see beyond them, but 
that is not my business. I desire only to assure your lordship 
most sincerely, that I am resolved to do everything to the 
utmost of my power (if required) to make the Queen's service 
and her ministers' easy, and I will be under your lordship's 
directions and be active or passive, to do anything or nothing, 
to meddle with business or to let it alone, as your lordship shall 
think best and shall be pleased to let me know your pleasure. 


Lord Godolphin to Eobert Harley. 

1707, September 4. Windsor. — I return your letters from 
Mr. Morice and Sir Tho. Frankland. We can expect nothing 
good from Portugal, however we must try to keep up their hearts 
and preserve them in our alliance. Mr. Morice's observation is 
right that though our expense has been great in Portugal, the 
advantage to our trade from thence does overbalance it. 

The French ships mentioned in Sir Tho. Frankland's letter 
must be those outward bound to the South Sea ; 'tis much too 
late for anything from hence to intercept them. Sir Thomas 
Hardy has a chance for meeting with them, but 'tis ten thousand 
to one. I hope you will not find Mr. Stepney irrecoverable, he 
will be wanted now every day more than ever. 

[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

1707, September 9. Windsor. — I beg the favour of you to 
send my letter to Mr. Methuen by this night's post to Lisbon. 
'Tis in answer to a very reasonable one which I received from 
him since I saw you, and goes herewith enclosed. 

I don't think my Lord Galway will care to stay in Portugal, 
though I much wish it as best for the service. 

I can't forbear adding upon this occasion that if we who have 
the honour to serve the best Queen in the world can't agree upon 
the proper measures for her service at home, whatever we do 
abroad will signify very little. 

[Robert Harley to Lord Godolphin.] 

1707, September 10. — As to the last paragraph of your lord- 
ship's letter, I crave leave to profess to you most solemnly, that 
I have made it my study to serve the Queen upon an honest 
principle, that I have no attachment to any other person in the 
world but your lordship and the Duke of Marlborough. I know 
of no enemies I have but such as either have expressed them- 
selves with equal bitterness against both your lord&hips upon 
many occasions, or are so to me because of my adherence to you. 
I am too well acquainted with the practices of a sort of people 
who wound those they do not like in the dark, and by whispers 
and secret misrepresentations would ruin the reputation of any 
one they do not fancy. I know your lordship is too just to admit 
any insinuations of that kind, and I am so little fond of standing 
in any one's way, that any endeavours of that sort give me 
no disquiet, because I depend upon your lordship's goodness 
to let me know when I am thought a burden to the service, 
or uneasy to anyone, and the least hint of that nature shall meet 
with a very ready and cheerful compliance in me by a willing 

As to joining in measures, it has been my endeavour to 
give demonstrations that I have been very far from being 
pertinacious in my own opinion. I am not fond of giving it, and 
am no ways concerned if it do not take. I had much rather be 


directed than not, and shall never be inquisitive to know any- 
thing but how to do my duty. It has been always my temper to 
go along with the company and not to give them uneasiness ; if 
they should say Harrow on the Hill or by Maidenhead were the 
nearest way to Windsor, I would go with them and never dispute 
it if that would give content, and that I might not be forced to 
swear it was so. 

I am very sincere, and find in what I told your lordship in 
my former upon this subject that I had been and would be 
entirely under your direction, and whatever is insinuated to the 
contrary, I never have acted upon any other foot. I am satisfied 
to a demonstration there can be no other centre of union but the 
Queen, by the ministration of your lordship and the Duke of 
Marlborough ; and there the bulk of the nation will fix them- 
selves if they may be suffered, all other expedients are very 
wretched things and will end but very ill ; and I dread the 
thoughts of running from the extreme of one faction to another 
which is the natural consequence of party tyranny, and renders 
the government like a door which turns both ways upon its 
hinges to let in each party as it grows triumphant, and in truth 
this is the real parent and nurse of our factions here. It is time 
to relieve your lordship's patience and beg pardon for this tedious 
letter and withal to desire leave to assure your lordship that you 
have not a more faithful servant nor a truer nor more zealous 
friend in the world than myself, to the utmost of my capacity. 


Duke of Marlborough to [Eobert Harley]. 

1707, September [11-] 22, n.s. — You know better than anybody 
the great advantage it must give France if any pretence whatso- 
ever should bring the King of Sweden again into Germany, and 
you may be sure the Moscovite will print the Queen's answer, as 
they have already the Czar's letter. 

I have writ to Lord Treasurer to know if he has anybody in 
his thoughts to fill Mr. Stepney's employment if he should die. 
I hope you will agree on such a one as may be able not only to 
help but direct me, for in this country all things are in great con- 
fusion. You say nothing to me of the approaching Parliament, I 
pray God our ill success abroad may not have an influence on the 
Queen's affairs at home. 

Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley. 

1707, [September] 11, Thursday. — I ought to return you a 
great many thanks for the favour of your letter but have not 
time to do it now and must therefore beg to defer particulars till 
I see you, being sensible I have already detained your messenger 
too long. 

Not coming to town this week I hope my Lord Sund [erland] 
and you will cause extracts to be made of the material points of 
Lord Peterborough's instructions which may be considered 
scandals at the Cabinet Council, half-an-hour before the Queen 
comes in, and made ready for her commands. 


[Robert Harley to Lord Godolphin.] 

1707, September 17. — I am now sensible how much too far 
my zeal for yom* service hath carried me formerly to troul)le 
your lordship with tedious letters. I will offend no more in that 
land. If you will please to add this fault to my other errors, for 
I cannot forbear just telling your lordship how uneasy I am 
under the charge of doing anything against your interest. I 
was provided against any other attacks, but this strikes me in a 
most sensible part, and in fact of which both friends and enemies 
will acquit me. However I must arm myself with patience, a 
little time will clear me from this aspersion ; and I learn this, 
that it is no more in a man's power to devise the methods by 
which he is to be put out, than it is to foresee how he is to come 
on. I have done with that, but it is a justice save to myself to 
let your lordship know I have told you nothing but truth. I 
scorn to deny anything I have done, and if I had ever directly 
or indirectly, by myself or any other, recommended those two 
persons [ ] , I am not so mean as to deny it, 

which I solemnly do. 

I have no more to add but most hearty wishes for your 
lordship's prosperity and success. You can never have a more 
sincere friend and servant, though I am deemed now unprofitable 
and useless. 

[Lord Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 

1707, September 18. Windsor. — I received last night the 
enclosed letters from Scotland, which upon reading to the Queen 
she commanded me to send to you that you might let my Lord 
Seafield know this night whether you can enable him by any 
informations from hence to detain Robert Murray, of which he 
himself seems to be in doubt, and to wish much for a speedy 
answer. I shall therefore write two or three words to him and 
put my letter into Sir David Nairne's hands, who is now here, 
referring him to you for such lights as you are able to give him 
as to the practices of Robert Murray; but I look upon John 
Murray, often named in Frasier's plot, to be much the more 
obnoxious man. 

The Queen remembers her promise to the Bishop of Rochester 
[Sprat], that his brother in law should have the first vacant 
prebendary of Westminster. The death of Mr. Upman, one of 
the fellows of Eton College, brings that matter to bear just now. 

I had written thus far before I received the favour of your 
letter, with the paj)ers enclosed. The Queen being gone abroad 
to finish this year's hunting, I can't send you her commands upon 
the particulars till to-morrow. There can be no doubt but she 
will leave it to my Lord Lieutenant to give the orders he proposes 
about the horse and dragoons. 

As to Mr. Vrybergh's memorial I believe the Queen will like 
very well that part of it which leaves the direction of the succours 
for Catalonia to the Duke of Marlborough ; but I don't know very 


well what construction to make of the latter part of it. Would 
he expect an account from the Queen, or a direction from her 
Admiral, what quantity of corn shall be put on board for the 
support of those troops ? Her Majesty's j^art in this matter has 
been to press the Emperor and the Allies with all earnestness to 
send succours to the King of Spain while the fleet is in those 
seas to transport them. We can't well imagine that any general 
or admiral will embark any great number of troops without 
making the necessary provisions for their voyage. 

I may take this wrong, and perhaps it is only my jealousy that 
they have a mind to create delay. 

The concern you express in the close of your letter is very 
agreeable, and but due to what you could not but observe in me. 
I never had, nor ever can have, a thought of your being out of 
the Queen's service while I am in it ; but I am as sure I neither 
desire nor am able to continue in it, unless we can agree upon 
the measures by which she is to be served both at home and 

I hope therefore you will give me an opportunity of speaking 
thoroughly to you upon these two heads when you come hither 
next, which I believe the Queen will expect upon Sunday as 
usually, for she has made me write by this messenger to my 
Lord Sunderland to bring with him the extracts of Lord Peter- 
borough's instructions, that he and you and I might collect some 
particulars to be sent to him. 

Duke of Marlborough to [Egbert Harley]. 

1707, September [18-] 29, n.s. Helchin. — I had not time by 
the last post to thank you for yours of 9th. I agree entirely 
with you, if the pension be desired, it must be disapproved by all 
sorts of men. 

What the Pensioner has writ to Monsieur Vryberge may prove 
very troublesome, for Ostend is what I think no good Englishman 
can consent to ; and if they pretend to be angry with the treaty 
of commerce concluded with King Charles, and at the same time 
pretend they are not in a condition to go on with the war, is in 
my opinion very near declaring they must be contented with any 
peace, which at this time would be fatal, for I think we have 
nothing left to bring France to reason, but by taking such 
measures this winter, as may enable us to act with vigour the 
next campaign. For my own part I own to you, that I am quite 
weary, for if the Dutch would have pleased we might have had a 
battle the beginning of this campaign, which we might have 
given with much more advantage than I am afraid we shall in 
the next, for I believe it is both the interest and intentions of the 
French to be very strong in this country this next year ; their 
good success in Spain will enable them to do it. Though I have 
this service at heart, yet not so much as that of yours and Lord 
Treasurer's being of one mind, as to what is best for the carrying 
on the Queen's service. 


[Lord Godolphin to Kobert Harley.] 

1707, September 25. St. James's. — Yesterday at my return 
from Windsor, I found the favour of your letter, for which I give 
you a great many thanks, and have not the least doubt but that 
you sincerely intend all you say to me in it. But I still think, as 
I said to you at parting, there will be a necessity of your being 
here at the Duke of Marlborough's coming over, which I have 
very earnestly desired him may be before the meeting of the 
Parliament at least four or five days. 

I acquainted the Queen yesterday with the substance of your 
foreign letters, and left with her the draught of the letter you 
had prepared to be written with her own hand to the Elector of 

Upon considering this afternoon at the Treasury the letter you 
sent me with the papers enclosed about the 4,000^. per annum to 
be paid to Prince Charles of Denmark there appears to be a diffi- 
culty in pursuing exactly the agreement made by Mr. Pulteney 
which imports that he should have a patent for it during his life 
under the great seal. Now the Queen cannot grant a pension 
beyond the term of her own life. Whether 'they will be satisfied 
in Denmark to have it as the Queen can grant it, or whether the 
Parliament when they meet will be so easy as to supply that 
defect of her Majesty's power, I must submit to better judgments, 
but I reckon this difficulty will keep the matter in suspense till 
you return. 

There seemed hardly anything in your foreign letters worth 
taking notice of, except the last line in Mr. Eobinson's, viz., that 
the Swedes had quitted Silesia. That being put together with 
the decyphered letters looks as if a new scene were going to 
open in those parts of the world, and if the Czar can slip Prince 
Eagotsky into King Augustus's place, they two will maintain the 
contest for Poland against the King of Sweden and Stanislaus. 
All this may be without much affecting our war, unless the Turk 
takes the advantage, when Muscovy and Poland can give him no 
diversion, to fall upon the Emperor and the Venetians. 

I am sorry you have such terrible ill weather for your journey, 
it will make the country not pleasant to stay in, nor easy to get 
out of; but 'tis always your (lot?), you forbear to go into the 
country as long as ever you can, and then go so late that the 
rains force you to stay in it longer than you would. I take 
notice of this, that if you don't come back in time you may find 
some other excuse. 

The two East India companies have been with me to thank me 
for my good offices, and to confirm their union. 

Duke of Marlborough to [Robert Harley]. 

1707 [September 27-] October 7, n.s. Hague. — I am very 
much obliged to you for yours of the 16th and I beg you will 
do me the justice to believe I am sincerely yours, and that I am 
sorry from my heart that you have any reason given you to be 


The Elector of Hanover desiring to take measures with me for 
the next campaign, they are desirous here that I would give my- 
self the trouble of going to Mayence or Frankfort, where the 
Elector offers to meet me. I shall begin my journey to-morrow 
se'nnight, for by that time I shall have marched the army to the 
camp, where I intend they shall stay till my return, which will 
be about the 28th of this month. In a few days after my return 
I shall send the troops to their several garrisons, so that I hope to 
have the happiness of being with you by the first week in 

Endorsed by Hadey \ — ''R[eceived] at Bramjpton, Oct. 3, 
7 days. Answered." 

Robert Harley to [the Duke of Marlborough]. 

1707, October 16. Brampton Castle. — I received at this 
place the honour of your Grace's letter of October 7 [n.s.] , and I 
hope this will meet your Grace safely returned from your tedious 
journey into Germany, as you spare no pains nor hazard for 
the public, so your Grace has the advantage of a superior genius 
both in council and action, which has so often been auspicious to 
these kingdoms and the liberty of Europe. 

As to what your Grace is pleased to express relating to myself, 
I own it as a very great favour, and I can most sincerely assure 
your Grace that I value myself upon my attachment to your 
Grace, and being your servant, I am very far from being uneasy 
upon my own account, nothing makes me so but to see those 
persons uneasy, to whose quiet I would sacrifice all I have, and 
for whose service I would do the utmost in my power, 
and yet to be misrepresented to them is very hard for flesh 
and blood to bear. But I was provided for it, for your 
Grace will remember that I did foretell all this a year ago, 
and it was natural to expect to be misrepresented by those who 
had no other way of doing me a mischief, and I have not wanted 
sufficient warning that I was to be torn from Lord Treasurer. 
When your Grace comes over I doubt not but you will be truly 
informed of things and persons, because it is of the last conse- 
quence to know the true state of the factions here, and the 
humours which are prevalent, for the thread seems to be run out 
to the bottom, and a few months hence will unavoidably require 
some more your usual care to be taken. I have so far foreseen 
the storm as to myself that I have used the greatest caution not 
to converse with any one either at home or abroad who are not 
entirely believed to be in the modern measures, and in the little 
time I have to last I shall omit nothing to make every one easy, 
and to do my utmost to serve them in their own way. I humbly 
beseech your Grace to pardon the freedom in me.** 


* The copy preserved of this letter is bound up in Vol. X. of the Harley or Port- 
land series of papers at Longleat, which contains miscellaneous correspondence of 
the Harley family ; but in Vol. V. of that series, which contains copies chiefly of 


[The Earl of Godolphin] to Secretary Harley. 

1707, October 23. Thursday night.— When I sent to you 
to-day to desire I might speak with you at my house to-morrow 
in the afternoon, I did not reflect that it was post day, and shall 
be glad therefore, if you please, that I may have leave to come to 
you in the evening at your office, because I have some things 
to say which relate chiefly to your foreign letters. 'Tis true, the 
affairs at home would require a good deal to be said upon them, 
if talking would mend them ; but I find they must go as they 
will, and I can do no more than I have done. 

At hack of this letter Harley has tvritten ivhat seems to he a copy 
of part of his reply to it. It runs: — "As to home affairs the 
little experience I have had inclines me to think that they never 
succeed so well as when they are directed. The people will 
follow somebody, and if your lordship will not think fit to explain 
your own thoughts, others will make use of your authority. It 
may not be much to your satisfaction whenever your lordship 
thinks fit to let me know anything of what you judge proper to 
be done. I will not be wanting in my duty to tell your lordship 
my poor opinion, and to act according to the best of my 

The Duke of Marlborough to Eobert Harley. 

1707, [October 29-] November 8. Hague. — I have had the 
favour of yours of the 24th and am extreme glad to find you are 
returned to London, where I am sure your presence must be of use 
to her Majesty, I was in hopes to have been at sea this night, but 
it blows so very hard, and the wind so contrary, that there is no 

Harley's letters to Marlborough, is a paper in Harley 's handwriting, and endorsed 
by him -.—"Draught to D. of M., Oct. 3, 1707, never sent." The letter printed in 
the text was apparently written in the place of it some days afterwards, but this 
draught is worth printing in illustration of the writer's character. It runs : — 

1707, October 3-14. Brampton. — I received at this place this morning the 
honour of your Grace's letter from the Hague of Ostober 7. I am extremely 
obliged to your Grace that you think me worth casting away so much concern 
upon as you are pleased to express : I can only say this, I have endeavoured to 
improve every opportunity to show myself zealous for your service, and that this is 
true all sides know, who also will not be ignorant of the reason of my persecution. 

I would not trouble your Grace again upon so impertinent a subject as myself, but 
that I must understand your Grace's letter, that you thought I was uneasy. I beg 
your Grace not to believe it, for the scope of my letter was to show your Grace that 
the uneasiness of other persons would not, could not, should not, make me uneasy ; 
I have no (other?) aims but to do my duty. I have nothing to get, and am not 
willing to lose the being a friend and servant to your Grace and Lord Treasurer. 
I have not intermeddled with anything. I have not solicited for nor against any 
person, I know nothing wherein I am a grievance but that I have two eyes, and 
yet I wink as hard as anybody. But the uneasinesses proceed from another cause, 
though 1 am to bear the burden, but as soon as I am gone depend upon it, my 
Lord, the stream will run too high to be stemmed, and there are not (whatever 
may be pretended; heads of either party who are able to govern them. 

I heartily desire you would take care to have a true account of the temper of all 
sorts in Engl.ind. and the opinions and notions they have fixed both as to affairs at 
home and abroad : and I wish that it do not prove that embracing some persons 
close and making others desperate do not end in truth in holding a handful of 
sand, the harder it is squeezed, the less it is and slips through your fingers. 


getting to sea, but my servants are on board the yachts, so that I 
shall make use of the first favourable minute, being very desirous 
of being with you, for I long to have one hour in which I may 
speak freely to you. 

Capt. John Ogilvie {signed " Jean Gassion ") to [Secretary 

Harley] . 

1707, November 25. — I writ to you last post so I shall say little 
at this time only to put you in mind of what I writ in my last, 
for I am uneasy here. I find you have set Kobert Moray at 
liberty and that the Marquis of Tweeddale obtained it from you. 
I wonder you was persuaded, it is true he might have had liberty 
from this Government to have gone for France, and was perhaps 
employed by Mr. James Seton and Drumelaer to bring over my 
Lord Wynton ; but he positively stayed at St. Germain thirteen 
weeks and at Paris incognito, and I am told his table book men- 
tioned that he was at St. Germain. Now if you could but ' a 
keched ' him on that score, to have saved himself he would have 
made a net discovery of the whole affair of what Colonel Huck 
(Hooke) and his brother John came over for. You may believe 
me, he is privy to the whole affair and is at the bottom of it all, 
and this some of the nobility that is above knows well, but believe 
me the hand of Job is in it. It is true the Court party believe 
they are pretty sure of the Duke of Hamilton, and the Jacobite 
party does not trust him, but his Grace would not willingly for a 
great deal that the Court should know all that Eobert Moray knows 
of his Grace. I believe you do not know the relation betwixt the 
Marquis of Tweeddale and Duke Hamilton, the Marquis's son is 
married to the Duke's sister, but he was not apprehended as he 
ought to have been. You may believe me that you will never be 
obeyed in Scotland nor your orders executed as they should be 
unless you take other measures, for the one half of them dares 
[not ?] to meddle with the other ; but to all this I shall give 
satisfaction when I come up. 

It is talked here that it was the Duke of Hamilton set the 
Court on this fellow Carsland (Ker of Kersland) to ' debosh ' him, 
and the reason was this Carsland told publicly that the Duke of 
Hamilton was dogged at night where he was seen go into the 
Duke of Queensberry's chamber and stay there the most of the 
night. The Duke was ' divlisly ' afraid to be brought in suspicion 
with the Jacobites, so he not only set the Court party on Carsland, 
but was the first published to the world he was a rogue to his 
party, and had been above and got a hundred and fifty pounds to 
betray all. And in this case matters stand. The French troops 
were promised to be here at Martinmas, as they call it in this 
country. I pray you do not fail to send me a little money that I 
may come up ; the sooner I am with you it will be the more to 
your satisfaction, but I pray keep all close till I come up, and 
then you shall have better grounds to speak than I can give 
you by writing at present. 


[The Earl of Godolphin to Kobbrt Harlby.] 

[1707, December 3,] Wednesday noon. — I return the letter 
[Capt. Ogilvie's, Nov. 25] you did me the favour to send me. I 
believe most of what it says is true, and more than what he says 
relating to Kersland is, to my knowledge, true. 

I incline to think as you do that to-morrow will require so 
much of your time in the House of Commons as to make it 
reasonable that the Council should be put off till next week. I 
will go presently to Kensington to mention it to the Queen. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1707, December 5, Friday evening. — I should be extremely sorry 
if I were capable of giving to anybody living, and much more to 
you, to write me a letter in so very extraordinary a style as yours 
seems to me. However if you have any commands for me I will 
be at home between eight and nine this night to receive them, 
and send to the Duke of Marlborough to meet you there. 

At foot of this letter Haiieij has written : — " See the copy of 
the letter to which this was an answer on the other side." 
The copy hears the same date and runs thus : — " I humbly 
beg that I may have leave to wait upon your Lordship 
this evening at your house at eight, having some account 
to give your Lordship which I think in duty to your 
service I ought to acquaint you with ; and I should be 
very glad my Lord Duke of Marlborough would be 
present. I hope your Lordship will this once pardon the 
trouble I give you." 

[Robert Harley to the Earl of Godolphin.] 

1707, December 17. — For fear I may not find your Lordship at 
home, I write this to leave it at your house with your Lordship's 
draught enclosed, which I have copied as it is. But I take the 
liberty humbly to propose to your Lordship some little altera- 
tion in the words I have drawn lines under, viz. : — 

In the first paragraph, "of this Session" seems not necessary 
and the word occurs after. 

In the next paragraph, "Public," "imaginable," may they 
not be left out ? 

In the second page, I have transferred Lord Chancellor's 
amendment, and also as your Lordship first drew it ; and I 
humbly propose it should stand as it was first drawn, because 
the words " my opinion " are not acceptable words to a Parlia- 
ment, and being once used caused great sourness, and the next 
amendment is not so agreeable to the following lines (sic). 

In the third page, " still," will not the omitting this word 
make the paragraph more acceptable as well as more extensive, 
which the word " still" confines and overthrows. 

[Earl of Godolphin to Robert Harley.] 
[1707, December 17]. St. James's at 3.— I beg leave to tell 
you, upon the backside of your own letter, that I think the 


paragraph we talked of just now at the House of Lords might 
begin thus: — " I told you at the opening of this Parliament that 
I did hope you would look upon the services relating to Portugal, 
Spain and Italy to be of so much importance in the prosecution 
of this war, as that they might deserve an augmentation. 
" I cannot but think it would be of the greatest use," &c. 

H. St. John to Secretary Harley. 

1707-8, January 14. Whitehall. — Have received your letter 
of yesterday's date, with a copy of the address of the House of 
Commons to her Majesty for an account of the effective men of 
the Portuguese troops yearly since the treaty with Portugal, and 
of the number of them present at the battle of Almanza, or at that 
time in other parts of Spain or Portugal. Having never received 
any account, either from her Majesty's ministers or from the 
general officers serving abroad with those forces, of the condition 
or strength thereof, I am not able to make any return of what is 
required, unless I can receive information from any of the officers 
now in Britain who have served in Portugal and Spain, which I 
will endeavour to get. Signed. 

Queen Anne to Secretary Harley. 

[1707-8, January 21, dated by Hajiey] . " Wensday night. — Not 
being sure when I shall have an opportunity of speaking with 
you, I writt this to desire you would com to me to morrow 
morning at eleven o'clock, or the next day at the same hour, as 
it is most convenient to yourself. I am with all sincerity. 

Your very affectionett friend, 

Anne E." 
" For Mr. Secretary Harley." 

The Same to the Same. 

[1707-8, January 27, endorsed hy Harley. '\ " Teusday night. — 
I give you this trouble to desire when you speak with St. Johns 
about laying an account before the Lords of what regiments can 
be spared that you would take care that would not be named I 
have soe often mentioned to you, because, besides the reason you 
know, if it should be ordered anywhere before theire is a new 
Lieutenant- Colonel named, it would bring an inconvenience 
upon me, but this must be known to none but yourself. 

Your very affectionett friend, 

Anne K." 

Postscript. — I hope I shall see you to-morrow in the evening. 

"For Mr. Secretary Harley." 

[Egbert Harley to the Earl of Godolphin.] 

1707-8, January 30, Friday. — Last night Mr. Attorney 
acquainted me that I was fallen under your Lordship's dis- 
pleasure ; he would not tell me any particulars. This I could 


not but receive with the utmost grief, and had it not been so late 
I had given your Lordship the trouble of a letter to desire leave to 
wait upon you, to clear myself. This morning my Lord Duke of 
Marlborough gave me permission to attend him upon a like 
occasion, and his Grace was pleased to tell me the particulars. I 
know it is impossible to ward against misrepresentations or 
misconstructions, or the application of things said generally to a 
particular purpose which was never thought of; for I do 
solemnly protest I never entertained the least thought derogating 
from your Lordship or prejudicial to your interest. I am 
confident in my own innocency, and I know no better way to 
clear myself than to desire your Lordship will let me by my 
actions demonstrate the uprightness of my intentions, and my 
zeal and duty for your Lordship's person and service. 
Draft in Harley's handwriting. 

[The Earl of Godolphin to Eobert Harley.] 

[1707-8, January 30.] — I have received your letter, and am 
very sorry for what has happened to lose the good opinion 
I had so much inclination to have of you, but I cannot 
help seeing and hearing, nor believing my senses. I am very 
far from having deserved it from you. God forgive you ! 

Endorsed by Harley : — " Delivered me at the Cockpit by the 
Lord Treasurer, Jan. 30, 1707-8." 

Henry St. John to Robert Harley. 

1708, May 1. Bucklebury. — Mr. Long is now with me, and the 
account he gives me is that there are three candidates at 
Cricklade, Mr. Dunch, Mr. Vernon, and one Mr. Goddard. The 
two former have engaged all the votes but fifty, which are thirty 
short of the number necessary, so that if the latter should resign 
to me still it is impossible for me to succeed. Mr. Long and 
another gentleman of my friends have talked with the bailiff and 
others whom they can trust, and you may depend on this as a 
true state of the matter. 

I have seen Mr. Child's letter to Mr. Long from the Devises 
wherein he owns it is impossible to do any good there, and in 
short the intention was only to have drawn me in to a share of 
the expense. 

Mr. Long is clearly of opinion that Mr. Rob. Bertie does not 
care to stand, and that I might be chose at Westbury if my Lord 
Arlington pleased, which I am far from thinking he will. I 
neither have omitted, nor would omit, any trouble, care or 
expense in my power since my friends think I might be of some 
little use to them and to my country, but know not which way 
to turn myself. 

My father makes a scandalous figure, neglected by all the 
gentlemen, and sure of miscarrying where his family always 
were reverenced. 'Tis late at night. I am ever yours most 

Postscript. — You will acquaint Harcourt with these matters. 


[The Duke of Sheewsbuky to Robeet] Harley. 

1708, May 6, at night. — I intend to go on Saturday next to 
wait on the same person I attended on Saturday last. I hope I 
shall have some opportunity of discoursing you before that time 
when it is least inconvenient to you. 

The last time I saw you I thiiik I told you I was ready to meet 
Sir S. Har [court] whenever you thought proper and would give 
me notice. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to [Robert Harley]. 

1708, July 29. Heathrop (Heythrop). — I shall be extreme 
glad at all times to see you and especially at this. It would look 
too much like mystery if we should meet at any third place, and 
think the most natural and unexceptionable way would be that 
you would either dine here or lie here one night, as will be most 
convenient to you, and am sorry you did not think of doing it 
on your way from London to Stow, for my house does not He a 
mile out of that road, and Stow is seven miles beyond me almost 
towards Tewkesbury. But I hope, since your horses are at 
Oxford, you will be there this evening, and I will send a servant 
on purpose with another letter. I shall dine at home every day 
this week and the beginning of the next, and am, &c. 

[Henry St. John to Robert Harley.] 

1708, October 11. — I got home without any misfortune but 
that of being wet twice a day to the skin. You was very happy 
in nicking the time for your return so as to escape the almost 
uninterrupted storm. But 'tis in your fate to do so. You have 
before now been in dangers of this kind and have yet been so 
prudent and so lucky both, as to receive only some sprinkling 
drops and to gain shelter before the whole tempest could over- 
take you. 

I have thought a good while that you could expect from one 
quarter nothing but that you have met with, and this pre- 
possession used to make me very uneasy when we were building 
up the power of a faction which it was plain we should find it 
necessary in a short time to pull down, and when we entered 
into some engagements which would prove clogs and fetters upon 
us whenever we came in our own defence to play a contrary 

This has been, and this is, our case, and what can redeem us 
from more than Egyptian bondage ? There is one person who 
with a fiat resolutely pronounced might do it ; but when I rec- 
collect all I heard and saw last winter I despair of any salvation 
from thence. There is no hope I am fully convinced but in the 
Church of England party, nor in that neither on the foot it now 
stands, and without more confidence than is yet re-established 
between them and us. Why do you not gain Bromley entirely ? 
The task is not difficult, and by governing him without seeming 


to do so, you will influence them. Your friends, I mean such of 
them as are in Parliament, will I dare say take their parts and 
do everything which they possibly can without direct contradic- 
tion to themselves. 

You broke the party, unite it again, their sufferings have made 
them wise, and whatever piques or jealousies they may entertain 
at present, as they feel the success of better conduct these will 
wear off, and you will have it in your power by reasonable 
measures to lead them to reasonable ends. 

If they are not at first strong enough to conquer they will be 
too strong to be broken. This hollow square will defend you who 
seem to be singled out for destruction, and will be in condition 
whenever the propitious day comes to lodge power where it 
naturally should be, with property. 

I ask your pardon for being so tedious but for my part till I 
see something done I shall have no hopes of any employment in 
London which can make me amends for leaving this retreat, and 
some of the most valuable of our friends whom I have seen this 
summer seem to be of the same mind. 

Frank [his wife Frances] is extremely your servant and I am 
unalterably what I have ever endeavoured to show myself. 

G [eorge] G [ranville] who is now with me assures you of his 
faithful service. 

Robert Harley to Sir Simon Harcourt. 

1708, October 16.^ — I take it for granted this will find you 
returned to London, and very deep in Chancery. If you have a 
spare minute for an old friend to peep upon you, let this paper 
tell you how wholly I am yours, and now the 16th of November 
drawing near it puts me in mind to whisper to you how easy and 
light I find myself that I have nothing to answer for but my own 
faults, and that nothing of the miscarriages of others, or their 
misfortunes, will call for any apology from us, but like the day of 
doom they must be judged by their own works. 

Our military prowess and conduct is now famous, and the 
Dutch will rely upon it, and as for our economy it is very good, 
as long as money flowed and funds would run, who but we — we 
sucked till the blood came, and no regard to what was to come 
after ; now everything is run out of breath, the mines are 
worked out, we have a necessity created of a long war, and 
that is now to be made an argument for most extravagant 
burdens this next year. It is ridiculous for me to send news to 
London, but I cannot forbear letting you know what is the report 
of our country, they say that there is a bargain made that Sir R. 
Onslow shall again be made a lord, to qualify his son to*marry a 
vast fortune, this and some other considerations will oblige him 
to be Speaker, that Sir P. K[ing] hath upon some promise declined 
his solicitations, others think after all it will be devolved on Sir 
J. K., for it is plain Sir William will do his utmost to bring in that 
relation, though he knows they rail at him and hate him, may 
be he thinks their extravagance will make him wished for again. 


We have it also current here that at a meeting in the Citj- 
where were divers of our rulers yesterday se'nnight it was agreed 
to raise six millions, and that it was impossible to do it by loans, 
but it must be by Exchequer Bills, and those to be secured by 
the Malt Tax granted for perpetuity, but they will condescend to 
let there be a clause of redemption. Is there any need of 
Parliament meeting ? Put it ? Put it ? 

Jam vacid capita iioindum Phceaca imtahant. 

I hear also that the great men of Scotland are also to be 
dropped as a sacrifice to the Junto, methinks some care should 
be taken to show them their condition, not only that of their 
country but of their own persons, and sure you cannot think 
for any quarter from the Junto who have taken the ' Squadrone ' 
into their own bosoms. 

What attacks have been made upon , and that hitherto 

they have received only denial you are nearer to hear than I am. 

But give me leave to acquaint you that I received a letter last 
post from a friend of yours and mine that Mr. B [romley] would 
be a candidate for the chair, in case you and I would approve 
of it, and that they had hopes to carry it. I immediately 
returned an answer that after what had passed by discourse 
and also letters I could not think there was any room 
left to doubt of my serving him heartily, that I wished they 
might succeed, that I judged it would be requisite to lose no time 
in summoning up all friends, though I did believe it ought only 
to be in generals, and that the more it were kept secret, the name 
of the person who is to be set up, the greater amazement it would 
be to the adversaries. I think if it be well conducted it may be 
brought very near, I am sure it will have this one good effect it 
will bring people together, who I doubt not but will be sufficient 
to prevent a great deal of mischief, for I find the deadness and 
want of spirit in some emboldens ill persons to undertake many 
things they would not else venture upon. 

I have not heard any thing of the Thracian, but I hope George 
Granville has fixed his matter and that it appears clear to you. 
I wish you would speak to George to write to all his friends to be 
in town the first day. 

Adieu, my best friend. I think Mr. B. has no need of more 
testimonies of your sincerity and mine than what we have already 
given him. I heartily kiss the young gentleman's hands. 


[Henry St. John to Robert Harley.] 

1708, November 6. — I am as much convinced as it is possible 
to be that going out of employment at the time and in the manner 
we did was equally honest and prudent. No man's opinion can 
add any weight to confirm me in this thought. 

I must say further that the merit of this action depends, accord- 
ing to my apprehension, on the use which you and your friends 
make of that state of freedom which they placed themselves in 
by laying down their employments. 

No one living is able to do so much as you towards removing 
our present evils, and towards averting those which a very short- 
sighted man may perceive to impend over us. But you are the 

6802 N 


mark at which every dart of faction is levelled, and it is impossible 
either that yon should be safe from daily insults, or that the 
least progress should l)e made towards those views which you 
propose, unless a number of gentlemen be satisfied of their danger, 
unless they be convinced that to preserve themselves they must 
follow you, unless you inspire your party with industry and 
courage, which at present seem only to be possessed by the 
factions, and with as much of that virtuous love of the country as 
this vile generation is capable of receiving and which at present 
seems not to have the least share in the guidance of any side. 
The fiery trial of affliction has made the gentlemen of the Church 
of England more prepared to form such a party than from their 
former conduct it might have been expected, and you seem to be 
with regard to them in the case of Plautius namalteros sibijam 
placatos esse intelligo, alteros nunquam iratos fuisse. 

A thorough conviction that these propositions are true has 
given occasions to long letters for which I can make no excuse 
so good, and therefore will borrow one from Tully — ^^ Nunc 
tantum significandum j)utari^ ut j^otliis amorem tibi ostenderem 
meum, quam ostentarem prndentiamJ' 

What you mention concerning Sir William [Wyndham]'s sub- 
missive protestations, and the scorn with which Wh [arton ?] 
received them surprises me not. But that they should think of 
raising sixteen regiments more, and of mortgaging either land or 
malt, is to my apprehension downright infatuation and what I 
am glad of. They hasten things to a decision, and our slavery 
and their empire are put upon that issue. For God's sake let us 
be once out of Spain ! 

The Cardinal [Auditor Harley ?] tells me what you have done 
to gain Mr. B[romley], and how well you have succeeded. I 
make no question but you will unite and govern the whole body 
of gentlemen to their own and to your good. G[eorge] 
G [ranville] will not let me conclude without adding a few lines 
of an epistle of Tully to Plancus. I have told him that Tully is 
not in your favour, and that before you come thus far you will be 
tired of my Latin and English too. 'Tis to no purpose, he will 
have them sent and here they are — '^Scis prof ecto nihil enim te 
fugere potidt fuisse quoddam tempus, quum homines existimarent 
te nimis servire temporibus. Quod ego quoque existimarem si te^ 
ea quae patiebare, probasse etiam arbitrarer. Nunc alia ratio 
est omnium renim, tuum judicium est, idque liberam. Incumbe 
per deos immortales in eam curam et cogitafionem. quae tibi 
summam dignitatem et gloriam afferat.'' 

In contributing to which you may depend on me as a man, 
how pleased soever I am with the life I now lead, ready to take 
any part I may be thought able to discharge. 

They are in great uneasiness about the close of the campaign 
in Flanders ; the fault is to be laid on the Dutch. 

Shall you not be forthwith in London ? 

The death of the Prince gives me thoughts which I will not 
trouble you with. 

I shall be in London to look a little about me at the end of 
this month. G.G. [Granville] , who is much your servant, will 
be there very soon. 


H. St. J[ohn] to Thomas [Harley?]. 

1708, November 15. Bucklebury. — Dear Tom, I never was 
more vexed in my life than when I rose this morning to find the 
servants I had ordered to attend you in the morning had been 
drunk all night and neglected to wait on you. I have sent them 
a grazing, and I ask your pardon for the ill-usage you had. 

I forgot to speak to Mr. Harley at Oxford in a matter which 
concerns me very nearly, and which I desire you to mention to 
him. A kinsman of mine, and as honest a good man as ever 
was, is put on the list of sheriffs for Wilts. I would never 
solicit to have him excused, nor would Mr. Pleydell desire it, was 
it possible for him to discharge the office; but his health is so 
extremely ruined by sickness, and his mind so broken by mis- 
fortunes, that it would be an act of barbarity to force him into 
this employment. 

If Mr. Harley could prevail on the Duke of Newcastle, Lord 
Poulett, or any other privy councillor to appear for him, it would 
be a never to be forgotten obligation ; and I pawn my word and 
honour the excuses are true in fact. 

Dice (?) is your very humble servant. \_These concluding words 
are in Mrs. St. John's handwriting .'\ 

[Henry St. John to Eobert Harley.] 

1708-9, January 26. — I obeyed your orders last night, but our 
friend at the Temple [Harcourt] was so busy that he was forced 
to neglect answering even your summons, and my company would 
have been of no great moment in your council. 

I am just now told that the motion made to-day by Lord 
W. P [aulet] is by direction, and that there is to be the same stress 
laid upon the proceedings in consequence of it against you as was 
on the election [for Abingdon] against Har [court] . I mention 
this to you because I fancy my information comes from one who 
has been already very plainly spoke to. 

[The Duke of Shrewsbury] to [Robert] HARiiEY. . 

1708-9, March 2. — I am sorry we have so often missed one 
another, when I have been at your house and you have sent 
hither. If you could be at home any time to-night between seven 
and ten or to-morrow night, I would endeavour to wait on you. 

H. St. John to [Robert Harley]. 

1709, August 14. Astrop.— Hearing by Dr. Stratford that you 
have married your daughter the last week, I look upon myself as 
entituled by the part I take in everything which relates to you, 
to trouble you with a letter on this occasion. Do me therefore 
the justice to believe that I wish the young couple happy in each 
other, and you so in both of 'em. 

It is great satisfaction to me to consider that this happiness 
must needs attend a match, where you have brought into your 
family one who by his good sense, his knowledge, his probity, 
and his modesty seemed to be akin to you even before his 


[Henry St. John to Robert Harley.] 

1709, September 17. Bucklebury. — I send this note to express 
my concern that I am not able to wait upon you at Oxford as 
Mr. Granville and I had proposed to do. 

You can have nothing to communicate to me which will not be 
so far welcome that it comes from you. But I begin to expect 
neither peace abroad nor good order at home. I wish you per- 
fect health and good weather, two articles of no small importance 
to the satisfaction and joy of life. 

In three weeks time I intend to go to Lavington, my hounds 
and horses are already there, my books will soon follow. In that 
retreat if I may hear sometimes that you and the few friends 
which I have in the world are well, all will be well with me. 
I am ever, &c. 

Postscript. — I beg leave to assure my Lord Dupplin of my most 
humble service. Frank is extremely yours. 

[The Same to the Same.] 

1709, September 21. Bucklebury. — Having an opportunity of 
sending a letter safely to Oxford, and Stratford having formerly 
told me that he had a very sure way of conveying anything to 
you, I transmit this to him. 

I should have been very glad to have known the particulars of 
this noble project, since it's hard to imagine what air of probability 
could be given to any story calculated for such a purpose. But 
there is an ill nature in the world which makes men incapable 
of submitting to the laws of friendship themselves, and of patiently 
seeing it prevail among others. 

I thank you for those kind comprehensive wishes which you 
bestow upon me. In this obscure and private life I am perfectly 
easy, and shall with the same ease return to the noise and busi- 
ness of an active public life, whenever the service of my country 
or of my friends calls me forth. 

Since you are so indifferent as not to trouble yourself either 
about the peace or about the measures which our governors at 
home will pursue, my indifference will increase upon me, and I 
will likewise wait with patience for that something which is not 
much expected. 

Adieu, dear Sir, may you still continue involved in your virtue 
and shielded by your innocence, safe from every dart of malice. 
May all your designs for the good of your country prosper, and 
every other blessing light upon you. 

Sic voret H. S. 

Postscript. — I am my Lord Dupplin's most faithful humble 
servant. My wife desires you to accept of her respects. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to [Robert Harley]. 

1709, September 3. [Heatbrop.] — Though I was not at home 
when your servant called yet I had your letter very safe, and 
return you thanks for it. If this house should be in your road 
to Herefordshire and you would be pleased to take a bed or a 
dinner, or both, nobody would be more welcome to me. 


The Duke of Shrewsbury to [Robert Harley]. 

1709, September 18. Heatlirop. — I have been very appre- 
hensive that the great change in the north might give such an 
over-balance one way as might create more difficulties than can 
presently occur to one's thoughts, but they may either tend to 
the deferring or hastening a peace as they are made use of. 

Having company at present with me at dinner I have not time 
to say much, but I should be glad if you could let me know what 
time the Parliament will sit, when you intend to be in London, 
and w^hether there will be anything of moment, so that one need 
be there early in the Sessions. 

The master of the " Crown " in Worcester, I think, is called 
Glynn, and is postmaster ; if so, he was my servant and can send 
any letter directed to me safely hither. 

The Same to [the Same]. 

1709, November 8. Heathrop. — I am very sensible how far I 
am from being able to act any considerable part in the good you 
mention, but shall always be ready to concur with you in every- 
thing may be for the interest of the public, behig convinced 
nobody can wish better to it nor judge better of it than yourself. 

I do not doubt but the generality of the nation long for a peace, 
and the majority of those who represent it, when discoursed 
singly in the country, agree in that opinion. But how they may 
change their minds when they come to London and submit to 
their leaders, I will not take upon me to determine. How^ever it 
is evident so many circumstances from at home as well as from 
abroad make peace desirable, that if the nation could see how they 
might have a good one it is my opinion they would be very 
uneasy till they had it. Some opportunities have already been 
lost ; if more of the same nature should offer it would be for the 
service of her Majesty and the public that they might not be 
slipped over in silence as the others have been ; and how reason- 
able or practicable it may be to look back, and enquire into what 
has already passed in that affair, I shall defer mentioning till 
I am so fortunate to see you. 

The Same to [the Same]. 

1709, December 1. — I am truly concerned at the cause of your 
deferring your journey, and agree it is too just as well as too 
melancholy a reason to any man of good nature ; and whoever is 
without that best of qualities can, in my opinion, never deserve 
so entire an esteem as I shall always have for you. But I hope 
your son is in a way of recovery and will soon set you at liberty 
to be in town, where you cannot but know you are much wanted. 
I begin my journey to-morrow, designing to be in London on 

If this war in the north has been begun or encouraged by any 
contrivance of ours it is certain they know not what they have 
done, nor how bad the consequence may be, not so much at 
present as hereafter ; if all the naval stores should get into one 


hand it might prove the unhappiest monopoly that ever Englan 
saw. But I am entirely a stranger to what has been transacted 
in this affair, and hoping it will not be long before I shall have 
an opportunity to be more fully informed from you I now 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to Robert Harley. 

[1709-1710,] Thursday morning.— I found Lord H [alifax?] very 
flaming on the subject you two had discoursed, expressing great 
friendship to you and me and desirous we three might debate the 
matter together, but he was so possessed of the ruin such a 
resolution would bring on everybody concerned in the advice that 
he very near declared that he could not accept if that wei?e not 
cleared. It will be worth while to endeavour to convince him, 
and if that cannot be, it should be considered what should be 
said to him here, in case he presses for some declaration ; what 
strengthens my suspicion is that he has desired the Secretary 
that no step may be made towards it in the office, and that it 
may be kept private till he is able to come hither. 

On the other side the D [uke] of S [omerset] is much out of 
humour, talks very despairingly — as if he sees nothing would be 
done — and sometimes doubtfully, of the above-mentioned council. 
I wish he and Lord Rivers and you and I might talk together 
soon, and if the motion came from you it were the better. I 
doubt he was nothing more out of humour because you and I 
were together yesterday, but for that I have but slight ground. 

Since I writ so far I have seen the D [uke] of S [omerset] . He 
is in better humour but not quite as I wish. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to [Robert Harley]. 

[1710, July 22, endorsed.'] Saturday. — If any real satisfaction 
can be given her Majesty upon what we are to discover to-morrow 
morning I believe she will soon come to a resolution, and, as it 
will be necessary in the first place to resolve upon the persons to 
succeed, so I find an obstruction to any determination from a 
thought that I should be employed in that post. I have ten 
reasons, every one strong enough to hinder my doing it, but that 
of engaging in an employment I do not in the least understand 
and have not a head turned for ought to convince everybody 
else as well as myself that I am in the right, so that I make it 
my request to you to convince her Majesty that I am so, and that 
she, you, and everybody will turn your thoughts to the filling 
that Commission. In my mind you should be at the head, because 
you then come naturally into the Cabinet Council, where you are 
so much wanted ; and every one of the other Commissioners 
should be persons able to serve not only at that Board but in one 
of the Houses of Parliament. 

I hope you will be very particular in your instructions to Mr. 
Cressett, as well for Holland as Hanover, where I hope he may 
be very useful. I have just now yours of last night. I have no 
objection to either of them, but wish it may not remind the 
world, if Lord Je[rsey] should go, of that step in his conduct 
which I think is most exceptional : but of this we will talk more. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to Eobert Harley. 

1710, October 14. — Her Majesty has given Mr. Secretary 
directions to prepare a commission for my Lord Peterborough to 
be General of the Marines ; I presume if you see him it may not 
be improper to let him know it, and that as to the other preten- 
sion there remain yet some difficulties. 

I do not find that she has as yet given any orders about the 
two bishops [Bristol and St. David's] , which should not be much 
longer delayed. 

Her Majesty was so pleased with the good weather yesterday 
and the day before, and makes so much more use of it here at 
Windsor than she does at Hampton Court, that she seems 
resolved to return hither Tuesday se'nnight for the rest of that 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to [Eobert Harley]. 

1710, October 20. — I send you here enclosed a letter for 
the King of Hanover. I have this morning as well as last 
night been with the Queen, and discoursed her about the D[uke 
of] Ar [gyll] . Last night she resolved to tell him when she saw 
him that she was sorry her circumstances would not allow her 
to do what she understood he desired.^ I told her that 
answer would certainly disoblige, and this morning I find her a 
little softened, but yet not resolved to grant. For my part I see 
no medium, and wish you would write to her upon the subject ; 
I have said what I can, and will do so again before the D [uke] 
comes to-morrow. 

The D [uke] of Som [erset] came hither last night, but as yet 
has not been with her Majesty. 

Lord [Rochester] President, having left with me the City 
address, I read it to the Queen last night. She immediately took 
exception to the expression that "her right was Divine," and this 
morning told me that, having thought often of it, she could by 
no means like it, and thought it so unfit to be given to anybody 
that she wished it might be left out ; if it can be I find she would 
like it much better. Pray talk with my Lord President upon 
this ; he will be, I suppose, at the Cockpit, and dines at the Duke 
of Queensberry's, and if it can be omit that expression. 

If you resolve to go into the country there are very many 
things to be settled first ; the state of the House of Lords is bad, 
and a great prospect that Argyll, Rivers, Peterborough, Jersey, 
and Haver sham will be dissatisfied, and Nottingham and Guern- 
sey cool, unless her Majesty use some means to please them, 
which nobody can so much contribute to persuade her to'as 
yourself. If something be not done for Lord Fitzwalter that 
will lose him and disgust Lord Rivers, who engaged for it. 

Some resolution should bo taken what to do with the troops 
embarked from the Isle of Wight, if they are not to do the service 
they have so long waited for ; and Lord Peter [borough] will be 
distracted, and not without reason, if you go and leave his 
concerns undetermined. 


The Sessions comes on so fast I wish you can be back before it 
be necessary to think of the Speech. 

I hear the Bank is in great disorder, and I know not how the 
Board of Treasury can spare you long. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to [Robert Harley]. 

1710, November 10. — This morning I have had a long discourse 
with her Majesty about the Admiralty. You know^ the objections 
she has to Lord Jer [sey] , which are no ways to be overcome but 
by the sad reflection how few there are capable of that post. It 
is now plain by the late orders sent that Lord Baby can hardly 
be here in time, for it would be unjustifiable not to settle that 
Commission before the Parliament meets. Lord Bivers was 
thought on, but I believe he would not care for a place of so great 
attendance. She ordered me to write to you if you could propose 
anybody, for she seems in haste the Commission should be passed ; 
and willing Lord Mohun should be one, though not the first. I 
hope in your answer you will propose somebody better than has 
yet been thought on, or, if you cannot, you will have no ill occasion 
to press for Lord Jer [sey] , or whoever you like best. 

The Duke of Marlborough to [Bobert Harley]. 

1711, [February 2I8-] March 10. Hague. — You will have seen 
by my letter the last post to Mr. Secretary St. John the situation 
I found affairs in upon my arrival here, and I shall desire to refer 
you to him from time to time without giving you the trouble of my 
letters, unless it be where anything may deserve your particular 
care ; and I must now pray that — as you will observe by mine to 
him by this post how uneasy I am at the great diminution of our 
army to wdiat it w^as the last year, whereas, considering the great 
efforts of the enemy, we ought rather to be, stronger. — you will 
give your assistance in my desire of her Majesty's orders to 
replace the live regiments to be sent from hence, by foreign 
troops where they may be had, at the same time I receive her 
Majesty's direction for shipping off those regiments. 

The Duke of Marlborough to Travers. 

1711, April [3-] 14. Hague. — I had the favour of yours of the 
29th of the last month by the last post. I believe the reason of 
the monies not being ordered for Blenheim is occasioned by Mr. 
Harley' s indisposition. I hope by this time he is abroad and 
the necessary orders have been given. If he lets the payments 
begin from the first of March the work may be carried on the 
faster. I shall be glad sometimes at your leisure to hear from 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to [Bobert Harley]. 

1711, April 17. — An express arrived to-night brings the news 
of the Emperor's death, the 17th n.s., upon which her Majesty 


has resolved to call an extraordinary Cabinet to-morrow in the 
evening. I doubt your health will not permit you to be there ; 
but as this is an affair of the last importance I hope you will 
communicate your thoughts to somebody concerning the most 
material points to be first resolved on and despatched. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to [Kobert Harley] . ' 

1711, April 25. — Before I see Mr. Vanhulst I should be glad 
to concert with you what should be said to him, and agree 
whether the matter we meet upon to-night should be put into his 

I cannot help thinking the letter from " Schaffouse " is a cheat 
and intended to lay the foundation of a future reward ; however, 
it is upon a subject of such importance and relating to a life so 
necessary and precious to us all that all imaginable care should 
be taken of it, and I think a particular consideration should be 
had in what manner to propose to her Majesty not to be so 
exposed to attempts, as she certainly is, for want of attendance, 
and by her back stairs every where in all her houses being made 
the common way to come to her as well for strangers as her 
nearest domestics. I have lived in four Courts, and this is the 
first where I have ever seen anybody go up the back stairs unless 
such as the Prince would have come to him unobserved. 

As to your own concern I think you believe I wish both you 
and the public well, and I hope you will do what is best for both, 
and upon that foot I am sure you never can be greater than I 
sincerely wish you ; but at the same time that is done I conceive 
other alterations should be made, upon which it is impossible to 
give an opinion unless one knew how far the Queen would go, and 
cut our coat according to our cloth. 

[The Duke or Shrewsbury to Robert Harley.] 

[1711, endorsed.'] April 26.— Upon consideration of our debate 
last night I am of opinion it will be impracticable that Mr. 
Vanhulst should go into Holland, and all who were at the meeting 
last night not immediately guess he is the man entrusted. I 
am also of opinion it will be impossible to keep this much longer 
a secret, nor do I think it very safe for us to do it ; both French 
and Dutch will speak of it if it do not go on, and if it do it must 
soon be communicated to many. Upon the whole I could wish 
the Queen would speak of it to-night to the Cabinet, as a paper 
come to her hands without saying how, and in the Cabinet let 
them debate in what manner it should be sent to the Pensioner, 
either by Lord Raby or otherwise, as they think best ; and at the 
same time Vanhulst might go over privately instructed by the 
Queen's order to say what she thinks proper to the Pensioner. 

Take what method you please, I dare engage the secret will be 
none in fifteen days, and by attempting to keep it among our- 
selves we shall anger the rest of the Cabinet, Lord Raby, and 
even those entrusted with you and me, if without their knowledge 
we send a man to negotiate privately. 


I have a little touch of the gout and in bed, which makes me 
write so that I doubt you cannot read it. If it be not too much 
trouble I should be glad to know your thoughts, and that you 
will excuse mine not so well digested as they should be. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to Robert Harley. 

[Same date.] Thursday night. — The paper has been com- 
municated to-night as was resolved, Lord Pre[sident] was not of 
that opinion, but he submitted it ; I find some of the lords who 
refine (sic) the whole is concluded. I wish they were in the 

I shall be ready to see Mr. Vanhuls to-morrow morning 
between nine and ten ; I have not asked the Queen's leave, but 
suppose one may recommend particularly to him to talk freely to 
the Pensioner upon the paper the Queen sends him. I name 
between nine and ten because you said the morning, but I shall 
have nothing to do all day, and could as well see him at any 
other time as at that. 

The gentleman I begged an employment for in the Customs at 
Dover or Deal, I have forgot which — his name was Power — died 
two days ago, and has left a numerous family, who must now all 
starve. The sons are so young that I will not propose one of them 
to succeed him, nor no other expedient to help them. 

The Same to the Same. 

[1711, end of April.] Friday. — The paper having been laid 
last night before the Cabinet Council and Mr. Secretary received 
his orders to write to Lord Raby to communicate it to the Pensioner, 
I conclude he will do it to-night, and, supposing Mr. Vanhuls will 
not go by this packet, hope you will take care at least that he 
write to the Pensioner upon the subject, as also to acquaint him 
he will be with him as soon as the next letters, desiring no resolu- 
tion may be taken till he can discourse him. 

Mr. Secretary was asking whether this should not be communi- 
cated to Drummond and he instructed to talk with the Pensioner 
upon ; it is hard for us to say no without telling him Vanhuls has 
that commission which the Queen would have nobody know, so 
that if Mr. Secretary ask me I will tell him he ought to receive 
her Majesty's directions, and that nobody should be entrusted in 
an affair of this nature without her leave, and her Majesty might 
be prepared to say she thinks as few as is possible should know 
the secret for the present, and forbid him to write it to anybody. 
I trouble you with this because perhaps you may go to the 
Queen. I am too lame to appear, and apprehend that if I should 
force my knee I might be laid up for a longer time. 

The Duke of Marlborough to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1711, May [17-] 28. — I should have written oftener to you but 
that I know Mr. St. John acquaints you with my private letters to 
him. Mine by this post will let you see the difficulties I meet 
with ; and as I shall always be ready to take measures with you 
for the carrying on the service with success, so I must beg your 


friendshii) and assistance. Upon my word and honour I am no 
ways ambitious of power, but if it be not made visible to the 
officers that I have the Queen's protection it will make it very 
difficult for me to preserve that discipline in this army which is 
for her service, which I have very much at my heart. I am very 
sensible of the hurry of business you have on your hands, so that 
I do not expect letters often from you, but this bearer, Mr. Craggs, 
on whose friendship I rely, you may freely give him your 
commands and he will be exact in acquainting me with them. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to [Eobert Harley]. 

1711, May 22. Tuesday. — According to my judgment, which, 
without affectation, is very mean, especially in Latin compositions, 
the enclosed^'" is very well done. The subject is noble, and I 
think what is writ upon it very handsome. 

I shall be ready to attend you, Mr. Secretary, and the M. del 
Borgo. I wish we might first have considered what we should 
have said to him, it might have saved time and another meeting ; 
but I am of opinion what he says must at last be put in writing 
and communicated to the Cabinet Council. I know not whether 
you design to be at the Cockpit this morning : it is certain we 
want your help, and that there are now four things relating to 
foreign affairs to be considered of as great consequence as can 
be — this of the Duke of Savoy ; the answer to the Pensioner 
about the project we sent over; the affair of Portugal; and the 
demand of the King of Sweden, with the whole consideration of 
that northern war, and the treaties and engagements the Queen 
is in to those different interests. I am confident when you reflect 
on the importance of these affairs you will be of opinion they 
should be well considered. 

I observed in Vanhulst's letter that the Pensioner imagined I 
had a more than ordinary intimacy with Lord Raby. I cannot 
conceive what ground he has for that. My acquaintance with 
him was as little as can be with one who was always in the late 
King's Court, and I never had any correspondence in my life with 
him till he writ to me upon my coming last year into her 
Majesty's service ; and can assure you I have never named 
Vanhulst, the errand he went upon, or your correspondence with 
the Pensioner, to him. The last I did recommend to Lord 
Albemarle, and perceive he had taken pains in it, and with some 

Surely it is time the Queen began to make such removes as 
she is resolved upon. I heard Lord Privy Seal [Bishop of 
Bristol] talks of going out of town for a few days this week. 
Would not that be a great inconvenience and delay to all 
business ? 

The Duke of Marlborough to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1711, [May 29-] June 8. — 1 received your favour of the 18-29 past 
with great satisfaction, and do heartily congratulate your having 
recovered your strength to such a degree as to be able to attend 

* The preamble to Hurley's patent creating him Earl of Oxford. 


the public service again, and I hope the business of the House of 
Commons, in which you have so great a share, and have hitherto 
succeeded so much to the advantage of the nation as well as to 
your own honour, will soon be happily ended, that you may be 
more at liberty to attend at the Council and the Treasury, on 
which the Queen's service at home and that of the public aln'oad 
do so much depend. I am very sensible of the obligation I have 
to you that the army here has been hitherto so regularly sub- 
sisted, and I am persuaded we are so much in your thoughts that 
I need not pray the contiimance of your care of us. 

I am extremely obliged to you for the assurance you give me, 
that the building of Blenheim shall not be neglected. I cannot 
dissemble the desire I have to see that monument of her Majesty's 
goodness, and the nation's acceptance of my service, brought to 
some degree of perfection, I hope I shall give no just reason for 
posterity to reproach you for having been the finisher of it, and 
if I have the good fortune to spend any part of my life there I 
shall always have in my view a remembrancer of the obligations 
I owe you on this account. 

M[ARaARET, Countess of] Marlbohough to [the Earl of 

Oxford] . 

1711, June 7. — Though I have not the happiness to be i)er- 
sonally known to you, yet my grievous circumstances and 
present extremity will, I hope, plead my excuse for troubling you 
in this manner, being unable to wait on you myself, and indeed 
destitute of any friend — except the gentleman that brings you 
this — to solicit my affair, which is humbly to desire that you will 
please to take into your consideration the prayer of my petition 
now lodged in the Treasury, and that some immediate relief may 
be ordered me, for I am now reduced to the last extremity. 

My Lord, for God's sake let not the multitude of your weighty 
affairs make you forget the deplorable condition of, &c. 

The Duke of Marlborough to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1711, June [11-] 22. — I am just now favoured with your 
Lordship's obliging letters of the 25th and 29th past ; each of 
them gives me occasion to congratulate you upon the fresh 
marks you have received of the Queen's favour. 

After the kind assurances you give me of your friendship, I 
should be very much wanting both in my public and private 
capacity if I neglected anything within the compass of my know- 
ledge or power that might contribute to the making the discharge 
of your high trust as easy and agreeable to you as may be. 
I am very sensible how necessary good husbandry is in the vast 
expense we are at. I have hitherto heartily endeavoured to 2)ut 
an end to it, and assure you that while the nation is obliged to 
bear that heavy burden, it shall be my constant study to manage 
that part of the war I am concerned in with the utmost frugality. 
I pray I may hereafter have your commands without reserve, 
which I would not ask if I were not resolved you shall always 
find my returns such as may really convince you it cannot be 
more my interest than it is my inclination to approve myself 
with the greatest truth, &c. 

The Duke of Marlborough to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1711, July [5-] 16. — I give your Lordship many thanks for the 
honour of your letter of the ^f^ and pray you will believe it shall 
always be my endeavour to make all possible returns for your 
friendship and good offices, of which you continue to give me 
such convincing proofs, as well by the provision you make for 
the public service, in which I have my lot, as for that part of my 
private concerns. Upon the former of these points I gave you my 
thoughts in my letter of the 4th instant, with the freedom w^hich 
you encourage me to make use of, and her Majesty's service 
requires. I must expect your Lordship's answer before I can say 
any more upon that subject, or send over the person I proposed 
to you, so that I shall at this time trouble you no further than 
to repeat a truth which all my actions shall confirm: I mean that 
of the just value I have for your friendship, and the sincerity 
wherewith I am, &c. 

Postscript. I fear the conduct of the King of Poland, as to the 
corps of neutrality, may prove very troublesome to the Allies. 

The Same to- [the Same]. 

1711, July [15-] 26. — I have let a post pass without returning 
your Lordship thanks for the honour of your letter of the jV instant, 
choosing rather to do it by Lord Stair himself : his private affairs 
on your side have been long known to require his presence there. 
1 am persuaded his voyage will give no other umbrage among us, 
and I will take all possi])le care the secret do not get vent in 

I cannot expect, neither can you give me, greater assurances 
and proofs of your friendship than you have done, and I flatter 
myself you will not question the sincerity of my endeavours to 
merit the continuance of it, when I tell you I am entirely sensible 
that without the Queen's favour, and your confidence, it will 
be impossible for me to carry on the service with any 
advantage to the public, or satisfaction to myself. The 
latter depends wholly upon the former, and it is to the 
promoting of that I shall most heartily employ all the means 
in my power, but I shall shorten this letter, and pray leave 
to refer you for the rest to my Lord Stair, who will fully 
explain to you every article of the project, and better express 
than I can write my true sentiments in regard to yourself. I 
know his Lordship cannot have a more powerful recommendation 
to you than his own merit, and shall therefore only add, that as 
I have always had great reason to be satisfied with the good 
service he has done the public, and his continual friendship to 
myself in particular, so I now assure him he can do me none so 
great as that of confirming your Lordship in the opinion you do 
me the justice to entertain, of my being with the greatest truth, 

Postscript. — Having just now received a piece of the Duke of 
Bavaria's new coin, I send it to your Lordship that you may see 
the titles he takes. 


The Duke of Marlborough to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1711, [July 27-] August 0. — It is with great pleasure I now give 
an account by Brigadier Sutton of our having j^assed the enemy's 
Knes, the importance of which may best be judged of by the pre- 
cautions the enemy have been taking as well last year as this to 
prevent it. You will have heard of our late motions towards the 
lines between Arras and Hedin, which, having had the effect I 
proposed in drawing the Mareshal de Villars with all his troops 
that way, we made a march on Tuesday night with so much 
diligence that our advanced troops got over the Sensett at Harleux 
yesterday morning by break of day, before the enemy could come 
to make any opposition. Monsieur de Villars, with the head of 
his line of horse, appeared near Oissy at eleven in the morning, 
but finding by the number of troops w^e had then jDassed over he 
was not in a condition to attack us he retired, and we encamped 
between the Sensett and the Schelde. I cannot express the zeal 
and resolution all the troops showed on this occasion, good part of 
them having marched twenty-four hours without halting, but I 
must refer your Lordship for the further particulars of this 
fortunate enterprise to Brigadier Sutton whom I am very glad to 
send to give the Queen an account of it, being persuaded her 
Majesty will be no less satisfied to hear of an event which may 
hereafter be of great advantage, and will at present give a just 
reputation to her arms in all parts, though I ought not to conceal 
from you that by reason of the enemy's superiority our future 
operations must be attended with great difficulties. The most 
effectual means to remove them at once will be to bring the 
enemy to a battle, which I shall endeavour to do as far as lies in 
me, having all reason to hope that by the blessing of God the 
success will be as happy and glorious as it is necessary for us. 
A very little time w^ill show w^hether the enemy are disposed to 
come to a general action or not : if they decline it I doubt not 
but we shall be able to make the siege of Bouchain, which place 
will l)e of great use to us in the execution of the project which 
has been laid before you ; and if it be possible to prevent it by 
bringing the enemy to reason sooner, nothing in my power shall 
be omitted which may promote that great end. I desire the 
continuance of her Majesty's favour on no other conditions than 
the continuing to discharge my duty in such manner as may be 
most agreeable to her service. I am sure I shall by the same 
means preserve your friendship, and pray you will believe that I 
shall with great pleasure embrace all opportunities of convincing 
you that I am, with truth, &c. 

The Same to [the Same]. 

1711, August [2-] 13. — I have received the honour of your Lord- 
ship's letter of the 24th of July, and must own the share I have 
of obligation to you for the kind reception my Lord Stairs has 
met wdth. I shall expect his return with some impatience, as 
well upon account of the orders he will bring as for the satis- 
faction I propose from the report of his conferences with your 
Lordship, and till he arrives I shall not be able to add anything 
to what you will have heard from Brigadier Sutton of our further 


views here ; but I cannot conclude this without returning you 
thanks for a favour which I am to esteem the greater because 
you take no notice of it. It is from other hands that I am informed 
your Lordship has been so kind as to remove the difficulties that 
obstructed the signing the warrant for the building at Blenheim. 
I can have no other hopes than from your Lordship's friendship 
to see that work finished in my time, and your past good offices on 
that account lay me under the greatest obligations to endeavour 
by all means possible to deserve the continuance of them. 

Postscript. — You will see by my letter to Mr. Secretary our 
present circumstances. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford. 

1711, August 8. Heathrop. — I have this moment received 
your letter by the messenger, and not having horses laid on the 
road cannot easily come in one day, but will be at Windsor 
Friday by ten in the morning, and if I find neither your Lord- 
ship nor Mr. Secretary there, I will only wait on her 
Majesty, and be at London the same evening between seven and 
eight, ready to receive any commands you have to lay upon me 
and attend 5^ou where you will direct me. If your Lordship 
should think it more proper I remained at Windsor and did 
not come to town, I hope you will send me your commands in 
time to Windsor. I shall say nothing more till I have the 
honour to see you. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1711,] August 21. — I have bin in soe much paine all the last 
night and this day that it is not easy to me now to writt, and 
therfore I hope you will excuse me for only thanking you for 
your letter and assureing you I do not at all doubt of the sincerity 
of your friendship for her that is, with all sincerity. 

Your very affectionett freind, 

Anne K. 
Postscript. — If it please God to send me a tolerable good night 
I intend to writt to you againe to-morrow^ morning. 
For the Lord Treasurer. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1711, August 27. Heathrop. — The news your Lordship sends 
of her Majesty's good health is very welcome, but that of the 
death of Lord Jersey very surprising and melancholy. 

The Bishop of Bristol's abilities and knowledge in foreign 
affairs make her Majesty's intentions for him very reasonable, 
and the only objection I can form to myself against it is that, 
being a man who has passed most of his life abroad, and having 
(I suppose) not many relations of much figure at home, the 
bringing him into such a post adds no interest in either House 
towards carrying on her Majesty's business in Parliament ; and 
so many of our friends in the Lords' House being dead, and many 
more soured or at least become luke-warm by disappointments in 
their expectations, I apprehend matters in that House at least 
will meet with difficulties. 


Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1711,] August 30. — I give you many thanks for your kind 
enquiry after my health, which I thank God is soe much mended 
within these two days that I hope, with the help of a stick, to he 
able to walk to Council a Munday. I have just now signed the 
warrant for the Scots signet and several other pappers Lord 
Dartmouth brought me, and am too lazy to writt to the Duke of 
Marlborough to-night, therefore must desire the fayvour of you 
to let Lord Stairs know I can not get my letter ready to go by 
him, but will send it time enough to overtake him before he can 
get to the Army; which is all I have to trouble you with at 
present, but that I am, &c.. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

The Duke of Marlborough to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1711, [August 24-] September 3. — I am honoured with your 
Lordship's letter of the If August, and shall have the greater 
desire to see my Lord Stairs here because he will be so fully 
instructed in your sentiments, by which I shall be entirely guided. 
I am not very apprehensive this siege will give the enemy any 
light into the intended project ; they must be sensible we could 
not well undertake anything else, and it is most probable they 
think of securing their frontier by new lines, which I hope may 
be of as little use to them as their old ones have hitherto proved ; 
besides, I think nothing can be a greater inducement to oblige 
them to think seriously of a peace than their being sensible of 
our vigorous and early preparations for carrying on the war. I 
am very sensible, and so are all her Majesty's troops, of the 
benefit we have of your early remittances. The alteration that 
has been lately made in the hands through which the money 
is afterwards distributed is what I thought Mr. Bridges had 
satisfied you in, and therefore as I never concerned myself other- 
wise in that matter so I did not think it necessary to trouble 
your Lordship with it. I cannot but take extremely kind the 
indulgence you express for me in consideration of the business I 
have here. I must confess to you the last six weeks have given 
me frequent and sensible remembrances of my growing old ; the 
conscience of my doing my utmost for the Queen's service, the 
hopes of her Majesty's acceptance and the assurance of your 
friendship are my chief consolation, and whatever employment 
I may have upon my hands I shall always esteem it a pleasure 
rather than an increase of trouble if I can any way contribute 
towards the putting the war in Spain or any other part of the 
service on a better foot. You will please to remember I explained 
myself pretty fully to you on that subject before I left England; 
if anything I can do or say more may be of use to you 1 pray 
you will not spare me. The affairs in Portugal have at present 
no very promising aspect. We might with reason have expected 
some advantage from the campaign on that side, but I fear there 
is too much ground for the rejection Lord Portmore makes upon 
it. Your Lordship will see by what I write to Mr. Secretary that 


the enemy have made a vigorous effort to succour Bouchain; as 
we had the good fortune to disappoint them, I hope we shall have 
the like success in the further uneasinesses he will be every day 
giving us. 

The Duke of Marlboeough to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1711, [August 30-] September 9. — I cannot omit returning my 
hearty thanks to your Lordship for the kind advice you have been 
pleased to give me by Mr. Craggs, relating to the money issued 
from the Exchequer for the building of Blenheim. I was always 
of the same opinion that the application of it should be examined 
with the strictest scrutiny, not only for my own sake but that her 
Majesty and the public might be satisfied the works had been 
carried on with the best economy. I have given Mr. Craggs the 
names of five persons to be employed in examining and auditing 
the accounts from the beginning, and should take it as a particular 
obligation if your Lordship would name two proper persons more 
to be joined to them in this service. 

The Same to [the Same] . 

1711, September [3-] 14. — I am persuaded I cannot write with 
greater satisfaction than your Lordship will receive the account 
I have now the honour to send you of our having brought the 
siege of Bouchain to a happy conclusion. The Governor beat the 
chamade on Saturday about noon, and sent out a good number 
of articles. I returned a short answer that the garrison must 
expect no other conditions than to be prisoners of war, to which 
they at first refused to submit and we began to fire upon them 
again in the evening, which lasted till midnight, when they 
desired another parley, and after some dispute agreed to accept 
our terms. I heartily congratulate your Lordship on this happy 
success, which, considering the difficulties the siege has been 
attended with, and the continual attempts of a superior army 
in sight of us to disturb it, may well be looked upon as 
an instance of the blessing of heaven upon the justice of 
our cause. I hope the enemy will consider it as such, and 
that they will at last seriously think of putting an end to the 
destructions they have so long caused in Europe. It is very 
evident they do not put so much confidence in their superiority as 
they seemed to do in the beginning of the campaign. You will see 
by my former letters to Mr. Secretary that out of apprehension of 
our designing to undertake something further on this side, they 
have destroyed a good part of their own country to make it diffi- 
cult for us to subsist in it, and it will be no easy matter to find 
forage during the time we shall be obliged to continue here, to 
put the town into a posture of defence. Several gentlemen of the 
army have solicited me to be the bearer of this good news, and I 
should have thouglit it important enough to have gratified one of 
them, but as I am unwilling on any occasion to add to the 
expense of the Government I choose rather to send Collins 

6802 O 


the messenger. Your Lordship will see hy the papers I 
sent to Mr. Secretary the difficulties they make at the Hague 
in furnishing their part of what will be necessary for the 
execution of the project transmitted by Lord Stairs, on which, 
in my opinion, so much depends, that I have prevailed upon my 
Lord Albemarle to make a turn to the Hague to induce the 
States to a compliance. As to her Majesty's share, my immediate 
aim is to manage it with all the frugality that is possible, and I 
doubt not but you will be satisfied I endeavour to do the same in 
every part of the war I am concerned in, but I shall at this time 
give you no further trouble than to assure you of my sincere 
desire to give you the most convincing proofs of the truth, 
wherewith I am, &c. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1711,] September 6. — If Lord Stairs is gon I desire you would 
send the enclosed by to-morrow's post. I have not said anything 
in it concerning Mr. Charters for a reason I will tell you when I 
have the satisfaction of seeing you. I desired Mr. Secretary to 
acquaint you with a part of a letter he received by the last post 
concerning the Electoral Prince of Saxe, that you might have time 
to consider before you come hither what would be proper for me 
to do in that matter. Something I think I should do on several 
accounts, especialy on that of my neare relation to him, but it is 
a thing of that nice nature that I cannot determine anything in 
my own thoughts, and therefore shall give no orders to the 
Secretary till I can know your opinion. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1711,] September 13. Windsor. — I thank you for the draught 
of the letter you sent me for the Electros of Saxe, which I like 
very well, and have only altered a few words. I shall send it 
to Mr. Secretary to enclose to Mr. Scot by to-morrow's post ; 
hopeing for the satisfaction of seeing [you] on Saturday I will 
trouble you with nothing more now but my being, &c. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1711,] September 19, Wensday night. — I received your 
letter this morning, and you may be assured I will not show the 
enclosed you sent me to any body. I am very willing to receive 
the compliment you mention if you can contrive a very private 
way to do it. 

Since I saw you. Lord Chamberlain (Shrewsbury) has talked a 
good deale to me about the Peace, and I hope he will act very 
hartily in it, tho' he seems a little fearfull. I desired to speake to 
Mr. Secretary St. Johns to draw the commission himself that I am 
to give to the Lords of the Cabinet, for it can be no secret if it 


goes thorow the clerk's hands, and I wish you would give 
yourself the trouble to read it to see that it is as it should be 
before it is brought to me to signe. I conclude I shall have an 
account from you to-morrow or next day of the particulars of the 
Instructions that are come over, and am, &c. 

Postscript. — I hope you will excuse the blots of this letter, for 
I am in hast and can not writt it over againe. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

Queen Anne to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

[1711,] September 20. — I give you many thanks for the 
account you send me of the conversation you had last night, and 
am very glad the great affair is in soe good a way. I pray God 
send a happy conclussion to it. You are very much in the right 
to desire Lord Privy Seal [Bishop Eobinson] should be joyned 
with the Secretaries in drawing this Convention. I have yet 
heard nothing of the warrant Mr. Secretary is to prepare. I 
think if he has not yet given my Lord Strafford orders to hasten 
away it is high time that should be done. 

I received a letter from Lord Dartmouth this evening in which 
he tells me Mr. Methuen says 'tis impossible for him to begin 
his journey till the end of November, which will be a great dis- 
appointment to the Duke of Savoy. If you have interest with 
Mr. Methuen I hope you will writt to him to lett him know the 
necessity there is of his hastening away, and I will order Lord 
Dartmouth to do the same. 

For the Lord Treasurer. . 

The Duke of Marlborough to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1711, September 21. — I received this afternoon the honour 
of your Lordship's letter of the i\ instant from the hands of 
Lord Stairs, and had so much satisfaction in discoursing with 
him upon the several points you mention, that I have scarce 
time left to return you my thanks, however I cannot let the post 
go without giving you this fresh assurance that I am too well 
convinced of the sincerity of your friendship, and care to promote 
every thing I am concerned in, to neglect any opportunity that 
may offer of demonstrating to you how heartily I desire and 
endeavour to merit the continuance of them. By the account 
you are pleased to give me of the Queen's health, I am in hopes 
the gout, though it some times keep her Majesty under a little 
confinement, may the same effect it has been observed to have 
elsewhere and lengthen her days, which is the greatest blessing 
than can befall her people. I must pray leave to refer your 
Lordship to what I write to Mr. Secretary, as well in relation to 
the progress Lord Albemarle makes in his solicitations at the 
Hague, as to the troops the Elector of Hanover desires may 
winter in his own country, the former gives me hopes the States 
will come into the measures concerted for the execution of the 
project, and the latter may have reasonable satisfaction, and at 


the same time contribute his quota here. My Lord Stairs has 
brought me a letter from my Lord Chamberlain of the 22nd of 
August, but his Grace does not give me any opinion in it upon 
the project. I am very much obliged to your Lordship for your 
further explanation upon the overtures of peace, and shall 
be very glad to do every thing that lies in my power towards 
the promoting that great work. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1711,] September 24. — I have this buisnes of the Peace 
soe much at hart, that I cannot help giveing you this trouble to 
ask if it may not be proj)er to order Mr. Secretary, in case he 
finds M. Menager very averse to the new propossition, not to insist 
upon it, and if you think it right I hope you will take care Mr. 
Secretary has such an order in my name, for I think there is 
nothing soe much to be feard as the letting the Treaty goe out of 
our hands. I desire you would not lett Mr. Gray have any 
money till I can speake with you againe. 

Postscript, — I forgot this morning to speake to you about Mr. 
Framton, who I promised two months ago that he should have 
half a yeare of his salary against the next Newmarket meeting, 
which is now very neare ; and he desiring the money might be 
sent him by the Duke of Somerset, if you should see him in 
town, pray lett him know I have given you order for it. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

[The Duke of Shrewsbury] to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1711, September 27. — Some business obliging me to go this 
morning to Windsor, I shall be forced to deny myself the satis- 
faction of waiting upon your Lordship ; besides, having a very 
great cold, I believe the country air is better for me than so good 
a dinner. 

I think it was once resolved that the Article of acknowledging 
the Pro[testant] succession, and that of Dunkirk, should be put 
into the paper Lord Strafford carries to Holland, and since 
Menager himself seemed to make no scruple of it, I am of 
opinion those two Articles would mend that paper, w^hich of 
itself will I fear appear dry: Besides in the 20th Article of the 
Barrier treaty England and Holland do engage to enter upon no 
negotiation till the Queen's title and the Protestant succession 
have been acknowledged. It is indeed added that France shall 
promise also to remove the Pretender, of which I hope effectual 
care will be taken in time, though it has been judged improper to 
insist on it just now; but having already been too troublesome 
on these heads, I shall submit them, and am most faithfully, &c. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1711, September,] Wensday morning. Windsor. — I give you 
many thanks for your letter and do not all doubt of the assurances 
you give me of your having no veiw but for my service, and 


acting therein as it is most agreeable to me. I think the D. of 
Marlborough shews plainer than ever by this new project his 
unwillingness for a peace, but I hope our negociations will 
succeed and then it will not be in his power to prevent it. It is 
sertinly very right of the D. of Shrewsbury should see the 
enclosed, but I cannot think it so, that Lord Keeper [Harcourt] 
should be a vicount, and therefore I desire you would endeavour 
to make him easy in that matter. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1711,] October 12. — I should not have troubled you with a 
letter now, but having heard by Masham how greived Sir Frances 
is at Mr. Bear's being to be removed from the Victualling Office, 
and thinking it very hard if a man who is honest and harmless, 
and has had hopes given him he should continue, should have a 
worse place given him, to gratefye other people, I cannot help 
writting this to let you know I will have Mr. Bear continue in 
the same office, lett there be never soe much fault found with it. 

I have several other things to say to you but shall deferr them 
till I have the satisfaction of seeing you. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1711,] October 19. Windsor. — I received your letter too late 
last night to thank you for it then. I am very glad to find 
things are in soe good a way abroad for the Peace, but I am 
exstream sorry to heare you have bin out of order since I saw 
you, and therefore I desire you would not think of going any 
journey till you are perfectly well. I intend, an it please God, 
to be at Hampton Court Teusday or Wensday next which will be 
nearer to you ; however I desire you would not com thither till 
you are easy, which I hope will be soon, and in the mean time 
be soe kind to your freinds as to give them an account of your 
health, and be assured of my being sincerly your very affectionate 

Postscript. — I keep the letter you sent me that I may return it 
safe to your own hand. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1711,] October 22. Windsor. — I had yesterday a long 
harangue from Msr. Buys much to the same purpose as his con- 
versation with you and Mr. Secretary, and I answered him in 
those words you proposed. It is sertinly very right to dispatch 
him as soon as it is possible, and therfore I have ordered Lord 
Dartmouth to summon the Lords and Msr. Buys to meet at the 
Cockpit or at your house to-morrow, as it is most convenient for 
your health. I have endeavoured to perswaid one that is heare 


to go to London to-morrow, but whether they (sic) will or no I 
am not yet sure. 

I beg you would never make any more excuses for long letters, 
for I do assure you it is always a great satisfaction to me to heare 
from you. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

Queen Anne to the Eabl of Oxfoed. 

[1711,] October 26. — I must thank you now for your last 
letter, and should have don it sooner but for feare of troubleing 
you to often when you are not well, and I beg if it is not easy to 
you to writt not to give me any answer to this till it is. 

I hope everything is now soe well seteld with Msr. Buys that he 
will be ready to go in a few days, tho' the Parliament should not 
meet soe soon as we now intend, and I fancy it cannot, for 
something must be said in my speech of the Peace, and I ques- 
tion whether in Holland they will make any hast to make any 
answer to what M. Buys is to say to them ; but you are a better 
judge of this. 

I wish there could be money enough found to pay the Prince's 
servants two quarters of the five they are in arrears, some of 
them being in very bad circumstances. 

I am very sorry to find by those that came from London 
yesterday that you continue still very much indisposed. I pray 
God send you your health and preserve your life for the good of 
your country and all your faithfull friends ; none I am sure is 
more soe then 

Your very afiectionate freind, 

Anne R. 
For the Lord Treasurer. 

The Duke of Shrewsbuby to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1711, October 28, Sunday night. — I think it will be very 
right to endeavour by Gau[tier?] to get from Fr[ance] auch 
proposals as might secure the Dutch they shall have a reason- 
able Barrier and treaty for Commerce, and Savoy a reasonable 
Barrier. I proposed at the Cockpit that care should be taken of 
acknowledging the King of Prussia, and the ninth Electorate in 
the King of Hanover, which last are points I believe will create 
no difficulty ; but the Lords there thought these two last should 
not be mentioned. I desisted then submitting my sense to theirs, 
but backed by seeing it your Lordship's opinion, I begin to 
think it is right. 

I agree all possible means should be used to keep Buys in 
good humour, and if the defensive Alliance can be despatched 
without too long delaying his return it would certainly be a very 
proper time to conclude it. 

Mrs. Masham tells me your Lordship continues to mend. Pray 
God give you perfect and long health, no humble servant you 
have wishes it more heartily than I do, or thinks it of more 
importance to the public. What should we do without your help ? 


Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1711,] November 3. — I give you many thanks for your letter 
and am very much obHged to you for the kind consern you express 
in it for my health. I am exstream sorry yours mends soe 
slowly, and shall continue my prayers for the perfect recovery 
and confirmation of it, being truly sensible how much the 
welfare of our poor country depends on you. 

I will be sure to order Lord Dartmouth to send to the Lords of 
the Admiralty to prepare the new commission you sent me for the 
Victualling office. I will take care Lord James Murray shall 
have Charter [i]s' company in the Guards; and orders shall be 
given to have Msr. Buyses re-credentials and present in a ready- 
ness ; but as to the Parliament I cannot tell yet when I shall be 
able to open it, for tho' I thank God I am much better then I 
was, I am not out of paine and the weaknes always continues a 
good while after. However I believe it will be necesary to come 
to some resolution at the next Cabinet Council, which I have 
aj)pointed on Teusday and I think it ^vould be best to have the 
Parliament prorouged to that day four weeks, and by that time 
I hope both you and I may be in a condition to go to the House. 
If you do not think this a proper day, lett me know before 
Teusday ; and give me leave to beg you to be carefull of yourself 
and not to fatigue yourself with buisnes till you are better able 
to beare it, and that you may soon be soe and enjoy a long state 
of health nobody I am sure prays more hartely for then 

Your very affectionate friend, , 

Anne E. 
For the Lord Treasurer. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1711,] November 6. — Not knowing whether Mr. Secretary 
has consulted you about the enclosed I send it for your appro- 
bation before I would copy it. Mr. St. Johns knows nothing of 
the little alteration there is made in the letter, therefore take no 
notice of it to him. He proposes the Secretary of the Embassy 
that is now at the Hauge (Hague) should cary this letter to the 
Emperour, I should be glad to know whether you think him a 
proper person to do it. I intend very soon to trouble you with a 
longer letter and therfore shall add no more to this but that I 
am &c. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1711,] November 9. — I must now return you my thanks for 
yours of the 5th and am convinced that what you say about the 
prorouging of the Parliament is very right. I have not yet given 
any orders to the two Secretaries conserning the Speech thinking 
it will be time enough next week, and I hope you will have your 
thoughts on it too, when you can do it without prejudice to your 
health, which I pray God Almighty with all my hart to confirm 
to you. 


Since we cannot depend upon the Duke of Montrose to go to 
Viena, why should n®t Lord Haddo be offered it. I beleeve Lord 
Jersey might do very well, but I think at this juncture we cannot 
part with one vote out of the House of Lords. 

When the Duke of Marlborough corn's I should think it will be 
best for me just to begin to open the matter of the Peace to him 
and to reffer him to you and Mr. Secretary for a fuller account 
of all that is passed. 

I cannot emagin what Lord Sunderland proposes to himself 
in making you a vissit, but I am very easy about it, not doubting 
but you will manage him as is best for my service. 

If some care is not taken to prevent Duke Hamilton from 
going to the House a Teusday he will sertinly then be introduced, 
which in my oppinion would be very wrong. I spoke to Lord 
Chamberlain (Shrewsbury) to use his interest to hinder it, but his 
Grace has got the gout, so cannot go to London. When I shall 
be able to undertake the journey I cannot tell for though I am, 
God be thanked, out of pain I can't yet walk, but I hope by that 
time the publick buisnes requires my being in town I shall get 
strength enough to beare the jolting of a coach. 

I was very glad to heare by the Cofferer that you weare better, 
and wish this may find you perfectly well. However I would not 
have you think of coming to this place for feare of catching cold, 
but be carefull of your self that nothing may happen to hinder 
you from being able to lett me have the satisfaction of seeing you 
when I com to St. James's. 

I am most sincerly, 

Your very affectionate freind, 

Anne K. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1711,] November 15. — I have just now received yours of 
to-day, and am very much ashamed I had not thanked you for 
your last before, but I hope you will excuse that fault. The 
news you sent me in your former concerning the Duke of 
Marlborough is something prodigious, and the account you give 
me in your last of his proceedings since I think is very extra- 

I am sorry the Duke of Shrewsbury should make complaints 
of me, I am sure I do not deserve them, for I speak to him of 
everything, and advise with him on all occasions and will continue 
doing soe, thinking it very right to keep him in good humour ; 
but I cannot see how I can say anything to soften him, for I 
suppose 1 am not to know he complains of me. 

I have several things to say to you but is it now too late to 
begin on any other subject, and therfore I shall trouble you with 
a longer letter to-morrow. 

Give me leave to wish you joy of your grandson and that you 
may live to see him an old man. Pray be very carefull of 
yourself that you may get no more relapses before the meeting of 
the Parliament, and be assured of my being, &c. 
For the Lord Treasurer. 


Queen"*Annb to the Eael of Oxford. 

[1711,] November 19. — I beleeve you wonder'd to receive my 
letter that was dated the 16th not till yesterday. The reason of 
it was I begun it on Fryday and did not finish it till Saturday 
evening to late to send it. The Duke of Marlborough came to 
me yesterday as soon as I had dined, made a great many of his 
usiall proffessions of duty and affection to me. He seemed 
dejected and very uneasy about this matter of the publick accounts, 
stayed neare an hour and saw nobody heare but my self. When 
I have the satisfaction of seeing you I will give you a more 
particular account of all that passed between us. 

I have no objection to Mr. Prior then what I mentioned in my 
last, for I always thought it very wrong to send people abroad of 
meane extraction ; but since you think Mr. Prior will be very 
usefull at this time, I will comply with your desire. 

I look upon it as a great happynes that the mob was disapointed 
of theire meeting, for God knows of what fatal consequence it 
might have proved. Should not the person that made the 
discovery be rewarded ? I have not yet heard anything of the 
letter you mention from the Emperor, but I received one 
yesterd (sic) from the Duke of Savoy of which I suppose Lord 
Dartmouth has by this time given you an account. I shall not 
trouble you with any more at present but the assurances of 
being &c. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

The Duke of Marlborough to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1711, November 19. — I am very sorry I was from home when 
you intended me the honour of a visit this morning, had you 
not been otherwise engaged I should not have failed waiting on 
your Lordship this afternoon. I shall be obliged to go to-morrow 
morning early to Hamton Court, and am very desirous you will 
let me know what may be a convenient hour to yourself for me 
to come to your own house. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

[1711, November 23, endorsed] Friday. — I do without flattery 
assure you that I am perfectly pleased with the enclosed draughts. 
There are some few and very small alterations I shall mention 
when I attend your Lordship ; I am only fearful lest the most 
shining sentences be blotted out when it comes to be corrected. 

I wish you and your company good success in what you are 
about, but as I apprehend our House to be the place our enemies 
have most hopes to prevail in, so I recommend to you to take the 
requisite care that our friends come to town in time. Lord 
Cardigan has promised me to be here about this day sevennight. 
I heard to-day from Lord Poulett that Lords Denbigh and Leigh 
stayed in the country, ready to attend if sent for but not unless 
they had notice. 


The Duke of Mahlborough to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1711 ?] Wednesday morning. — My giving you the trouble of 
this letter is occasioned by the illness of poor Mr. Manwayring, 
and the desire I have of waiting upon your Lordship this 
evening, or to-morrow night, which may be most convenient to 
yourself, if you please to send two lines to Mr. Manwayring, I 
shall be sure to have it. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1711, .] Windsor, Wensday morning. — I give you 

this trouble to desire you would order two hundred pound to be 
given to Lady Sylvies, and one hundred to Mrs. Foil ; the first 
of these has had a pention of a hundred pounds for some yeares 
past, but has not bin payde the two last, Masham can let you 
know where she lives, and I desire you would lett her have it 
as soon as you can conveniently, for she stays in town for it. 
I desire to that you would settle the Vice-Chamberlaine's 
buissnes and lett his additionall alowance begin from Midsummer, 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

Endorsed by Lord Oxford: — " Wendsday-Mony, Lady Silvies, 
Mrs. Foyle, Vice-Chamberlaine." 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1712, March 29. — Having no opportunity to speak to your 
Lordship at your own house, and remembering you desired I 
would come to some resolution about Ireland to-day at farthest, 
since you are so kind to command me to speak my mind without 
reserve, upon the best consideration I am capable of I shall freely 
confess my inclination leads me rather not to go, though I shall 
always retain a just sense of your Lordship's favour in having 
me in your thoughts for an employment of such advantage, trust, 
and honour. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford. 

1712, May 1. — I remember last year the gentlemen of 
Worcestershire at first were only concerned that the Keceiver 
for the Land Tax should be chosen out of their own county, and 
in that I joined, afterwards my Lord Plymouth and some others 
recommended the present Eeceiver who is altogether a stranger 
to me, but I did a little espouse his cause because I understood 
there was an endeavour from some neighbouring gentlemen, to 
get a Keceiver out of another county. If the present Receiver 
has misbehaved himself I am sure I have no objection to his 
being changed, and nobody to recommend in his place, only hope 

• 219 

his successor may be a Worcestershire man, else I foresee the 
gentlemen will again complain that a hardship is put upon the 
county, as they suspected was intended last year ; as to Shrop- 
shire I know nothing of the last, and have nobody to recommend 
for this year, if the old one be removed. 

Her Majesty has hitherto been so extreme punctual in giving 
me half yearly what she was pleased to promise me at my first 
coming into her service, that your Lordship will pardon me if I 
take the liberty to acquaint you that the 14th of the last month 
half a year was due, I having had the honour then to serve two 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

[1712, June,] Monday. — It seems to me highly necessary 
that Lord Strafford were immediately dispatched with instruc- 
tions what to say in Holland upon this plan her Majesty has 
now so publicly laid before the Parliament. Port Mahon and 
especially Gibraltar should be secured, the last by sending a new 

If your Lordship thinks there will be any difficulty in electing 
a peer in Scotland in her Majesty's interest to fill Lord Marshal's 
[Marischal's] place you will think to get as many proxies as can 
be from the Scots peers in England, and remember Earls of 
Orkney, Dunmore, Dundonald, and perhaps others, are abroad 
and should be writ to. 

If Sir William Windham removes from his employment to a 
better, I have found a way to discover that that place will entirely 
please Lord Cardigan, and I am really of opinion he would fill 
it very creditably. Therefore if your Lordship can get the 
Queen to bestow it upon him you may depend upon his being 
gratefully your servant, and I shall take it as an obligation to 
myself as well from her Majesty as your Lordship. 

I believe your Lordship will resolve to adjourn the Parlia- 
ment for about three weeks ; if there be any truth in the advices 
Lord Privy Seal [the Bishop of London] sends from Holland, it 
will be highly necessary to have the Parliament at hand, and 
however one adjournment at least will be convenient to give you 
a little time. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

1712, August 6. Windsor. — You having told me you believed 
you should have some money this day I cannot help giveing 
you this trouble to desire if you have any that you would send 
me a bill for Coll. Desney, he being very impatient to bo gon. 
Pray remember that care be taken to send to the Scots peers 
who are in Flanders for their proxies, and be assured of my 
being, &c. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 


Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

1712, August 20. — I give you many thanks for your letter and 
am very glad the election was caryed soe unanimous. I am very 
much obliged to Lord Mar and Lord Kinnoul for the pains they 
have taken, and when you writ I desire you would return them 
my thanks. I wish you would turn it in your thoughts against 
you com hither who it will be prosperest to give Lord Rivers's 
employments to. Duke Hamilton must sertinly have one, if it 
be General of the Ordnance I feare he may claime being of the 
Cabinet, and if he should I doubt one can't well refuse him 
becaus formerly those in that post have bin of it ; but I will take 
no resolution in these matters till I see you. 

I should be glad as soon as it can conveniently be done that 
you would order the arrears that are due to Prince Charles of 
Denmark to be payde, or at least half, for I know he is but 
in very indifferent circumstances. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

1712, October 4, Saturday. Windsor. — I am hartely sorry 
for your indisposition, but hope in God it will be soon over and 
that you will take more care for the future of your health, which 
is of soe great consequence to all your friends, and to none 
more then myself you may be sure. 

I will turn my thoughts the best I can in case the Bishop of 
London should dye that his place may be well filled. My Lord 
Chamberlain writt to you by my order to send for Lord Strafford, 
but till one knows when he will be hear I cannot apoint a 
chapter [of the Garter]; therfore I desire my intentions may 
yet be kept a secret. 

For the Lord Treasurer. • 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

1712, October 8, Wensday. Windsor. — I was very glad to find 
by your letter yesterday you weare soe much mended in your 
health ; I pray God perfect it, and tho' I should be very glad to 
see you hear I hope you will not com till you can venture the 
journey without any hazard. 

I have seen several letters from Lord Peterborow both to Lord 
Dartmouth and Lord Bolingbroke, but by them one can't guesse 
what humour he is in ; I hope his Lordship will com right at last. 
Mr. Compton shewed me a Munday an order he had received from 
the Commissioners of accounts which I think a very unreason- 
able thing, and they may as well send for an account of the 
Secret Service or the Privy Purse as these charity pensions ; 
besides to have an account of what money the poor Prince call'd 
for, for his own private use, layd before the Parliament would be 
very shocking to me, and in my poor oppinion very improper. 
Therfore I hope you will think of some answer to be sent to these 


gentlemen that they may not expect then- commands should be 
complyed with in this particular. I have nothing more to trouble 
you with at present, but that I am, &c. 

Postscript. — I am a litle tormented with the gout in my elbow 
at this time, but els I thank God I am very well. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

The Duke of Shbewsbury to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1712, October,] Monday night. — When I attended her Majesty 
this evening she commanded me to acquaint your Lordship 
that she intended very soon a promotion of Knights of the 
Garter, and did desire you would immediately let Lord 
Strafford know he should be here as soon as could be in order to 
be elected. Lord Bullingbrook tells me a messenger goes 
to-morrow night for Holland so that I hope you wdll take that 
opportunity of writing to Lord Strafford, to hasten him over 
that he may be back again at Utrecht before the returns from 
Lord Lexington arrive, for then in all probability the Pleni- 
potentiaries will have more to do there, than they have now. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

1712, October 11, Saturday. — I am very glad you are better, 
and hope this tine weather will contribute to the perfecting 
your health. I thank God my pain begins to abate but I have 
had a great deal since I writt to you last, and am still far from 
being easy. 

I must thank you for the trouble you have taken in makeing 
the Commissioners of accounts reasonable, for I beleeve without 
your interposition they would not have bin soe. I desire you 
would lett Lord Ballandin have two hundred pound as soon as 
you can conveniently, for I am assured by others as w^ell as his 
mother that he is starving. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

1712, October 17, Fryday. Windsor. — The occasion of my 
giveing you this trouble is that Lord Dartmouth told me last 
night Lord Strafford had desired him to writt to the Lords of the 
Admiralty that they should pay him the same respect as they 
did to Lord Orford which I think is not right, and therfore I wish 
you could hinder Lord Strafford from going to the board till I 
have spoke with him againe, for feare of any misunderstanding 
between them at theire first acquaintance. Hopeing for the satis- 
faction of seeing you to-morrow I will not trouble you with any 
more but assuj'e you that I am, &c. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 


Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

1712, October 21, Tuesday. Windsor. — Last night Lord 
Dartmouth was with me to desire I would give him leave to go 
into the country for a little while. He made no complaints but 
seem'd very uneasy. I said all I could to perswaid him from 
going and desired him to consider of it againe, and to com to no 
resolution till he came to London. I fear he is determined not 
only in this but to quit, which I should be very sorry for, for I 
beleev him an honest man and I think it would be prejudicial to my 
service ; therfore I hope you and his other f reinds will endeavour 
to perswaid him out of these thoughts. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1712, November 1. Windsor. --I believe it will be right to send 
both Lord Strafford and Mr. Prior away as soon as may be, but 
know not how either can return till the Queen has taken her 
resolutions about the proposal Mr. Prior came over with. I fear 
it will not be approved nor thought agreeable to her Majesty's 
speech to let the Elector of Bavaria remain master of a great 
part of the Netherlands. 

I have been confined to my chamber ever since Tuesday morn- 
ing, I am now lame but out of pain, much obliged by your 
Lordship's kind enquiry, and more than anybody your sincere, 
faithful, and affectionate humble servant. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

1712, November 5. Windsor. — Tho' it is three days since I 
heard from you I hope you will accept of my thanks for your 
letter and kind wishes for my health, which I thank God is in a 
pretty good state considering the badness of the weather. I hope 
yours has not suffered by that nor nothing els. 

I had a vissit from Mr. Hamden on Sunday, who made very 
great proffessions, but I beleeve some thing must be thought on to 
do for him to keep him right. The Duke of Ormond was hear 
yesterday, I fancyed at first he seem'd a litle uneasy, but after 
talking some time he came into good humour ; he coms of a 
solicitous famely, therfore care must be taken that he makes no 
unreasonable requests. The living that is vacant in Yorkshire is 
what I promised the Archbishop of York last spring to give to 
Mr. Drake whenever it should fall. Hopeing for the satisfaction 
of seeing you in a few days I will not trouble you with any more, 
only desire you would be soe just as to beleeve me, &c. 

Postscript. — Pray enquire about the other hundred pound that 
you ordered for Lord Ballandin, for he sertinly had not received 
it last week. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 


Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

1712, November 13. Windsor. — I received yours this morning 
with a draught of a letter to the King of France which shall be 
ready to-morrow, and that I hope will be time enough since my 
Lord Strafford, who is to go at the same [time] Mr. Prior does, has 
not yet taken leave of me. Should not Duke Hamilton be hasten 
again, when I saw him last he talked as if he wanted several 
things for his journey ; if that be soe care should be taken that 
he has no just prentence for staying. I am very glad the form 
of the renunciation is over in Spain. I think one may reasonable 
hope now the great work of the Peace is in a faire way of coming 
to a happy conclussion. When you com next pray order it soe 
that you may be hear by day light, and take more care of your- 
self, and be assured of my being most sincerely your very 
affectionate friend. 

Postscript. — I wish you would give some orders before you com 
from London that Lord Abingdon may be payed for as yet he 
has received nothing. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

1712, November 21, Fryday. Windsor. — I give you many 
thanks for your letter and the kind consern you express for me 
in it. These accounts that are com of a designe against my 
person dos not give me any uneasynes knowing God Almighty's 
protection is above all things, and as he has hitherto bin 
infinitely gracious to me I hope he will continue being soe. 

Since you tell me you intend to be heare to-morrow it is not 
necessary for me to say any more to your letter, and being 
going presently to take the air I must desire you to make my 
excuse to the two Secretaries that I do not answer theirs. 

Postscript. — I wish you joy of your new cousin. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1712,] November 27, Thursday night. Windsor. — I have 
just now received your letter for which I give you many thanks, 
and am very sory anything I said on Teusday morning should 
make you think I was displeased with you. I told you my 
thoughts freely as I have always and ever will continue to do on 
all occasions. You cannot wonder that I who have bin ill used 
soe many yeares should desire to keep myself from being again e 
enslaved ; and if I must always comply and not be complyed 
with, is {sic) I think very hard and what I cannot submit to, and 
what I beleeve you would not have me. I am very unwilling to put 
off the buisnes of the sheriffs till I com to London, but I hope 
if the roads will give you leave I shall have the satisfaction of 


seeing you hear on Saturday, till when I shall trouble you nothing 

Postscript. — I am sory the Duke of Kitchmond behaves himself 
soe strangely. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1712, November,] Thursday. — I give your Lordship many 
thanks for the so quick despatch of your orders for my money, 
the sum being 1,500L for equipage, and 1,300Z. advance for my 
first quarter. Your Lordship will forgive me if I put you in 
mind that when first I resigned myself to her Majesty's pleasure 
in this particular, I told you as I desired never to be a gainer 
so I presumed it would not be expected I should be a loser 
by this employment. But my Lord I have now before me a 
melancholy prospect, an exact account of my Lord Jersey's 
expenses for eight months that he was at Paris — for he continued 
no longer — and they amount to above 10,000/. sterling whilst 
there, besides 2,000/. spent here in necessaries to carry with 
him ; nor must it be computed that if he spent 12,000/. in 
eight months, I need spend only 6,000/. in four months, for much 
the greatest part of the charge is in the first setting out. Your 
Lordship will consider that my Lord Jersey was not sent on any 
particular occasion, was a very good manager, and upon many 
accounts would certainly save where it was consistent with his 
honour to do it, and it cannot be imagined that I can do less 
than he did. I do not send the particulars for fear they should 
be too tedious, but if for your information you have a mind to 
see them I have them ready. I know not what to ofter on this 
subject, but submit it and my interest to her Majesty's generosity, 
and to your Lordship's goodness and friendship always showed 
to the most faithful of your humble servants. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

1712, December 2. Windsor. — I desired my Lord Dartmouth 
to tell you I did not thank you for your last letter becaus by what 
you said I thought you intended to be hear the midle of the 
week, but since he went I have heard soe much of the waters 
being higher than ever, that I can't help writting to-night to 
desire you would not com any time this week unless there should 
be occasion for a Cabinet Council, for I intend, an it please God, 
if the roads are passable, to be at St. James's next Teusday or 

If it be necessary that I should writt a letter of cachet besides 
that of credence by the Duke of Shrewsbury, I desire you would 
do me the fayvour to prepare a draught and send it time enough 
for me to copy it before it goes. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 


The Duke of Marlborough to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1712, December 4. Antwerp. — I am got safe to this place, 
having avoided going to Bridges and Gant (sic). When I had 
the honour of seeing you last, I then told you the disai)pointment 
of Mr. Cadogan's company would hinder my going to Italy this 
season. Your Lordship's friendship in then promising me your 
assistance in getting him leave, makes me thus early beg that 
you will give my humble duty to the Queen, and that I may 
have this mark of her goodness towards me of giving him leave 
to be with me, which will be a great ease to me in my retire- 
ment. Finding myself very much out of order, I have written to 
Lady Marlborough to lose no time in coming to Aix-le-Chapel, 
by which I shall have the advantage of one month of the hot 
baths, which are as I am told as good in this season as in any 
time of the year, and from thence I shall go into Germany, and 
in the spring go to the Lake of Geneva, where I will take the best 
house I can get, in order to live as much retired as is possible. 
It will be a pleasure if I may sometimes hear from you, and par- 
ticularly that you are so much master of your own actions that I 
may depend upon being easy and quiet at Woodstock, which I 
recommend to your friendship and care. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

1712-13, January 3, Saturday. — I am very sorry your indis- 
position still continues, and therfore not knowing when I shall 
have the satisfaction of seeing you, I must desire you this way 
to send me a few words that you think may be proper for 
me to say to the Due d'Aumont when he coms to me. It is 
time now to com to some resolution about the Parliament, ther- 
fore pray lett me know your thoughts on that subject ; and give 
me leave to putt you in mind of sending the proxies of the Scots 
peers to Scotland. 

Postscript. — My Lady Masham told me she heard one of the 
chaises that are com out of France was intended to be given to 
her, do not take any notice of it to her but find out if it be soe 
and endeavour to prevent it ; for I think it would not be right. 
I should not have trubled you with such a litle thing but for 
fear I might forget it when I saw you. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

Characters of the Earl of Oxford. 

1712-13, January 1. — A paper in Swift's handwriting and 

endorsed by him : — 

"The Countess of 's Character of Lord Treasurer." 

The character of the man whom the Queen delighteth to 


Ambitious to serve his country, and yet knows its faults." 

He never will tear up his own bowels from despair, but will 

ever act and shew he expects a blessing from a superior Power 

for every wise action. 

6802 P 


He appears to be dilatory not from want of the satisfaction to 
serve all, but to search out those with the fewest faults. 

Proud only by disregarding his own greatness. 

Forgives, and unmindful if his enemy repents. 

He is civil to all, without an illjudged respect. 

Careful of the public money, watchful to have that managed 
with faithfulness. 

Concerned for its honour proved by weighing how to pay the 

debts rather by advancing its interest the the 


Dutifully admires his sovereign, and if things go amiss, he 
would rather have it thought his mistake or anybody's than 

He adores God, he submits his doubts, endeavours to be perfect 
without presuming to hope for perfection. 

He hates being commended, but must know he deserves it, 
reflecting his superiority cannot last without humility, ever, 
suspecting he may err. 

Lives without fear and will die with true honour. 

Comment hy Dr. Swift. 

1712-13, January 1. — The lady who drew the above character 
(of Lord Treasurer Oxford) is a person of as much good natural 
sense and judgment as I have ever known, and hath received all 
the improvements that Court and conversations of princes and 
other great persons could give her. Her advice hath many 
years been asked and followed in the most important affairs of 
state. Accordingly you see in this draft of hers an endeavour 
at something that is very judicious and uncommon ; but her 
great misfortune was, that in her education she fell short even 
of that little share of reading which belongs to her sex, so that 
she has neither orthography, grammar, nor choice of proper 
words, which last never fails her in conversation, and in subjects 
she is conversant with. Besides there is a stiffness and affecta- 
tion of something beyond her reach in what she writes. I think 
ladies thus qualified should never hold a pen but upon occasions 
of perfect necessity, or that when they do, they should employ 
some other hand to correct and put into English what they have 
to say. 

Another paper in Swift's handwriting, annexed to the above, but 
without any heading or other explanation, runs thus : — " In this 
oppressed and entangled state was the kingdom with relation to 
its debts, when the Queen removed the Earl of Godolphin from 
his office, and put it into commission, of which the present 
Treasurer was one. This person had been chosen Speaker 
successively to three Parliaments, was afterwards Secretary of 
State, and always in great esteem with the Queen for his wisdom 
and fidelity. The late Ministry about two years before their fall, 
had prevailed with her Majesty much against her inclination to 
dismiss him from her service, for which they cannot be justly 
blamed, since he had endeavoured the same thing against 
them, and very narrowly failed ; which makes it the mor^ 


extraordinary that he should succeed in the the same attempt a 
second time, against those very adversaries who had such fair 
warning by the first. He is firm and steady in his resolutions, 
not easily diverted from them after he has once possessed himself 
of an opinion that they are right ; nor very communicative where 
he can act by himself, being taught by experience that a secret 
is seldom safe in more than one breast. That which occurs to 
other men after mature deliberation offers to him as his first 
thought, so that he decides immediately what is best to be done, 
and is therefore never at a loss upon sudden exigencies. He 
thinks it a more easy and safe rule in politics, to watch incidents 
as they come, and then turn them to the advantage of what he 
pursues, than pretend to foresee them at a great distance. 
Fear, avarice, cruelty and pride are w^hoUy strangers to his 
nature, but he is not without ambition. His detractors who 
charge him with cunning, are but ill acquainted with his 
character. For, in the sense they take the word, and as it is 
usually understood, I know no man to whom that mean talent 
could be with less justice applied, as the conduct of affairs while he 
hath been at the helm, doth clearly demonstrate ; very contrar}^ 
to the nature and principles of cunning, which is always 
emjDloyed in serving little turns, proposing little ends, and 
supplying daily exigencies by little shifts and expedients. But 
to rescue a prince out of the hands of insolent subjects, bent 
upon such designs as must probably end in the ruin of the 
Government ; to find out means for paying such immense d^bts 
as this nation is involved in, and reduce it to better management ; 
to make a potent enemy offer advantageous terms of peace, and 
deliver up the most important fortress of his kingdom as a pledge; 
and this against all the oppositions mutually raised and inflamed 
by parties and allies ; such performances can only be called 
cunning by those whose want of under standi Qg or of candour 
puts them upon finding ill names for great qualities of the mind 
which themselves do neither possess nor can form any just 
conception of. However, it must be allowed, that an obstinate 
love of secrecy in this. Minister, seems at distance to have some 
resemblance of cunning ; for he is not only very retentive of 
secrets, but appears to be so too, which I number among his 
defects. He hath been blamed by his friends for refusing to 
discover his intentions, even in those points where the wisest 
man may have need of advice and assistance ; and some have 
censured him upon that account, as if he were jealous of Power, 
to which he hath been heard to answer that he seldom did other- 
wise without cause to repent. However so undistinguished a 
caution cannot, in my opinion, be altogether justified ; by which 
the owner loses many advantages, and whereof all men who are 
really honest may with some reason complain. His love of 
procrastination (wherein doubtless nature has her share) may 
probably be increased by the same means; but this is an 
imputation laid upon many other great Ministers, who like men 
under too heavy a load, let fall that which is of least consequence, 
and go back to fetch it when their shoulders are free- For tim^ 


is often gained as well as lost by delay, which at worst is a fault 
on the securer side. Neither probably is this Minister answerable 
for half the clamour raised against him upon this article. His 
endeavours are wholly turned upon the general welfare of his 
country, but perhaps with too little regard to that of particular 
persons, which renders him less amiable than he would otherwise 
have been from the goodness of his nature, and his agreeable 
conversation in a private capacity, and with few dependents. 
Yet some allowance may be given to this failing, which is one of 
the greatest he has, since he cannot be more careless of other 
men's fortunes than he is of his own. He is master of a very 
great and faithful memory, which is of mighty use in the 
management of public affairs. And I believe there are few 
examples to be produced in any age of the world, of a person who 
hath passed through so many employments in the state, endowed 
with so great a share, both of divine and human learning. 

I am persuaded that foreigners, as well as those at home who 
live too remote from the scene of business to be rightly informed, 
will not be displeased with this account of a person who in the 
space of ... . years hath been so highly instrumental in changing 
the face of affairs in Europe, and hath deserved so well of his 
own Prince and country. 

In that perplexed condition of the public debts which I have 
above described, this Minister was brought into the Treasury and 
Exchequer, &c." 

Jonathan Swift to the Earl of Oxford. 

1712-lB, January 5. — I most humbly take leave to inform 
your Lordship that the Dean of Wells died this morning at one 
o'clock. I entirely submit my poor fortunes to your Lordship. 

The Dike of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford. 

1713, January [8-] 19, n.s. Paris. — Upon my arrival here on the 
13th I found the state of that affair which was more particularly 
recommended to me to negotiate altered from what I understood 
when I left London. Her Majesty by her last instructions tied 
me up strictly from allowing the French either to fish or to dry 
their fish upon any part of Newfoundland, in consideration of 
which she consented they should possess and fortify Cape Breton. 
Mr. Prior, upon several conferences he had with your Lordship 
and Lord Bolingbroke, as well as papers from those skilled in 
trade, was instructed to offer some expedients upon that Article, 
which he has done and sent them to London ; so that till he has 
an answer to them it is evident what I propose or can agree to 
will not be regarded. 

However in three conferences I have had with M. de Torcy, 
the same day and the day after I arrived, and the 17th at Marly, 
I used the best arguments of all kinds I could think on, and must 
own I found in him more stiffness than I imagined not to go 
beyond what Mr, Prior sent over on that head, alleging that to 


quit entirely the fishery of Newfoundland would beggar three of 
their Provinces, and that they expect a loud clamour from those 
parts for the restraint they put on themselves by this last offer. 

Your Lordship knows I have always confessed my ignorance 
in these matters, but shall give you my opinion. If the insisting 
on this article in the manner I am instructed be of great con- 
sequence to the British trade, it must be adhered to in the most 
resolute manner, and this Court given to understand they can 
have no peace without it, in which case your Lordship must 
write to Monsieur de Torcy in that positive style, but if the 
expedient you have from Mr. Prior, may be accepted without 
prejudice to our commerce, let us receive her Majesty's orders, 
and in either case let them be despatched without delay. 

As to the heads of commerce Mr. Prior has also sent new 
papers, and writ now at large to Lord Bolingbroke, upon which 
nothing can be done till he receives an answer, I shall only 
repeat what I have said oftener than once, that if any very 
material point remains — as I doubt there does in the main 
article — the only way to get over it is to send immediately, to 
Utrecht or hither, some person well versed in trade, who can 
debate, and knows something of the state of their commerce as 
well as ours, for to one so ignorant as I am they affirm some 
facts and deny others that defeat all the arguments I could be 
master of in the small time I had to be informed upon a subject 
I had never thought on before in my life." 

I must not conclude without acquainting your Lordship that 
the 17th I was at Marly to wait on the King, and having given him 
her Majesty's letter, and made the properest compliment I was 
able, he expressed himself in the most handsome and respectful 
manner was possible to the Queen, earnestly desiring a perfect 
friendship with her, that it might be concluded speedily and last 
long, being sure that that was the interest of both nations. He 
seemed to value himself upon his punctuality in everything he 
had promised during this negotiation, and his submission to the 
Queen, especially in the affair of Tournay ; he wished the rest of 
the allies would come into a peace, but if they stood out he hoped 
there would be no delay in concluding one with her Majesty. 
He then desired I would go speak with Monsieur de Torcy and 
recommended to me despatch. 

All in this country, great and small, desire the peace and want 
it, the officers of the army I think as much or more than any. 

Give me leave to conclude this long letter, with few words, but 
true, that I am, &c. 

Sir Isaac Newton to the Lord Treasurer. 

1712-13, January 29. Mint Office. — The Assaymaster of the 
Mint, Mr. Daniel Brattel, died yesterday about noon, and the 
place requires a man well qualified for skill and experience to 

* At the end of this pamgraph in the original letter is written in Bolingbroke 's 
hand : — ' ' Odd confession for a Secretary of State who was in office at the treaty 
of Byewick." 


carry on the assays of the gold and silver with a steady hand. 
Of this sort few persons are to be met with, and I do not know 
one better qualified than Mr. Charles Brattel, the brother of the 
deceased. In his brother's absence he has frequently acted for 
him in this service to the satisfaction of the officers of the Mint, 
so that we know his ability by experience. We are now in the 
middle of a coinage of gold, and for carrying on the service with- 
out interruption it would be convenient that a new Assaymaster 
were speedily appointed. It is a patent place with a salary of 
200/. per annum, and 20/. per annum for a clerk. 

The Duke of Shrewsbuky to the Earl of Oxford. 

1713, [February 26-] March 8. — I cannot forbear troubling 
your Lordship with a few lines to desire you will take the pains 
yourself to examine the justice and nature of our demand of the 
Bona Immohilia. If I understand the case right, I take it to be 
unprecedented, and such that if at any time her Majesty should 
yield or exchange a country, property is so concerned that it 
would not be in her power to do, without saving the rights of the 
particular subjects, and your Lordship will see when King 
Charles 11. by the treaty of Breda — ever esteemed disadvantageous 
to England — gave up Acadie to France, he got such a saving 
clause as the French now ask. The decision, my Lord, is left 
entirely to her Majesty, and by what this King said to me I 
must do him the justice to declare, he submitted it in so hand- 
some and respectful a manner, that I think the Queen's honour 
the more concerned to have the justice of the case well examined 
before it be finally determined. However, one way or other, I 
think I may congratulate your Lordship that the peace is made, 
in which if by good fortune I have any share, I must do Mr. 
Prior the justice to inform you, that I have been in so particular 
a manner assisted by his zeal, diligence and ability that I hope 
he will be immediately encouraged and countenanced by some 
mark of your Lordship's favour. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1712-13, February?] Munday morning. — This is to acquaint 
you that I have bin in soe much pain all night with the gout in 
both my feet that it is wholly impossible I can goe to the House 
to-day, therfore I must desire you to send emediately to Lord 
Keeper to prepare a commission for opening the Parliament, and 
when he brings it for me to signe I will give him my speech. I 
will speake the Dutchesse of Somerset as soon as I can conven- 
iently, and have my letter ready to send to the Duke some time 
in the evening. If you have anything more to say to me on this 
subject or any other I desire you would send me an answer 
presently, and be assured of my being, &c. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 


The Duke of Shrewsbury to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1713, [March 27-] April 6, n.s. Paris.— I understand Mr. '* Van- 
brugg " is fallen so much under her Majesty's displeasure chat 
it is supposed he will be removed from his employment in the 
Works. I think myself obliged as much in respect to her 
Majesty's service as in justice to Mr. Thomas Archer to acquaint 
you that, impartially speaking according to my skill, he is the 
most able and has the best genius for building of anybody we 
have, and by my own experience dare assure you he is so 
perfectly honest that I am certain the Queen would save con- 
siderably if he were in that employment. 

I mention this in case only that Mr. " Vanbrugg " be removed, 
and give me leave to add that this is a matter in which I will 
say with Sir Positive, if I do not understand it, I understand 
nothing, and as I can guess at all his competitors, viz. Mr. 
Talman, Mr. Wren, Hauksmere (Hawksmoor), &c. if I were with 
your Lordship I could give such objections to every one as would, 
I am confident, have some weight. At present I shall only say 
that if this be done for Mr. Tho. Archer it will be an obligation 
to your &c. 


1713, April 10. — Keport signed by Cra. Peyton, Sir Isaac 
Newton and E. Phelipps on the qualifications of Mr. Catesby 
Oadham, Mr. Charles Brattel and other petitioners for the post 
of Assaymaster. They have caused trial to be made before them, 
and they consider that Mr. Brattel is the more expert and fitter 
person for that employment. Annexed is the Memorial of Brattel 
and copy of a recommendation of him signed by twenty-eight 
persons " having great concerns in the importation of bullion in 
her Majesty's Mint, and in buying and selling the same for 
foreign markets by the Tower assays," including Kobert, Stephen 
and Francis Child and Eichard Hoare. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford. 

1713, [April 21-] May 1, n.s. Paris. — Your Lordship having 
given me a letter of credit upon Mr. Cantillon, and there being due 
to me upon the 14th of April o.s. 1500/. upon the pension her 
Majesty is pleased to allow me, I shall in a few days take the 
liberty to receive that sum of 1,500/. here of Mr. Cantillon, and 
desire it may be understood that I design this as half a year of 
my pension, which with what I am able to spend out of my own 
estate and what else I receive of her Majesty as Ambassador or 
Chamberlain I am ready to lay out in this employment, and for 
what this falls short, I am not in pain about it, having both her 
Majesty's and your Lordship's [word?] it shall be made good 
to me. 

In this busy time I expect no answer, and have only to add 
that I hope soon to have my audience of ceremony and make my 
compliments, and that then you will not leave me long in this 
country, where I confess myself heartily tired. 


The Duke of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford. 

1713, May [2-] 13, n.s. Paris. — It is with the greatest satisfaction 
imaginable that I receive assurances from your Lordship that 
both her Majesty and yourself are satisfied with my services in 
this place, that one reflection is more than sufficient to recom- 
pense all I suffer by being in a station I am conscious to myself 
to be many ways unfit for. 

Your Lordship knows I have in England often commiserated 
the deplorable condition of the poor Protestants in the galleys, 
and am glad this King has promised that they shall be released. 
If I had had any notice I should have endeavoured at this Court 
to have got that promise as extensive as might be, and doubt not 
but those who have transacted this affair have had that care, and 
will take good information in order to see that promise fully per- 
formed. As to the Bona ImmohiUa, Lord Bolingbroke tells me 
I may assure these ministers that the subjects of France may 
expect the treatment they desire in that respect. 

The Court is now at Marly, and remains there till a few days 
before Whitsuntide, so that opportunities of speaking with the 
ministers are now rare. But I am to meet Monsieur de Torcy 
next Wednesday at Versailles, where in the King's absence I 
design to spend two or three days to see that place at leisure, 
and will take that occasion to discourse Monsieur de Torcy as 
well upon the galley slaves, as the Bona Immohilia. 

Your Lordship will find I do not so much deserve your praise 
as you thought, having drawn a bill upon you for 1,500Z. sterling, 
the value of which I am to receive of Mr. Cantillon, but at the 
same time I acquainted your Lordship that I understood 
that sum was to satisfy half a year of the pension her 
Majesty is pleased to allow me, which half-year was due 
the 14th of April o.s., so that I count this money puts 
h6r Majesty to no extraordinary charge. Your Lordship will 
likewise be solicited for my bill of extraordinaries, my journey 
as usual, included with the transport of my goods, makes it so 
large, though not more than Lord Jersey's was. I suppose it 
is your Lordship's meaning that that and my allowance as 
Ambassador should be paid as customary in the Treasury, 
which if discharged punctually, I hope I shall not so much exceed, 
as I apprehended ; but if I am not regularly paid there, I shall 
then be obliged to draw upon your Lordship to avoid the disgrace 
of running in debt here. 

If Abb6 Gaultier had cause to apprehend this Court was 
unsatisfied with him, he ought now to be convinced of the 
contrary, by the good abbaye they have lately given him. I 
have always observed Monsieur de Torcy speak very kindly of 
him, and as often as it lay in my way I have endeavoured to 
represent his services according to your Lordship's expressions 
of them, and agreeable to what I really thought they deserved. 

I beg you, my Lord, to give my duty to her Majesty and most 
humble thanks for the leave she gives me to return. I hope to 
make my entry and have my public audience the week before 


Whitsuntide, after which several visits of ceremony are to be 
made by me and returned to me ; then I must take my leave, and 
the same visits are again repeated. 

I heartily rejoice that her Majesty recovered her health in the 
bad season, the weather now growing warm I hope will perfect 
her recovery. To wish her life and health and hapj)iness is no 
compliment, for all our happiness I am sure, if not lives, depend 
upon hers. After this prayer the next natural thought and my 
most sincere wish is long life and prosperity to yourself. 

Postscript. — The Duchess of Shrewsbury is very sensible of 
the honour your Lordship does her in your most obliging remem- 
brance, and is your very humble servant. She has never had a 
week's health in this country, and therefore joins with me in 
thanks for leave to come home. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford. 

1713, May [ 11-] 22 [n.s.] . Paris. — I understand by a letter from 
my Lord Dartmouth that there is some difficulty about allowing 
my bill of extraordinaries, the rule being not to exceed 400/. a 
quarter ; I thought the custom had been to make allowances for 
journeys and other charges mentioned in my bill, and was con- 
firmed in that opinion by one now with me, who attended on 
Lord Jersey in his Embassy here, and affirms to me that that 
Lord had those allowances, and has Ihe particulars now by him 
as well of his expense upon his own journey, as of the transport 
of his goods, horses, &c., which amounts to about the same I 
have laid out, and he is positive it was allowed to Lord Jersey. 
Nevertheless if he mistakes, or if any new order has been made, 
I do not in the least press that a rule should be broken upon my 
account, but only desire that your Lordship will pass what is 
regular, and direct the payment of that sum as soon as con- 
veniently you can. 

My cousins the two Middletons having always had hopes given 
them that at the peace they might be entirely at liberty, grow, 
I believe, impatient, but are so sensible of her Majesty's goodness 
to them that they would press nothing might be disagreeable to 

Postscript. — Your Lordship is pleased to tell me you will not 
forget Mrs. Bathurst, but give me leave, my Lord, to say, that I 
have lived in a Court too long not to know that if there were not 
some obstacle more than you own this trifle would not have 
stuck so long as it has. I flatter myself your friendshij) for me 
would have done it long before this, so that if there be an objec- 
tion — I neither desire your Lordship to trouble yourself to remove 
it, nor to be told from whom or whence it comes — let me know 
only there is a difficulty and your Lordship shall have no further 
trouble in the matter. But to be kept on in these promises 
is their absolute ruin, therefore I earnestly entreat your Lordship 
to put an end to this affair one way or other. 


The Duke of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford. 

1713, [June 29-] July 9 [n.s.] . Versailles. — A courier passing by 
from Barcelona to London, I would not omit this opportunity of 
observing to your Lordship that by the votes I see the Bill to 
make the 9th Article of Commerce effectual has stopped in the 
House of Commons ; neither Mr. Prior nor I having the least 
intimation from anybody in what manner this affair has been 
transacted, we may be at a loss what to say upon it at this Court, 
where at present I do not find they are informed of the fact; but 
when they are, though I foresee they will be surprised at your 
being outvoted, I think they will not be much concerned at the 
loss of that Article, which I am confident was thought here very 
advantageous to England, but if the majority of the nation 
judges otherwise no hurt is done, provided the difference of 
opinion upon this point creates no heats that may have an ill 
influence for the future. I depend on your Lordship's good 
temper and judgment to prevent that fatal consequence. 

The Duke of Bourbon and the Prince of Conti having made 
cross matches, and this day married each other's sister here at 
Versailles, these marriages have retarded my visits of ceremony 
to the Princes and ministers, which I hope now soon to dispatch, 
and then to have my audience of leave, which will be a private 
one at Marly, whither this King will go next Thursday and 
return no more hither till after his journey to Fountainbleau. 
I desire your Lordship to give order that what is due upon my 
last quarter as Ambassador may be paid to my agent, for till I 
have seen how far her Majesty's ordinary allowance will go, 
I am unwilling to draw upon you extraordinarily, and flatter 
myself I shall not be so expensive to her Majesty as I appre- 
hended when I left England. 

July 10th. When I had writ so far, understanding a courier 
was arrived from the Duke d'Aumont, I stopi^ed our messenger 
till this morning that I might hear from Monsieur de Torcy 
what news their express brought, and what effect it would have 
upon their minds here. I am confirmed I was not mistaken in 
my guess. The chief thing they are alarmed at is the division 
in the party, and the apprehension that those who oppose this 
trade with J'rance may object to the whole treaties of commerce 
and peace likewise. We endeavour to show them how one is no 
necessary consequence of the other, that the treaties in general 
may be approved, and yet the Parliament not be willing to make 
the 9th Article effectual upon the conditions mentioned in it. I 
hope it will not be long before we shall receive satisfactory 
information upon this subject, since some particulars which have 
happened of late may be supposed to give not only curiosity but 

Upon the whole allow me, my Lord, to observe that mankind is 
so changeable a creature that if this session you find the Parlia- 
ment disposed to give a sanction to the peace never defer it to 
another, for though to unbiassed men this will always appear the 


most advantageous and necessary peace England ever concluded 
yet no man can foresee what turn faction, interest, malice, envy 
&c. may at one time give to the best of actions. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1713, July 5,] Sunday morning. — I am very sorry you con- 
tinue soe much indisposed and therfore concludeing I shall not 
have the satisfaction of seeing you to-day I give you this trouble 
to enquire after your health and to lett you know that I find 
myself soe much tyerd with the litle fatigue of yesterday that it 
will be impossible for one to undertake that of going to St. Paul's; 
but however I think both Houses should go thither and I will 
perform my devotions at St. James's and be contented without a 
sermon. It is really very uneasy to me that I cannot go, which 
I hope all my friends beleeve. I think it will be best to declare 
this to-night, but would not make it publick till I had first 
acquainted you with it. If you think it necessary for me to send 
any other message to the two Houses lett me know some time 
this evening that I may give Lord Dartmouth orders about it. I 
must desire you to think of an answer for me to give to the House 
of Commons' address about the Pretender, which is to be brought 
to me to-morrow in the evening. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford. 

1713, July [7-]18, N.s. Paris. — I have received the honour 
of your Lordship's letter by Mr. Eobarts, and shall serve him 
here in what lies in my power. I was glad to find he is not 
wanted in the House of Commons, having at this time so easily 
got leave to travel. 

I have by this post sent to Lord Dartmouth my bill of extra- 
ordinaries for the second quarter, it amounts to near 550/., but 
your Lordship will please to direct payment of as much only as 
is agreeable to the methods of the Treasury ; I must repeat that 
if you immediately order me to be paid what is due to me as 
Ambassador, I shall have the less occasion to draw upon you out 
of course, according as your Lordship gave me leave, but it is a 
permission I will use as sparingly and as late as I can. 

I suppose the Duke d'Aumont will have spoke to your Lord- 
ship in relation to what has passed upon the 9**'' Article of 
Commerce, in the manner I told you in my last. This Court 
seems disposed to behave themselves in that particular as they 
think will be most agreeable to her Majesty. 

If your Lordship intends Mr. Prior should stay here any time 
as her Majesty's minister it is fit he should know it, and have 
money advanced to put himself in an equipage becoming his 
character. He lives now in hired lodgings dearer than a house, 
and not decent if he remains, but in the uncertainty he is left 
he can do no otherwise. 


The Duchess of Shrewsbury is your Lordship's most humble 
servant and much obhged by your kind remembrance. She has 
never had a week's health at Paris. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1713, July 20, endorsed hy Lord Oxford.'] Munday. — I was 
very sory to hear by Lord Masham yesterday that you continued 
soe much out of order. I hope this will find you better and able 
to read without hurting your eyes. I wish you could speake with 
Lord Dartmouth some time to-day, for it will be impossible to 
deffer sending all my orders to the Bishop of Salisbury longer 
then to-night, he going out of town to-morrow morning. I 
beleeve Lord President will be very angry with me for letting 
the Bishop go out of town before the Chapter, but I think it is 
better not to be troubled with him there. I find Mr. Benson is 
very uneasy at his patents being deffered, therefore I think it 
would [be] better to stop it no longer, rather than disoblidg him 
at the same time I intend him a kindnes ; but talk with Lord 
Dartmouth about this too. 

I am very uneasy to trouble with a letter at a time when your 
eyes are so sore, but I thought it would not be soe proper to say 
these things any other way, and therfore I hope you will excuse 
your very affectionate friend. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1713, July 21, endorsed hy Lord Oxford.] Teusday. — I am 
very sory you weare soe much out of order yesterday as to be 
confined to your bed. I feare you will not be able to beare the 
fatigue of the Enstalment next week, therefore I think it will be 
much better to putt it off till to-morrow seven night, and then 
there will be no hast of sending my orders to the Bishop of 
Salisbury. However, the sooner you can speake with Lord 
Dartmouth the better. 

I signed Mr. Benson's bill last night, but did not think it 
proper to acquaint the Lords with it, becaus in my oppinion it 
would have given them a handle to prentend {sic) for the future to 
give me there advice what peers to make, everybody being too 
apt to encroch upon my right. I hope I shall have the satis- 
faction of hearing you are better to-day. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford. 

1713, August [1-] 11, N.s. Paris. — Though what has passed of 
late on your side the water has given me much curiosity, con- 
cern and surprise, yet being wholly ignorant of the causes of it, 
and despairing to be better informed till I wait on your Lordship, 
I shall say no more at present, but that the election of a new 


Parliament being very near, I hope all care will be taken to 
promote the interest of such who sincerely wish the good of 
their country, preferable to party and faction. 

My stay here being short, and nobody named to relieve me, I 
imagine Mr. Prior is designed to be left, in which case I cannot 
forbear putting your Lordship in mind again that he ought to be 
upon some fixed establishment, and not upon the uncertainty he 
now is, which is expensive and not creditable for her Majesty. 
The handsome rewards the Abbe, who will deliver you this, has 
received from the Courts of France and Spain for his pains in 
the peace makes Prior, I believe, hope he shall not be forgotten. 
I understand Abb6 Gautier carries over some plate and other 
goods for his own use, and hopes the Custom House officers will 
be civil to him. I do not doubt but your Lordship will give 
directions that they be as far so as is consistent with the duty of 
their employments. 

Letters arrived this morning bring me the melancholy new^s of 
your Lordship's indisposition, for which I am heartily sorry, and 
ask your excuse for this unnecessary trouble. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

1713, August 21. Windsor. — I was very much surprised to 
find by your letter that, though I had told you the last time you 
weare hear I entended to give the Treasurer of the Chamber to 
Lord De L aware, you will bring me a warrant in blank. I desire 
you would not have soe ill an oppinion of me as to think when 
I have determined anything in my mind I will alter it. I have 
told Lord De Laware I will give him this office and he has 
kissed my hand upon it. Therfore when you com hither bring 
the warrant with his name. 

As to what you mention concerning Lord Clarendon, Sir David 
Nairn, and the Councill of Trade, it will be tinle enough to take 
any resolution about them when I see you, and being in hast to 
take the air I can say no more of any other subject but that I 
am your very affectionate friend. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to the EaRl of Oxford. 

1713, August [12-]23, n.s. Paris. — I received the enclosed letter 
from the Marshal de Villars, I send you an extract of it, and have 
not made any mention of it to the Secretary. It seems to me as 
if that Lord were looking towards England, but of that — as I 
would advise you of everything that comes to my knowledge — I 
doubt not but you have a particular information. 

I need not tell your Lordship that in this, as in most Courts, 
there are two parties ; those who were least desirous of the peace, 
and in the making of it, at least, more biassed to the Dutch, are 
very busy in raising jealousies upon the delays in demolishing 
of Dunkirk. I have mentioned this already to Lord Dartmouth, 
and leave it more particularly to your Lordship's consideration. 


Mr. Gillenghem goes home very well satisfied with what he 
has adjusted here, of which he will give your Lordship a more 
particular account. 

Mr. Prior being, I suppose, to stay here some time longer, will, 
I believe, want some fresh powers, those which he has already 
relating only to the making the peace. I shall be at Calais about 
ten days hence, being impatient till I have the honour of seeing 
you, and assuring you how sincerely I am, &c. 

Enclosure : — 

Extract — 

Maeshal de ViLL\r.s to the Duke of Shrewsbury. 

Au Camp de Spire, le 13 Aoust 1713. — J'ay receu une 
lettre de M. le Due de Marlborough, par laquelle il me 
demande des passeports, et pour retourner en Hollande, 
et pour voyager seurement avec des escortes, j'ay cru 
luy devoir repondre, que la Paix etant signee, ratifiee 
et publiee entre nos Maistres, les Ambassadeurs des deux 
Couronnes receus magnifiquement dans toutes nos Cours, 
je ne pouvois m'imaginer, que M. de Marlborough et M. 
de Cadogan peussent avoir quelque chose a craindre de 
nos partys : mais dans le tems que M. de Marlborough 
et M. de Cadogan desirent la protection du Koy pour 
voyager seurement, les nouvelles publiques nous 
apprennent, que le Koy et la Reine vostre maistresse n'ont 
pas d'ennemis plus animez, je n'ay pas cru devoir leur 
accorder ce qu'ils desirent bienque la consequence ne m'en 
paroisse pas bien importante. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford. 

1713, August [18-] 29, n.s. Paris. — I have been obliged to draw 
upon your Lordship for the sum of 2,000/., one thousand to be 
paid at fifteen, the other at twenty days' sight. Bills came in 
faster at my leaving Paris than I expected, but at my waiting on 
your Lordship in London, which I hope will be in eight days, I 
shall give you a particular account of what I have spent, which 
as it will not exceed what I expected, I hope it will not dissatisfy 
you. The whole shall be submitted to your examination and 
pleasure, depending ever upon your friendship to one who is 
with great truth and respect &c. 

The Same to the Same. 

1713, August 24, in the morning. Dover. — I received the 
honour of your Lordship's letter on Saturday the day before I 
embarked; this moment I landed here, after a very smooth 
passage which lasted about seven hours. I am just taking coach 
and hope to be at London on Tuesday. 


Dr. John Arbuthnot to Lord Harley. 

1713, September 2. Windsor. — I hope your Lordship will 
excuse my presumption in taking the opportunity of this 
messenger to wish your Lordship much joy. If it were possible 
to enjoy so great a blessing as my Lady Harriott without the 
envy, and with the good will of mankind, I believe your Lordship 
does so, as for my own part I can say with truth, that I should 
not have had a much more sensible pleasure, if my own son had 
been the happy man. I have still another subject of joy which 
is that my Lady Harriot has eased my royal mistress of one of 
her cares, and that my Lord Treasurer's friends and humble 
servants will have the pleasure to see his posterity enjoy a plentiful 
fortune not erected upon the spoils of the public. On that score 
I declare my Lady Harriott our sister being a true rewarder oj 
merit. But I ought to beg pardon of a young bridegroom for 
interrupting his more solid joys with such worldly reflections, as 
also for my long letter, and therefore I beg leave to wish the 
continuance of your present happiness. 

It is a question amongst the learned at this time which is 
more happy your Lordship or my Lord De la War in his new 
place. Happiness depending upon opinion one would think it 
impossible to be more so than my Lord De la War is. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford. 

[1713, September 2] Wednesday. — I cannot let the messenger 
return without heartily congratulating with your Lordship, and 
with the young Lord and Lady, upon the conclusion of the match, 
wishing to all much and long happiness. 

The enclosed was brought me from Lord Rivers, as I was told. 
If it be to the same effect with mine your Lordship will find 
something very unreasonable and impossible. 

I long to see your Lordship, and think myself unfortunate to 
have been so long in England without that happiness. 

Queen Anne to the Earl of Oxford. 

1713, October 6. Windsor. — I am very sorry to find by your 
letter I received on Saturday last that your indispotion (sic) con- 
tinued soe much as to hinder your coming hither, but I hope you 
are better now and will be able to bear a journey by the end of 
the week, and that the good weather coming again will complet 
your recovery. I have felt the sharp weather a litle in one of 
my feet, but I thank God it is prety well again now. There are 
several things I should speake to you about, but I think it is 
better to defter them till I can see you, and therfore shall trouble 
you with nothing more at present but the assurance of my being 

For the Lord Treasurer, 


The Duke of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford. 

1713, October 8. Windsor. — Understanding from her Majesty 
that your Lordship does not design to be here to-day, I take the 
Kberty to put you in mind that my journey is so fixed for next 
Monday early in the morning in order to reach my own house 
the same night, that it would be extreme inconvenient for me to 
defer it. At the same time it will be absolutely necessary I 
should see the papers I mentioned to your Lordship and have 
some opportunity to discourse you upon them. If in order to this 
my coming to London to-morrow will be of use, your Lordship 
will be pleased to let me know it, and your own hour, if it could 
be such a one as I might return the same evening, it would be 
more convenient, but I shall comply with any time you appoint. 
If at the same time I receive your Lordship's answer the papers 
should be so ready that they might be sent me, I should have 
leisure to look them over and come better prepared to receive 
your Lordship's directions. I humbly entreat your answer 
to &c. 

The Same to the Same. 

1713, October 9, Windsor. — I have received the letter and 
book your Lordship did me the honour to send me, and find the 
last contains two establishments, one of the civil, the other of 
the military, payments, both settled in my Lord Wharton's 
government in 1709, without any new directions accommodated 
to the present time. The list of the officers upon half-pay is the 
same that was then, of which undoubtedly some are dead and 
others provided for ; I have no list of the officers now to be kept 
on half -pay, or of those disbanded regiments whose officers it is 
expected should be maintained upon the Irish establishment, till 
they can be provided in that army, nor do I understand by this 
paper what number of horse, foot and dragoons are designed to 
be kept up in Ireland. 

I shall want your directions about the pensions, of which I find 
no mention here, but hope when I have the honour to see your 
Lordship you will give me a list of them as now settled, and your 
orders thereupon, as also relating to the French Protestant 

The disposition of the Concordatum has been in some disorder, 
and, as I am informed, several small pensions charged upon it. 
I cannot think that fund by any means proper for annual settled 
pensions, and hope your Lordship will give me instructions in 
that and the other particulars before Monday. 

I am truly sorry, my Lord, to hear the pain hangs so long upon 
you, and uneasy to give you any trouble at this time ; yet I can- 
not forbear being impertinent out of my way, and telling you I 
heartily wish you would bring yourself into a method of keeping 
better hours. I know by experience that nothing is more preju- 
dicial to a strong constitution, and more destructive to a weak 
one, than late hours of eating and sleeping. 


Forgive this digression, which proceeds from my friendship to 
your person, and my sincere wishes for the welfare of England 
so much concerned in your health. 

Paul Foley to the Duchess of Newcastle. 

1713, October 20. — Since I can be no longer serviceable it is 
the greatest satisfaction to receive the favour of your assurance 
that I shall have your good wishes and any kindness in your 
j)ower to do for me. 

I cannot fliink anything your Grace does a slight to me when 
I reflect on the many favours you have been pleased to oblige 
me with, which shall always be remembered with a grateful 

As for what your Grace is pleased to mention in relation to 
Aldborough, I doubt not but you have been informed that Mr. 
Downey is chosen at Pontefract and at Aldborough, that he will 
make his election for the former, being a family interest, which 
will occasion another election at Aldborough. By the manage- 
ment of what your Grace gave me when I went out of town, with 
a considerable addition of my own, being a very expensive 
election on all sides, I have fixed the interest there in my 
own power for so long as I keep the notes which some 
are so sensible of that it is believed I can and your Grace 
cannot blame me if I do make the utmost advantage of it 
for my own benefit, and since your Grace has no other occasion 
for them but to be a voucher, you may assure yourself that and 
ever^^thing else in my power shall be ready for your service when 

Give me leave to pray for your health and a happy deliverance 
from all your afflictions. I never served your Grace for the lucre 
of gain, but purely flowing from affection, and therefore hope 
it may be excused if out of the way of my profession I take all 
opportunities to serve you, and intend for the future to exclude 
myself from having anything to do in the cause on one side or 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1713, November 3. Dublin. — I did not intend to trouble your 
Lordship so soon, but that I find in this place a disposition 
more ol)stinate than I expected. The Council who have made 
such steps in the dispute about the Mayor, as 3^our Lordship 
knows, have been little approved by her Majesty or her Council 
in England, are prevailed on here by some warm and leading 
men among them to think their honour is so concerned in sup- 
porting this matter that they will hearken to no expedient but 
that the Aldermen should acce])t one of the three they have 
already refused, and if they do not, supported by the opinion of 
most of these Judges, think the Mayor ought to hold over. The 
City who, to avoid confusion have not yet questioned the legality 
of the mayor and sheriffs continuing to preserve order for some 

6803 Q 


time, have now presented a petition to me desiring I would give 
some directions, for that their Courts stand adjourned, and they 
dare not proceed to the trial of criminals nor of actions of meiim 
and twum in the Courts whilst it is disputahle in law whether the 
mayor can hold over or no. This difficulty seems weighty to me, 
who have heard both Lord Harcourt and Sir Ed. Northey assert 
that unless there be express words in the charter to give a Mayor 
such a power by law he cannot do it. But though I have told this 
to several of the Privy Councillors I cannot perceive it has any 
weight with them ; they think the dignity of their board highly 
concerned to oblige the City to submit, which I heartily wish it 
were in my power to persuade them to. 

I had laboured an expedient which I take to be the same her 
Majesty recommended, that the mayor should be prevailed on to 
go to a new election, propose two of his former men and another 
the City would accept ; I added that he should be none of the 
seventeen the Council had made a vote against. This expedient 
was at first approved by the Chancellor [Phipps], but when I 
had brought the City with some difficulty to consent to let their 
seventeen be laid aside for this time the Chancellor went back, 
and told me the Lords of the Council were so averse to this as 
derogatory to their dignity (though I profess I cannot see in what) 
that he must plainly tell me he could not be for it, and was con- 
fident the Council would never consent to it. I believe there 
never was a case like mine, condemned already as in a Whig 
interest for following the orders of her Majesty and her present 

It is certain that if this ridiculous dispute were adjusted we 
have the appearance of the easiest session for her Majesty's 
affairs that ever was, so that it can be nothing but the excess of 
folly, heat, or malice, for any of her Majesty's servants to keep up 
this dispute, which if not settled before the Parliament meets 
will embroil all. 

I must deal plainly with your Lordship, and desire this may be 
communicated to her Majesty only. All in power here are so 
confederated and engaged upon this trifling point that there is 
not one of them 1 can open myself to, and I cannot help 
suspecting a design is laid to put all imaginable difficulties upon 
my Government to make it as uneasy as the last was, in which 
they had so considerable a share. 

I have been very ill since I came, and the vexation of this 
usage has made me worse. I wish some of Lord Chancellor's 
friends would write to him her Majesty's commands plainly, for 
at present he seems to think nothing so valuable as the carrying 
this dispute against the City, by which he makes himself popular 
with the Lords of this Council puffed up with the same conceit. 

Yesterday the Archbishop of Armagh died. It is of great 
importance not to dispose of this preferment before the end of 
the Session of Parliament, so I hope her Majesty will not be 
prevailed on to do it sooner ; and in the meantime will be well 
informed who is the properest person to fill that see, 


The Duke of Shrewsbury to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1713, November 19. Dublin. — I return you my most sincere 
and grateful acknowledgments for your Lordship's of the 10th, 
and for the other letters you procured to be writ hither so 
speedily and strongly concerning the afiair I applied to you upon. 
Your Lordship will, I doubt not, be surprised when I assure you 
they have not had the least effect here. This Council does not doubt 
but they are in the right, and that her Majesty and her ministers 
in England will be convinced they are so. In the meantime the 
Parliament which should have met to-morrow I have prorogued 
to the 25th by advice of the Privy Council. Then they must 
meet, the Whigs angry with me for not settling this dispute, 
though it is not in my power, but so outrageous against those 
they think the authors of it that if they have strength they will 
show their resentment. 

It would have been in my power to have prevented all this, and 
brought them together in good temper, if I had had credit 
enough to have got her Majesty's and her ministers' directions 
executed ; but as it stands I want words to describe the uneasi- 
ness of my condition, exposed to the censure of everybody if the 
business in Parliament miscarry, and yet without authority 
(unless in conjunction with the Council) to make those steps that 
would prevent it. But it is unnecessary to say more at this time. 
When I see in what humour the Parliament meets I shall trouble 
your Lordship further. 

Queen Anne to the [Earl of Oxford]. 

1713, December 8. Windsor. — Whenever I see you I have soe 
many subjects to speak to you upon that I often forget something 
or other, as I did yesterday to desire you to order Mr. Darcy and 
Feilding some money on the account of my stables ; and at this 
time that I am going to make liveries and new coaches you can 
not lett them have less than three thousand pound, and the 
sooner they have it the better it will be for my service. 

Now that I have a pen in my hand I can not help desireing 
you againe when you com next, to speake plainly, lay everything 
open and hide nothing from me, or els how is it possible I can 
judg of anything. I spoke very freely and sincerly to you 
yesterday, and I expect you should do the same to her that is 
sincerly your very affectionate friend. 

For the Lord Treasurer. 

[The Duke of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford.] 

1713, December 22. Dublin Castle. — The state of our aft'airs 
here is so dismal that, having given some account of it in my 
letters to my Lord Bolingbroke, I have neither inclination nor 
health to repeat the same to your Lordship. I shall only say 
that the heats on both sides are such that little is to be expected 
from this session, nor at present from this Parliament ; and 


what is worse, if a new one were chosen 1 am confident the 
humour of the House of Commons w^ould not mend. 

My temper is so unfit to join with either of these parties that I 
hope her Majesty will recall. me, and name some other Governor 
more fitly qualified for this tempestuous station, and who will 
reside here so as to make himself oheyed hetter than I have heen 
ahle to do, even when I signified her Majesty's commands ; for 
it heing known I was only to sta}^ here a few months I have 
made the figure rather of a Viceroy in a Play than of one who 
had the honour of her Majesty's patent. 

I have so little prospect that more money will he given than 
the three months' impositions passed to-day that I hope your 
Lordship will he thinking how to reduce the Estahlishment so as 
to subsist on the revenue. There is no more probable way of 
bringing these people to some calmness than to show that the 
Queen can support her Government without them, and that if 
she asks more money from them it is for their own good and 

I entreat your Lordship to give my most humble duty to the 
Queen, and assure her I am truly afflicted that I have not been 
able to serve her better. I flatter myself she will have the good- 
ness to think I have not w^anted good-will, wdiatever other defects 
I have had. I am ever most faithfully your &c. 

Dr. John Eadcliffe to Morley. 

1713 [-14], January. — If you are at leisure I should be glad to 
have the favour of your company this night, being all alone, but 
I hojDe you will not fail according to your promise to be here 
to-morrow at dinner between three and four, and a friend or two 
of yours will l)e here to wait upon you to remember the Phenix, 
for I find there is but one of the kind. I hope nothing will 
prevent us of enjoying your good company, which is so very 
esteemed and desired by him who is &c. 

" These to Mr. Morley present." 

The Duke of Marlboroi^gh to the [Earl of Oxford] . 

1714, January 29. Antwerp. — I know not by what accident, 
but I had not the favour of your Lordship's letter of the 25th of 
the last month, old style, till last Friday, so that it was three 
weeks coming hither. I have taken the first opportunity of 
returning you my thanks for the orders you have given, as also 
for your obliging assurances, and as I have resolved to do it in 
a more particular manner by Mr. Cadogan I shall end this wdth 
the assurances of my being &c. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford. 

1718-14, February 2. Dublin Castle.— Yours of the 14 January, 
wliicli I received last night, has much surprised me, to find that 
two of your Lordship's letters to me should miscarry. Would 


it not be worth enquiring where such a faihire has lain, which I 
much suspect not to be accidental twice together, because I have 
not observed since I have been here to have wanted any other 
letter ; and I believe it is new^ that two letters together from a 
Lord Treasurer of Great Britain to a Chief Governor of this 
kingdom should miscarry when every private man's letter is 
safely delivered. 

It never w^as my thought, much less my intention, to attempt 
putting the administration of this kingdom into other hands 
than of Tories. But as I was and am now more convinced the 
Whigs have the majority in the House of Commons I apprehended 
there needed greater management with them here than in 
England, where the case is different. 

If in that unlucky dispute about this City I had prevailed 
at my first coming with the Council to have come to any 
expedient — even to that which this Chancellor first proposed, 
and employed Sir Jo. Stanley to negotiate, but retracted 
after it was accepted by the City — if this point only 
could have been settled, many of the Whigs promised me 
their vote for the Speaker, which would have been a good 
beginning of the Session, and showed them I had some interest 
to protect them from the hardships they pretend to fear from a 
man they have incensed. But instead of that the Privy Coun- 
cillors met in numbers, as I am informed, and entered into 
engagements not to depart from a tittle of what they had 
determined. And from that time it was the public discourse 
here that it signified little wdiat opinion I was of, since little 
regard would be had to it in England ; that I was to stay but 
some weeks, and then the government return into the Chan- 
cellor's hands, who had the secret of the ministers. All this has 
been confirmed by that very Bishop [Lindsay] being made 
Primate which Lord Chancellor's intimates reported was to be 
several posts before the letter arrived ; though I had proposed 
one should be sent from England, and named the Bishops of 
Hereford or Chester, or Dr. Smalridge. This opinion was again 
confirmed by the Council in England altering their mind in the 
dispute with this City and is now so fixed in everybody of both 
parties that, as none think I am able to serve them, none apply 
to me, and I am incapable of doing any service, under the 
opinion the two parties have conceived of my small credit at 

I am glad I mistook and that there have been no thoughts of 
taxing this kingdom from England. It then remains to consider 
whether the savings your Lordship shall direct shall be such as 
might be proper if you had a prospect of a Parliament soon to 
sit, and pay off the debt contracted, or such as must reduce the 
establishment to the revenue, so as the Government may subsist 
some time without a Parliament. I shall soon lay before your 
Lordship my thoughts upon that subject when I have made some 
necessary enquiries. 

I believe everybody begins to be now of opinion that if a new 
Parliament were called it would not be of a temper (especially 


about Lord Chancellor) different from this present House of 
Commons. The wisest of the Whigs confess they have gone too 
far and too fast, and know not how to go back, and flatter them- 
selves the Queen will not make her own business and (as they 
term it) the greatest part of the kingdom uneasy for one man, 
whom she can easily remove to his advantage, and place another 
in his room, a Church man by principle, with whom they pre- 
tend not to doubt they should agree. I have shown them how 
their own proceedings have made this less probable to succeed. 

William Jackson to [the Earl of Oxford]. 

1713-14, February 12. — With this I send your Lordship's arms 
engraved with a coronet prospective, and all different from what 
is usual. I have left a vacancy for the motto and the inscription. 

I have had the misfortune of having some time ago a boil 
under my eye, which turning to an incurable humour it is judged 
by several able physicians and surgeons, and even by Mr. 
Serjeant Dickings, to be the King's Evil ; but it being too 
difficult to have the royal touch, I humbly implore your Lord- 
ship's recommendation to Mr. Serjeant Dickings to grant me 
a ticket, her Majesty being to touch next Monday at Windsor. 

The Duke of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford. 

1713-14, March 2. Dublin Castle. — Sir Eichard Leving being 
obliged to go into England upon some business relating to his 
own family I take the liberty to give your Lordship this trouble 
by his hands, and as he is well informed of the state of our affairs 
here, hope you will at your best leisure give him an opportunity 
of acquainting you with some particulars and circumstances which 
can much better be explained in discourse than in letters ; I 
think it a justice due to his behaviour to testify for him that, to 
the best of my observation, he has acted with great duty to her 
Majesty, and, in the station he is, with ability in her service. 

Hoping it will not be long before I shall wait on your Lordship 
in England, and, having no letter from you since the 26th of 
January, which I answered the 2nd of February, I shall at present 
give you no further trouble than to assure you that I am &c. 

Ade[lhida], Duchess of Shrewsbury to [the Earl 
OF Oxford]. 

[1714, July 30. Kensington.] — The Duke of Shrewsbury being 
at Council I have obeyed your Lordship's command in opening 
your letter and can assure you I never in my life saw my Lord 
in so much concern as the other unfortunate day. The Queen is as 
ill as she can be, and the physicians have but little hopes. I 
don't doubt my Lord will want both your counsel and assistance, 
and has been prevailed upon, I imagine, with this hope, but I 
would with all my heart you was in still. About coming or 


not I cannot pretend to say what is better, only I shall let your 
Lordship know that almost everybody comes to enquire how the 
poor Queen does, but I imagin the Duke of Shrewsbury will as 
soon as he can answer your kind letter. 

My Lord, in my particular, nobody is more your servant and 
very good friend than &c. 

Endorsed by Lord Oxford as received "July 30, 1714, past nine 
at night." 

John Plumptre to the Duchess of Newcastle. 

1714, September 3. [Nottingham.] — I humbly hope your 
Grace will pardon this manner of address which I have chosen 
at present rather than to wait on your Grace in person, because 
my business being a petition, the grant of which I dare not 
presume to depend upon, I think it most becoming the respect 
and regard due to your Grace, that, in case I cannot have your 
Grace's favour, I should -spare you the disturbance which great 
and generous minds feel when they are forced to deny a petitioner 
to his face. 

I am so importunately pressed by my friends here to offer 
myself again as a candidate for this town at the approaching 
elections for a new Parliament, that I cannot refuse them 
without incurring the reproach of abandoning them and giving 
them up. 'Tis a great honour I receive by their pitching upon 
me, but very incomplete, if I must labour under the discoun- 
tenance of your Grace, to avoid which, as much as in me lies, 
I here humbly apply myself to you. I confess I have just cause 
from other reasons, as well as my own want of merit, to 
apprehend a denial, but the fear of that is nothing in comparison 
with the dread I am under on the other hand of doing anything 
slighting or disrespectful to your Grace, which my not applying 
to you at all upon this occasion would have the appearance of. 
I beg therefore that your Grace would please to put a favourable 
construction upon this letter. 

[The Duke of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford.] 

1714, December 3. — Some business has happened which will 
make it impossible for me to attend your Lordship upon my 
Lord Rivers's concerns today or tomorrow, any other time you 
will appoint I shall be ready either morning or evening. 

I should always have been ready to have seen your Lordship 
whenever I had thought it convenient, notwithstanding what you 
mention. If you should appoint Sunday in the evening I desire 
it may be at your house, mine being that day crowded with 
company to the Duchess of Shrewsbury, who is your humble 
servant, as I most sincerely. 

The Baroness Kielmensegge to the [Earl of Oxford]. 

[1714, December 22.] — "Vous seres surpris que sans avoir 
I'honneur de vous connoitre, je premie la liberty de vous faire une 
priere. Vous aves une cour proche de ma maison qui m'empeche 


la communication dans le jardin de St. James, ou mon mari et 
moi voudrions bien quelquefois prendre I'air. Je vous demande 
done en grace de vouloir permettre que j'y fassefaire un passage. 
Vous vendres ce terrain la sans doute avec la maison, mais 
comme cela ne sera pas fait si tot vous m'o])ligeres fort de me 
permettre d'avance de faire faire ledit passage. Si vous voules 
avoir la bonte d'envoyer quelqu'un de vos gents, je leur 
montrerai I'endroit, et ils pouront vous expliquer plus clairement 
le fait que je ne puis le faire par lettre. Si vous voulies vous 
defaire de ce petit terrain je I'achetterois voluntiers.'' 

\_Endorsed hi/ Oxford: — "Madam de Kielmensegge, Dec. 22, 
1714. Answered that evening."] 

The Duchess of Newcastle to Art. Colclough. 

1715, March 28. — My great thanks for the favour of your 
letter by Sir Garvis, my health was so bad that I could not go 
more than twice to London, though business brought me so near 
by my enemies' means, they hoping to shorten my life, which is 
now their whole design. 

In answer to that you w^rite, if I know myself, I am determined 
to get my right if justice be not out of England, therefore will 
try to the last. You have heard me often declare I valued my 
honour far beyond my interest, therefore shall never own my 
right to be another's, which I must do by that you propose 
making good their pretended agreement by which Harley takes 
from Pelham my estate as a gift from Pelham, which estate I 
will defend to the last coat on my back. That above mentioned 
the Harley s hath endeavoured ever since the wicked marriage. 
The proceedings of that crew shall never be mine, nay, the more 
they appear in such shapes, the further off they shall find their 
design they pretend to take effect. Their treatment of me is 
every day more and more notorious, visible to all persons that 
will see and hear as well as I that feels their unjust brutishness. 
Therefore must beg all that will be my friends never to name the 
Harleys nor their allies to me, they giving me hourly reason to 
abhor them. 

The Duchess of Newcastle to Gace. 

1715, April 9. Welbeck. — I received your letter of the 2nd 
instant directed to my house at London, whereby I know you 
had neither my letter from Welbeck when I went towards 
London, and another I sent to you to inform you of [my] return 
to Welbeck, where I have been above three weeks. I never 
doubted your justice, therefore had no uneasiness when I did not 
hear from you, believing you had not time from other business ; 
to hear it was from want of health I will assure you is a great 
trouble to me who wishes you, &c., all health and happiness; as 
to the tenants, as you told the tenants, I shall do nothing more 
than give wood if upon the premises, which if not satisfactory, I 
desire you will provide such as will. You know I have no pre- 
tence in that estate but my life, though in the rest in that county 


I have, therefore shall be at no expense, by reason both Harleys 
and Pelham are such as I shall not be concerned, for whoever 
have the right neither thereof having yet made out any title but 
does all in their power to keep off all hearings of matter of fact, 
both believing they may tire me, in which they may find their 
politic will prove abortive. I doubt not but you hear I am like 
to be ''least '* from one of my enemies, which is almost death to the 
other, hoping to be able to torment me when they both joined, 
though in so childish a way that makes all reasonable people 
laugh. The gold stand and kettle given by both is no news to 
you, being known and discoursed of in all this nation. 

The Duke of Newcastle, Lord Chamberlain, to the 
Earl of Oxford. 

1717, July 2. — I am commanded by his Majesty, in as civil 
a manner as I could, to acquaint your Lordship that it is his 
Majesty's pleasure that your Lordship should not come to Court 
till you have his Majesty's leave. I hope your Lordship will do 
me the justice to think that what I have clone is in obedience to 
the orders I have received from his Majesty, being with great 
truth &c. 

The Earl of Oxford to the Duke of Newcastle. 

1717, July 2. — I have this moment received the honour of 
your Grace's letter, containing his Majesty's commands that I 
should not come to Court. I do assure your Grace that I will 
obey with the utmost duty and punctuality. 

I am extremely sensible of your Grace's great civility, and am 
with the greatest respect &c. 

Draft in Lord Oxford's handwriting. 

Jonathan Swift to Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford. 

1717, July 9. Dublin. — Since I am sure no event can have 
any power upon your mind, I cannot help believing that during 
this glorious scene of your life (I do not mean your discharge, 
but your two years' imprisonment) you have sometimes found a 
minute to remember an inconsiderable man who ever loved you 
above all things. I write to you from an imagination I have \ 
always had, that as soon as you were freed from your jailers, you 
would retire for some months to Herefordshire, and that I should 
be a companion in your retirement. Therefore if you have any 
such thoughts, I beg you will command me to attend, for I have 
many things to say to you, and to enquire of yoiji, as 3^ou may 
easily imagine. You will forgive me if I talk ignorantly, for 
perhaps you intend to live in town, or pass the summer with my 
Lord Harley, or perhaps (as some refiners say) you are again to 
be a minister. In any of these cases, all I have said I desire 
may go for nothing, and I will wait your leisure. However, pray 
let me know as soon as you can by a line from yourself. I will 
trouble you no more at present. 


The Duke of Shrewsbury to the Earl of Oxford. 

1717, -August. — Some business has happened, since I had the 
honour to see your Lordship, so unluckily that I cannot possibly 
come to London before Wednesday, upon which day I shall be 
ready to attend your Lordship at my own house at live, and 
endeavour to get my Lord Kochfort to meet you, unless I hear 
from your Lordship or Lord Barrymore to the contrary. Pray, 
my Lord, be punctual to the hour, and let Mr. Dixon know this 

The Earl of Oxford to his granddaughter, Lady Margaret 


1723, October 21. — My dearest grandchild. A little indisposi- 
tion hindered me from thanking my dearest Peggy for your kind 
letter of the 13 instant. My love to you may inform you how 
acceptable any expression of your kindness is ; the oftener I hear 
from you my pleasure will be the greater, because I shall find 
every time proofs of your improvement. I choose to write to 
you upon this day, it being the birthday of my father and your 
great grandfather, that it may put you in mind never to do any- 
thing unworthy the stock you are descended from in your whole 
life, which I pray God may be long. I will tell you that my 
father had the courage and firmness of my Lord Vere, your 
excellent mother's great grandfather and my father's uncle. To 
this may be added, he had the sweetness, gentleness, and piety 
of my Lady Vere, his aunt, godmother, and your mother's great 
grandmother. This I mention to you, my dearest child, for your 
information, but for your instruction you have the example of 
your excellent mother and father, who are shining patterns for 
you, which I hope you will imitate and copy. This is the best 
wish can be put up to God for you by 

Dearest Grandchild 

Yours, &c. 

Jonathan Swift to Edward, Second Earl of Oxford. 

1724, November 27. Dublin. — I am very happy in the honour 
of your Lordship's remembrance, and the many marks I have 
had of your favour, neither was I at all uneasy at your Lordship's 
delaying to let me hear from you, because I learnt from others 
that you and my lady were in good health, and I knew your 
silence did not proceed from any change in your good disposition 
towards me. I never knew any person more hardly drawn to 
write letters of no consequence than my late lord your father. 
It was very seldom I got a scrip from him, and yet I never lost 
the least ground in his favour and kindness. 

What I had intended in relation to my late Lord Oxford was 
both some memoirs of his life and ministry and likewise to make 
him have a great part in a History which I wrote in England, 
and which his Lordship and the rest of the ministers had read, 
but by some accidents was not printed, and I propose to make in 
it several alterations and additions. 


I have many years frequently resolved to go for England, but 
was discouraged by considering what a scene I must expect to 
find by the death and exile of my friends, and a thousand other 
disgusting circumstances ; and after all to return back again into 
this enslaved country to which I am condemned during existence 
(for I cannot call it life) would be a mortification hard to support. 

However that kind invitation your Lordship hath pleased to 
give will I hope rouse up my spirits ; but there is another incon- 
venience from which I ensure your Lordship for forty years to 
come, and then you must look to yourself. I mean the want of 
health. I have the honour to be affiicted with the same disease with 
your Lordship's father, frequent fits of deafness, and at present I 
labour under one which hath confined me two months, and hath 
worn out my patience, fearing I shall never recover it ; in such 
a case I must confine myself to my deanery house and garden, 
converse only with treble and counter-tenor voices, and turn a 
speculative monk. I should not have troubled your Lordship 
with relating my own infirmities, if they were not an excuse for not 
immediately obeying your Lordship's commands to attend you. 

I return you my most humble thanks for your promise of my 
late Lord Oxford's picture, but that alone will hardly serve your 
turn, if ever I have the honour to see you again. In the mean- 
time, since your Lordship pleases to ask me the question, I desire 
it may be a three-quarter length, I mean below the knees. 

I must be so bold to return my most humble respects to my 
Lady Oxford, and my sincerest thanks for the honour of being 
remembered by her Ladyship. 

My unconversable disorder hath hindered me from seeing my 
old friend the Lord Lieutenant, from whom I never received 
since his arrival any more than one dry message. He hath 
half frightened the people here out of their no understandings. 
There is a fellow in London, one Wood, who got a patent for 
coining half -pence for this kingdom, which hath so terrified us, 
that if it w^ere not for some pamphlets against these half-pence, 
we must have submitted. Against these pamphlets the 
Lieutenant hath put out a proclamation, and is acting the most 
unpopular part I ever knew, though I warned him against it by 
a letter before he came over, and thought by his answer that he 
would have taken my opinions. This is just of as much con- 
sequence to your Lordship as the news of a skirmish between two 
petty states in Greece was to Alexander, while he was conquering 
Persia, but even a knot of beggars are of importance among 

I doubt Mr. Pope's voyage into Homer-land will bring more 
profit than reputation, and I wish his fortunes could afibrd him to 
employ his own genius. I have been told this voyage is to supply 
what he lost by a former into the Bouth Sea. 

I have tired your Lordship, and will abruptly conclude by 
professing myself with the truest and greatest respect etc. 

P.S. — I shall desire a gentleman to attend your Lordship for 
the ring, which I value more than if it was from the greatest 
prince in Europe. 


Dr. John Arbuthnot to Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford. 

1726, November 16. London. — I am sorry the bad weather 
allows your Lordship so much time for study in the country, 
though I reckon that even in the most serene day one can 
hardly leave Guliver (sic). There has been a vast demand for 
Guliver, the first impression was sold off in a moment, everybody 
has been mightily delighted with him. I had the honour to wait 
on her Eoyal Highness when she had just come to that passage 
of the hobbling prince, which her Highness laughed at. Ministerial 
folks say the book is a pleasant humourous book and it was 
pity he descended so low, as some little satire, that is too 
particular ; some folks that I know went immediately to their 
maps to look for Lillypott and reckoned it a fault in their maps 
not to have set down. Lord Scarborrow met with a sea captain 
that knew Guliver, but he said the bookseller was mistaken in 
placing his habitation at Kotherith for he was sure he lived at 
Wapping. In short the book has made very good diversion to 
all the town. It was not possible for me at this time to send 
the Ballad, but your Lordship shall have it ; there are a hundred 
incorrect copies of it about town. I have just now transcribed 
the substance of the paper of Quadrille. I fancy there will be 
some comical papers about Guliver. I have seen a pretty good 
epistle from Guliver' s wife to him in the style of Ovid. I happen 
to be so unlucky as to have twenty things to do this moment, 
else your Lordship should have had the Ballad, and for the same 
reason I hope you will be so good as to forgive this hasty and 
hardly legible scrawl. 

The Same to the Same, 

1726, November 23. London. — I am come home so late that 
I have only time to thank your Lordship for the honour of yours, 
and to keep my promise by enclosing the Ballad, the only copy 
that I have. I hope your Lordship will see some copies of verses 
with the next edition of 'Guliver.' This with my wishes for 
your Lordship's health and prosperity and your speedy return to 
town is from yours, &c. 

J. Gay to the Same. 

[1727-8, February 12.] — I was last night to pay my duty to 
your Lordship, and to thank you for interesting yourself in so 
kind a manner in my behalf. I had heard before that the King 
and Queen were to be present at "Julius Caesar" on Friday, so 
that my intention was to acquaint your Lordship that I had 
fixed on Thursday. As to the boxes on that day, I fear by what 
I have heard about the town they are taken wp already, but if 
your Lordship would be so good as to send a servant to the box- 
keeper, I hope I shall have the honour of Lady Oxford's presence 
in the very box she chooses, for I know Mr. Rich would upon all 
occasions be very glad to oblige your Lordship. 


EdwaPvD Harley, Earl of Oxford, to Dean Swift. 

1728, July 27. — It is now complete two months since I received 
the favour of your letter, and a very great one I esteem it, and 
also some medals which were of use tome in my collection, please 
to accept my thanks for them. Mr. Clayton has heen going this 
six weeks, which was one reason of my not writing, and I think 
I should not give you the trouhle of two letters upon the same 
subject resolving to write by him whenever he went. I have 
heard some kind of whisper as if the Dean of St. Patrick's would 
be in England this winter. I wish he may, but it is too good 
news to be true, I fear. Mr. Pope stands by himself Athanasius 
contra inundum. There is never a newspaper comes out but he 
is favoured with a letter, a poem, an epigram, even to a distich, 
from the numerous herd of dunces and blockheads that are in 
and about London and the suburbs thereof. I saw him the other 
day, he is as to his health much the same as you left him, he has 
at last taken a resolution of going to the Bath this season. I 
hope it will be of service to him. My wife and Peggy are much 
your humble servants. My wife goes this next season to the 
Bath. I hope it will do her good for the badness of her stomach. 
I hope this will find you very well wherever it be, for I hear you 
often make excursions into the country. I shall be glad to hear 
that you are free from your deafness you complained of when 
you went out of England last. 

Voltaire to [Edward, Earl of Oxford]. 

[1728,] In Maiden Lane at the White Wigg, Covent Garden. 
— Tho' I am a traveller unknown to your Lordship the name of 
*' Harlay " has been for many centuries so glorious among us 
French, and the branch of your house settled in France is so 
proud of the honour of being nearly related to your Lordship, 
that you must forgive the liberty of this letter. 

I have written and printed here a book called the "Henriade," 
in which one Harlay of your house acts a most noble part, and 
such a one as you should be acquainted with. 

For my part, having been in some measure educated in the 
house of the late Achilles de Harley, the oracle and the first 
president of our Parliament, I should be wanting to my duty 
if I durst not trouble your Lordship about it, and beg the favour 
of waiting upon you before the book comes out. 

I expect to know when I may wait upon your Lordship. 

I am with much respect &c. 

Jonathan Swift to Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford. 

1738, April 3. Dublin. — I have a long time been under a 
difficulty of safely sending five medals to you, two of which were 
of the twelve Cesars, and the rest of those Emperors who 
succeeded near them, because I know your Lordship hath a 
curiosity in this polite part of knowledge. They were found in a 


very old churchyard of this city, and as it belongs to me in some 
manner, the minister of the church being my chancellor (Doctor 
Delany), they were sent to me, gratis, although I ex^^ect fifteen 
pence for them. However, on account of your poverty, I will 
take only a shilling. You will find that we in Dublin had 
Eoman medals as well as you. This will be at least a motive, 
that your old acquaintance is still alive, as well as your lady, 
from whom I have received more marks of friendship and con- 
descention than from any of you all. I hourly brag of her 
favours, and shew them to all my visitors. A worthy gentleman 
of this kingdom, Mr. Eichardson, a member of our Parliament, 
will deliver you these, and your Lordship who condescended to 
see Faulkner the printer, will know how to distinguish the bearer 
of this. You must send me an answer, and my Lady Oxford 
must subscribe three lines at least. I am now good for nothing, 
very deaf, very old, and very much out of favour with those in 
power. My dear Lord, I have a thousand things to say, but I 
can remember none of them. I will hold you no longer than 
while Mr. Eichardson stands by you. My humble respects to 
the Duchess, I hope she hath not forgot me. I hope you see my 
friend Mr. Lewis often, he complains of age as well as myself ; 
temj)ora vudcuitur. Does the Duke of Ormond come over, so it 
is here reported ? What is become of Mr. Thomas Harley, and 
of Mr. Edward, and his son or sons? Are you and my Lady 
Oxford in full health ? Pray tell me everything relating to you 
and your family. 

E [dward] Young * to the Duchess of Portland. 

_ 1740, August 25. Tunbridge Wells. — " I was extremely ill 
when I writ my last letter, and whether it was intelligible to your 
Grace I cannot tell. My fever has left me under great weakness, 
for which I am advised to drink these waters for a fortnight 
longer ; if it will be then convenient to your, Grace to admit an 
invalid into so happy a society, I shall pay my duty at Bullstrode 
with the greatest pleasure. The inducements your Grace is 
pleased to mention are very great, but none is greater than the 
satisfaction I shall take in paying my thanks for the honour you 
do to one so entirely unentitled to it. Madam, I rejoice that the 
little innocents enjoy that health which they cannot yet have 
possibly forfeited by their crimes ; the contrary of which is 
generally the sting of those that suffer in a more advanced age. 

'' I beg my humble duty to his Grace, and my humble service 
to the lady that is with you ; nor must she take ill my liberty in 
doing so, for, whatever she may imagine, she is no stranger to 
me, which I shajl explain when I see her." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1740, September 10. Tunbridge Wells. — " I have the 
unhappy advantage of very sensibly condoling with your Grace 
on your present complaint, labouring under the same myself, 
from a violent cold, which tli(3 l)adness of the season has made 

Author of Nijiht Thoi(pht)i, etc. 


here an almost universal complaint : the excessive rains have 
washed away all our company, all I mean that came for pleasure ; 
they that came for health are still fishing for it in these waters ; 
but the waters'themselves now begin to be out of order, so that 
I fear I shall scarce find what I sought. But I hope your Grace's 
park may give what the wells deny me, for my physician tells 
me that steel and riding are my only cure." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1740, October 13. Ditchley. — " I thank your Grace for the 
late favours I received at Bulstrode ; my health, I thank God, is 
much better than before, but whether it is owing to the air, or 
the conversation, I shall not take on me to determine. 

"It is somewhat odd, Madam, that I should be better acquainted 
with Miss Eobinson since I left her, but to unriddle, I have met 
a confident of one of her admirers, who tells me his wounded 
friend is in a very melancholy way ; but as he is a soldier, he is 
determined to behave in character, and rather to fall than fly. 
Your friend. Madam, alone can tell whether 'tis advisable for 
him to make his will. 

" I hope. Madam, the little ones are as well as you wish them, 
and your Grace as well as you deserve to be." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1740, November 7. — " I am much obliged to your Grace for 
the honour of your letter, and still more for your desire of a reply. 
If your Grace designed only a compliment by it, you are fairly 
bit, for I am determined to think you sincere, and to value myself 
upon it accordingly. 

" As for Miss Eobinson, I am as much surprised at her ignorance 
in the particular I mentioned, as I am at her knowledge in 
general ; both, I am satisfied, are very extraordinary. However, 
I have taken the hint she gave about providing against accidents ; 

and a friend has written to the gentleman at that he 

should set his house in order with all convenient expedition. 

"I am heartily sorry for Mr. Hay, and hope this will find him 
perfectly recovered. 

''I am. Madam, much obliged to my Lord Oxford for his kind 
remembrance of me ; and as for the little ones, your Grace loves 
them, but I do more ; I consider children as the next order of 
beings to the blessed angels ; spotless innocence is next in place 
to perfect virtue, and I shall very shortly fly to their protection." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1740, November 25. At The -3 Golden Lions by Temple 
Bar. — " Y^our Grace may be assured I should be glad to be out of 
debt, but is it possible your Grace can accept a letter from me 
in full for all demands ? I am therefore determined not to write : 
for is this writing? Your Grace's correspondents give you a 
very different idea of it ; Heaven has blessed you with excellent 


accomplishments, and with a relish for them in others ; inso- 
much that it is scarce a greater happiness than it is a reputation 
to be among the number of your Grace's friends. 

"I know but one instance where your good nature has imposed 
on your understanding, and if your Grace — which would be 
hard — should be reproached for a single fault, you are sure of 
me for your advocate, who am the only gainer by it ; but though, 
Madam, I cannot add to the brilliancy of your letter-box, I can 
add to the variety of it. I present your Grace with a letter, 
which stands eminently distinguished for** all the rest, and defy 
you to show me another in the whole collection, in which it had 
been a merit to be short." 

E, Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1740, December 20. Wellwyn. — "I have been above ten days 
at this place, where my memory is very troublesome to me, and 
my understanding is hard put to it to get the better of its severe 
impertinence. I am heartily sorry for Mrs. Elstob, and hope in 
God she will not add to the great number of touching ad- 
monitions Providence lately has been pleased to give me of my 
own mortality. But you. Madam, are her deputy ; how worthily 
are you employed ! It is being twice a parent to bring little 
machines into being, and then to inspire them with such an 
understanding as shall make that being a blessing to them. 
How hard is it that a poor whore, who murders her child, shall 
be hanged, and a rich one, who neglects the education of her 
children, shall escape ! The first— though she designs it not — 
makes an angel ; the last makes a legion of devils, if particular 
Providence does not interpose. 

"I had. Madam, the honour of waiting on the Duchess of Kent, 
who, in truth, for a duchess, is a very odd one ; she has a noble 
ambition of being always in the right, and either her Grace 
studies propriety in all things, or she is so very fortunate, as, 
without aiming at it, exactly to hit the mark. What I have 
hinted, Madam, concerning duchesses in general, is nothing to 
your Grace ; you are only a titular duchess, and have scarce one 
single qualification for it. Insomuch, that if you could find in 
your heart to scratch the coronet out of the corner of your 
handkerchief, you might easily pass for a lady of as sound a 
mind and as good a heart as any in Christendom. As for Miss 

R , her heart is hardened, and I find — by what she says — 

that she is determined, without any remorse, to carry her face 
along with her wherever she goes ; but if that may seem alto- 
gether necessary, I humbly beseech her — sometimes at least — to 
leave her understandhig behind. Many an honest gentleman — 
though born in Kent — has done it, even when the welfare of his 

country was depending. I am glad to hear Mrs. P is proud 

of her weaknesses ; I shall now entertain some small hope that I 
may not entirely be out of her favour ; but. Madam, since 

before or above. 


Mrs. P 's natural antipathy is reenforced by her pride, as 

you love ingenuity, I beg you to keep some one corner in 
your house unviolated, lest the whole race of those admirable 
spinsters, who work without a wheel, may not entirely be des- 
troyed. The flies must be very fond of Mrs. P for routing 

their grand enemies, but I am afraid she is not aware with 
whom she is entering into so strict an alliance, for Beelze- 
bub — the learned say — is king of the flies ; so that what 
I suspected before is now, I think, very plain — viz. — that Mrs. 

P hates a spider worse than the Devil, which, I fear, with 

the fair is no uncommon case. 

" If, Madam, the gentlemen will not take it ill, that I put them 
in such company, I desire my humble service to them, and 
particularly, please. Madam, to let my Lord Duke know that I 
have a true and grateful sense of the honour he does me by giving 
me a place in his remembrance. As for the little ones, he that 
knows them, and does not love them, is a monster, and I wish 
he was a monster with six or eight hairy legs crawling on Mrs. 

P 's work, that she might justly wreak her full vengeance 

on him. But men in the shape of men let her spare, and set 

Miss R such an example of humanity, as may incline her 

to spend the remainder of her days in a cloister, which is the sole 
expedient I can think of for her complying with it." 

Postscript. — " I had almost forgot to wish your Grace a happy 
Christmas, that is, to wish you would make others as happy as 
you can. For believe me. Madam, * they that are most social 
are most selfish ; and but by giving happiness to others, we 
cannot receive it ourselves.' I desire your Graces to accept this 
maxim as a new year's gift ; for I never make but one a year, 
and this came into my head from asking myself how 'twas 
possible your Grace could be so merry — as you say you are — in 
such weather as this. Oh, that I was a salamander, and could 

live in flame, as poor Captain B has done for two years 

past ! and will she not relent ? I fear your friend loves her flesh 
overroasted ; it may be wholesomer, but sure, ladies, it is more 
palatable with the gravy in it ; but I grant, meat without bread 
won't do." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Poetland. 

[1740, December?] From The 3 Sphinxes, Temple Bar.— "I 
designed to have waited on your Grace, but I find myself 
obliged to hunt money all this day, as closely as the staunchest 
hound on this side Temple Bar. But what have I to do with 
money ? Your Grace promised me what is much more valuable, 
the friendship of Mrs. Pendarves"; I thought that long ere this I 
should have known her very well, but I know her no more than 
I know your Grace; and you, Madam, of all female riddles, are the 
most exquisite, and impenetrable. Why was this favour so often 
promised ? Was it to try my philosophy, and see how well I 
could bear a disappointment, or was it to try my taste, and see 
how I could relish a jest? The jest is too poignant for my taste, 
the disappointment is too heavy for my philosophy." 

6802 , ^^ . ii,j^ /tUgtj,.^ 


E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

[1741, January?] . Wellwyn. — " It is my duty to write, though 
perhaps it would be my prudence to forbear, for what shall I 
j write ? Yet I will obey your Grace, and disobey you at the same 
time, for pray what difference is there between not writing and 
writing nothing ? Since your Grace has laid me under an 
obligation and a difficulty at the same time by your kind com- 
mand, I will take my revenge by being as severe on your Grace's 
letter as possibly I can. I am as ambitious to find faults in such 
a correspondent, as your friends, the natural philosophers, are 
to find spots in the sun : and I think I can do it effectually. 

You say. Madam, the more knowledge I have of Mrs. P , the 

greater esteem I shall have for her. Madam, you are mistaken, 
my knowledge of her may increase, but I think my esteem for 
her cannot ; at least I do not desire it should. Again you say, 
Madam, that she has all the perfections of your sex, but none of 
the weaknesses : this your Grace designs as an advantageous 
character of your friend ; but how far is it from it ! I wish she 
had a fault or two I could name, that she might be the more 
valuable. By perfection. Madam, in sublunary things we mean 
such qualities as render them most agreeable to our own purposes. 
Gold without alloy will not wojk ; it is quite unfit for the mint, 

and I fear Mrs. P without a little more of the mere mortal 

in her, will hardly receive that impression I am willing to make. 
Was admiration our only passion, the most shining excellencies 
would infallibly carry the day ; but. Madam, there are other 
passions in the heart of man, and those more importunate. But 
what impudence is it in me to pretend to inform your Grace of 
what lies hid in the human heart ! You have often dissected it 
with the most accurate discernment, and I know but one instance 
that can call your judgment in question, which is your Grace's 
undeserved partiality to. Madam, your Grace's most obliged, and 
most obedient, humble servant." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

[1741. Wellwyn.] — ''Notwithstanding my late reproof, your 
Grace cannot forbear dwelling on the praises of your friend ; 
you say you are happy in her conversation. Had Pope been her 
admirer, could he possibly have praised her more ? Your Grace's 
endeavour to convince me of her worth is such another attempt 
as if you should strive to convince me of the truth of the 
Christian religion; both are equally unnecessary, and equally 
[ imply your distrust of judgment ; but your Grace, like some 
I other celebrated divines, will preach eternally on a text that 
I needs no comment, and leave quite unexplained what is truly 
j mysterious. ^' For instance, why has your friend, in spite of 
several advantageous offers, devoted herself to the criminal 
\ selfishness of a single life, when she knows that it is her duty to 
\ diffuse happiness as much as possibly she can ? Why has she been 
I wedded to music, and the pencil, when she knows there is a har- 
mony far beyond that of sounds ; and when your Grace by example 


has convinced her, that there is a way of furnishing her apart- 
ments — without the expense of canvas — with a variety of beauties 
which a Kneller might be proud to reach ? But this, Madam, is 
touching on too tender a point ; I see your Grace is under a decent 
confusion, to find your friend's justly admired excellencies may 
be fairly turned to her reproach. Madam, I should not presume 
to take this liberty, had I not the greatest value for you both. 
How then can I see with patience one committing a great 
error, and the other flattering her in it? This must needs 
grieve any honest heart, which knows how many singular virtues 
you have, to be tarnished and dishonoured by this, single 
indeed, but heinous fault. Mend as fast as you can, and per- 
adventure you may find pardon. Boldly, Madam, as I speak, I 
am well aware, that I have nothing but my age to recommend 
my advice. And indeed I shall be very glad if it can recommend 
that, for, alas ! there is nothing else that can possibly be recom- 
mended by it.. To conclude this melancholy letter with the same 
intrepid integrity that runs through the whole, give me leave, 
Madam, to say, that as well as you love your friend, and she 
your Grace, as much as you are charmed with each other's con- 
versation ; if your friend cannot frame to herself the idea of any 
conversation which she could like better, she deserves not the 
blessing of yours. To have a warm and elegant taste for every 
good thing but that which Nature designed for her chief repast 
is being, at best, an illustrious rebel to the schemes of Providence, 
which, though it may gain her the admiration of the weak, 
will make, on the discerning, but slight impressions in her 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

[1741, February? London.] — " Money is the devil, and ever 
doing mischief, but it never did me greater than now, in denying 
me [the] honour and pleasure of waiting on your Grace before I 
leave the town. But you. Madam, who can confer undeserved 
favours with so great facility, will, I hope, find no great difficulty 
in excusing involuntary faults. I had the delight and reputation 
yesterday morning of waiting on Mrs. Pendarves, but what 
followed stands candidate for a place among your Grace's 

Postscrii>t. — ' ' But your Grace is a naturalist, I will therefore 
talk with you in your own way. What so flowery and fragrant as 
the woodbine ! What so luxuriant and fruitful as the vine ! 
How they ravish our senses ! How they gladden the heart of 
man ! How divinely they inspire ! Such, Madam, is your sex ; 
but then, as you are made exquisite like these, so like these, in 
compassion to poor mankind, yau are made feeble too. You were 
both designed to give a tender twine around something stronger 
than yourselves. The vine and woodbine were not designed for 
celibacy, but to mingle their branches with the rough oak, or 
elm, obliging, and obliged, receiving succour while they confer 
the most perfect ornament and delight. 


"Now, Madam, a lady of genius, that abounds in arts and 
accomplishments, she can agreeably employ every hour, by her- 
self ; she can stand alone; she is free from that weakness which 
lays other ladies under the natural necessity of an embrace ; and 
being superior to her own sex, affects an independency on ours. 
I wish that this is not somewhat the case of your friend. 

''If your Grace does me the honour of a line, you will assist me 
in this nice speculation. I should be glad for the sake of man- 
kind to find myself mistaken about her, for really, Madam, if she 
is made only to be admired, I shall value her no more than an 
angel. And poor angels, your Grace knows, will meet with many 
powerful rivals in so wicked a world as this." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

[1741, February-March ?] Temple Bar. — " On a review of 
your last — for I read your Grace's letters more than once — I find 
you complain that dullness and illnature prevails. I shall 
endeavour to cure you of that displeasure it seems to give you. 

"If, Madam, we have no view in company but of being diverted, 
or improved, our disappointments will be great, but if we have a 
"second view, that, I mean, of paying a decent regard to society, 
by free, and frequent intercourse with it, a sense of discharging 
this duty will be like carrying our own stool with us into 
company, and make us sit easy in it, though Illnature in the 

person of Mrs. and Dullness in the shape of Dr. , sat, 

one on our right hand, and the other on our left. 

" If this advice seems too severe, I'll try to go still farther, 
and show how this great calamity may be turned into a perfect 
diversion, by the help of a little imagination in us. If then. 

Madam, Dr. B and Mrs. M should visit us, let us 

suppose ourselves in the theatre, and that the parts of an oaf and 
a vixen were represented before us, how then should we admire the 
wonderful talents of the performers, and swear every word, air 
and action, was acted up [to] the life, and thus steal from a 
visit the best dramatic entertainment we ever saw, without the 
expense of a crown ! 

"If this. Madam, seems as fantastical, as the former advice 
severe, I will try a third expedient, which is quite obvious 
and natural, and which everybody, I believe, makes use of more 
or less. I mean, let us make use of bad company as a foil 
to recommend the good. We may, I think, justly compare 
the dullness of the doctor to the flat insipidness of oil, and 
the illnature of the lady to the acrimony of vinegar. Now 
might not these — well beat together — make excellent sauce for 

a Mrs. P , might they not give us a still higher relish for 

the charms of her conversation ? 

" And now. Madam, does not your Grace think me bewitched, 
that I talk thus to one who could tell me this, and ten times 
more ? Madam, I do it out of pure good husbandry ; I pick your 
pocket in order to make you a treat ; what I present to your 
perusal I steal from your example ; while you, perhaps, Madam, 


looking on the behaviour I advise, Hke Eve — in your beloved 
Milton — looking into the lake, fancy you see an angel, nor know 
it is yourself 

" And now, Madam, can you for your soul imagine for what end 
and purpose I have written this long letter ? I have written, as 
most of our wits do, purely, Madam, for a dinner, and humbly 
beg that on Tuesday or Wednesday next — as suits your Grace 
best — I may be admitted to your table, there to make an apology 

for the trouble I now give you. If Mrs. P was there, 

she would be so charitable as to help me out ; but if she is there, 
I beg your Grace to remember that her conversation will go down 
without sauce, so that you need not be at the trouble of inviting 
either of the two cruets mentioned above. But that I may have 
the honour of being often in your thoughts, I beg that — for the 
future — whenever a cruet of either kind comes to visit you, you 
would be so good as to remember, Madam, your Grace's most 
dutiful butler." 

Postscript. — " As, Madam, persons of the character we have 
been speaking of may be called cruets^ so there are others, that 
may be called salvers, as they present us in conversation with all 
that is delicious to the most elegant taste. Will your Grace 
stand gossip to the cruets, or the salvers ? If to the last, it will, 
I grant, be less trouble to you, but if to the first, your Grace will 
have the honour of being asked blessing hj half the town. I 
beg. Madam, my respects to the salvers of your Grace's acquain- 
tance, and please to let the cruets know that, if they honour me 
with a visit, I shall provide a sideboard for them, that they may 
not come too forward in company, which they are very apt to do." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1741, May 10. Wellwyn. — "I beg your Grace to make my 
compliments to Lady Isabella, and pay her my congratulations 
on her conversation to Christianity, and please to let her know 
that, if she is as good a Christian threescore years hence, I will 
venture to promise her infinitely more admirers — and those 
worth having — than this world can afford her at fifteen, though 
she should prove the fairest of her race. Next to a Jine persoyi, 
a fine understanding, and a greatness of mind, are, generally, the 
two chief objects of human pride; now ?^fine understanding is an 
understanding of compass, that takes in all things in which we 
are much concerned, whether present or future, seen or unseen, 
in fashion or out : and a great mind is a mind that has power 
to comply with the dictates of this extensive view in spite of all 
temptations to the contrary. 

" Please, Madam, to let her Ladyship know, that, as she is just 
come into a world where there are many very much inclined to 
impose upon strangers, I have taken the liberty — as I wish her 
well — to inform her of these particulars. And now I give her 
leave to be as proud as she pleases of a fine understanding, and 
a great mind, provided they are of the right sort. If her Lady- 
ship says she does not perfectly understand me, as having not 


yet learnt our language, tell her I desire her to copy her mama, 
and then 'tis no matter whether she understands me or not." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1741, July 12. Wellwyn.—" Could I have administered any 
consolation to your Grace, and had forborne to do it, I then 
indeed had been quite inexcusable ; but I too well know that the 
first agonies of real sorrow have no ears, and that a man might 
as wisely talk with his friend in a fever, and desire his pulse to 
lie still, as to philosophize with a wounded heart. These, 
Madam, are the strokes of Heaven, nor will they be defeated of 
their effect, nor indeed is it for our interest that they should. 
Of God Almighty's manifold blessings to mankind His afflictions 
are the greatest; they will make us wise, or nothing will. We 
cannot bear an uninterrupted prosperity prosperously ; we 
cannot bear it without being a little intoxicated with the 
delicious cup, which will make our virtue reel, if not fall. Hence 
an ancient said as wisely as wittily : — ' No man is so unhappy as he 
who never knew affliction.' I therefore congratulate your Grace on 
what you suffer, nor let it sound cruel or harsh in your ear, for in 
this I am but a little beforehand with your own self ; for shortly 
you will bless God for this great calamity, and find that the best 
may be bettered by the kind discipline of Heaven. Heaven 
suffers nothing to happen to man but what is for his temporal 
or eternal welfare, and our fears have as much reason to praise 
God as our triumphs. In what a blessed situation are we then. 
Madam, under such a Being who does, who will do, who can do 
nothing but for our good ! What passion in the heart of man 
is half so natural as the love of God, while man is in his 
right senses ! We have no motives of love, but either 
the excellence of the thing itself, or its benefit to us, and 
in neither view has God any rival, or shadow of it. Now why is 
Divine love so natural to us ? and why is it enjoined as the first 
and great command ? Because, if this is complied with, a course 
of duty will be a course of delight; we shall have the same 
pleasure in it as a fine gentleman has in obeying the commands 
of a favourite mistress. Love carries the whole heart with it, 
and when our heart is engaged, among toils and difficulties we 
find ease and pleasure, and nothing is too hard for the great 
alacrity of our attempts. 

"But is not love too familar a passion from such insects towards 
the King and Father of all being ? It seems to be so, but I beg 
your Grace — for the Bible is a pretty book — to review 
the Gospel for Whitsunday, and to see what a familiar 
intimacy by that tremendous Power is indulged to men. I 
never read it but with astonishment, nor is it possible 
for any one who reads it to suspect that any of His dispensations 
are really severe, who speaks to us in such language as the 
fondest father might make use of, and who will encourage 
no expectations in us, that shall not be far surpassed by the 


"In a word, Madam, Heaven is as solicitous for our happiness 
here, as is consistent with Its far kinder concern for our happi- 
ness hereafter, and our afflictions — which is saying much in their \ 
favour — plainly tell us we are immortal : were we not, we should I 
be as free from cares, but then we should be as destitute of j 
hopes too, as the beasts that perish. May that Powder who ^ 
hindeth up the broken heart, and giveth medicine to heal its sickness 
be for ever your Grace's comfort and defence." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1741, August 5. Tunbridge Wells. — "There are but two dis- i 
tempers, and those very different, that bring people to this place, 1 
either redundancy, or want of spirits. The first makes people I 
mad, the last fools ; the first, I observe in this place, like persons 
bit by the tarantula, dance immoderately, till the distemper flows 
off; the last, like poor Job's friends, sit silent for seven days 
together, till the water gives them utterance. The virtue of the 
water is yet got no higher than my fingers' ends, which enables 
me to write, but when it will arrive at my lips is uncertain ; but 
when it does, I shall have the pleasure of conversing with your 
Grace's friends, many of whom are here, but all my conversation 
with them has hitherto been carried on by signs only on my 
part, for sound to one in my state is too great an expense. 

'* By this time your Grace begins to guess the reason why I left 
the town without taking leave : that was rude, but I should have 
been much ruder, had I attempted it. To have made your Grace | 
a dumb visit would have been very unpolite, and at best, like j 
Hamlet's ghost, I should have been able to have spoke in dismal | 
monosyllables only, and therefore I humbly hope your Grace will i 
pardon me for not frighting you out of your wits, for I know no 
lady on earth that would have lost more by such an accident." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

[1741, August. Tunbridge Wells.]—" Sir John Stanley, ? 
between the waters and a high relish of your Grace's regard to 
him is so elevated, that he talks of dancing at the next ball. Mrs. 
Donellan, whom I have studied, I find to be of an excellent mind 
and heart ; I had once thoughts of drawing so amiable a character 
at length, but I shall abridge it in one sentence which implies 
all. ' She is worthy to be your Grace's friend.' I am heartily 
sorry my Lord Duke has been in pain, but I hope by this time 
he is reaping the advantage of it, in a quicker relish of health. 
There is no one here who have*'* so distinguished themselves 
either by their wisdom or folly, as to contribute to your amuse- 
ment by their history. Here is a great fortune, which is followed 
by a pack of noble beagles, but which will be the happy dog no 
one yet can tell. I am much obliged to your Grace and to the 
Duke and Duchess of Leeds ; when I recover my own country, I 

* Sic. 


shall prevent the honour of their sending to me. I proposed 
writing a long letter, but your Grace is reprieved from the 
execution of that design by the waters. I can neither stand, nor 
see, nor think, and if your Grace can read what I have already 
written, his Majesty's affairs, at this critical juncture, need not 
be at a stand, for want of a decipherer." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1741, September 17. Wellwyn. — " To be courted by a 
Duchess in my old age is a very extraordinary fate. Should I 
tell it to my parishioners, they would never believe one word I 
spoke to them from the pulpit afterwards : I lie therefore under 
a terrible dilemma ; I must either burst by stifling this secret, or 
make atheists of my whole neighbourhood. Such scrapes as 
this should teach the world the wholesome lesson of humility, 
and never to covet blessings that are too great for them, which 
are very apt to overwhelm them, or to betray, and while they 
gratify their ambition, wound their virtue, or their peace. 

" But, Madam, I think it is in your power to make me some 
amends for the injury you have done me, by standing my friend 
with your Grace's correspondent, Mrs. Donellan ; I should be 
ashamed of not having the truest regard for her accomplish- 
ments ; and had I not passed through London, like an arrow out 
of a bow, I should have paid myself the compliment of waiting 
on her, which I hope to do very soon. 

"As for the honour of waiting on your Grace, I have a thousand 
arguments against it, and ten thousand wishes for it ; but wishes 
and arguments are a very unequal match ; 'tis therefore much 
to be feared I shall not have virtue enough to stay away. 

"As for your Grace's letter which has fallen into Mr. Murray's 
hand, be not troubled ; there were no secrets in it ; had it fallen 
into the hands of my Lord Duke himself, it would have done no 
harm. I beg your Grace to be my Mr. Murray, and in your very 
first letter into Bond Street to turn advocate for me. This, 
Madam, I repeat because it is really some concern to me, for 
I am not only indebted to Mrs. Donellan, for the credit of her 
acquaintance, but to her mitred brother,** in a very particular 
manner. I am now reading some of his works not yet published, 
and that with the greatest improvement and pleasure. He and 
I were rivals at Tunbridge as to a married lady, till her husband 
in a jealous fit came from town, and snatched her from the 
impending danger, but your Grace will keep the secret. 

"I have heard Lady P h's character, and therefore am not 

at all surprised to hear she is at Bullstrode. Her ladyship is 
nearly akin to your Grace by a far nobler relation than that of 
blood. But what is that to me? I have a general objection 
against conversing with ladies. When hats and hoods meet, how 
naturally do they fall into mutual flattery ! The vice, in that 
case, seems to have obtained a general toleration ; nay, it passes 

*i,e., her brother-in-law, Bishop Clayton. 

•Clayton. ffZ^^U^ I 


for an accomplishment at least, if not a virtue. But if it is an 
accomplishment, accomplishments can do mischief; for this 
reason I think for the future, I shall converse with no woman 
but your Grace, not that your Grace's never flatters, quite the 
contrary, but then you discover at the same time so good an 
understanding, that your flattery does no harm ; though our 
mouths water at it, we dare not swallow it, lest, while we accept 
of your compliment, we should lose your esteem ; for this we are 
sure of, we cannot do wrong under your Grace's eye, and pass 
undetected. Thus, Madam, is your discernment our rescue from 
your complaisance. 

"If your Grace sees the Duchess of Kent, please to let her know 
that there was more virtue in her enquiring after me than she 
perhaps imagines ; that there is an unextinguishable ambition 
in man which is highly gratified by such honours, shown by some 
sort of persons, and that I shall enter it in that short inventory 
of goods which Fortune allots me— ' That I was remembered in 
absence by the Duchess of Kent.' 

"And now. Madam, have I not wTitten a very long letter? and 
to show myself still more generous, 1 have written such a one, as 
cannot possibly lay your Grace under the least obligation. This, 
Madam, is an instance of generosity, which I desire your Grace 
to follow, nor let this frankness give you the least disgust, for 
this is the only instance of generosity in which I presume on any 
share of competition with you. My Lord Duke, the dear little 
ones, and Mr. Achard — your Grace knows my meaning as well 
as I do, and can express it better. The sincerity of heart will 
appear in its birthday suit, if your Grace will vouchsafe to put it 
into words." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1741, October 29. Wellwyn. — "Your Grace's little letter is a 
great satire ; it is extremely kind, and extremely severe ; it pleases 
and pains, like a bee in a blossom ; from its ambrosial entrench- 
ment it stings me home ; like my Lady B it bites, while 

it kisses. Is not your Grace tired? If not, I'll run on till 
tomorrow, and outposie that huge waterpot of flowers, the 

dropsical and facetious Lord G. . But I forget my band, 

and therefore. Madam, please to observe that all the pleasures 
of man may be ranked under the following heads : — 

1. Outward senses. 

2. Imagination. 

3. Honour. 

4. Benevolence. 

5. Esteem. 

6. Self -approbation. 

7. Gratification of the will. 

8. Pain avoided. 

9. Hope. 

"You see, Madam, what a monster human pleasure is, what a 
hydra with a thousand heads ! Which will your Grace please to 


choose ? That, I suppose, which is most like your own; I mean, 
which is most worth having of any in this, or any other 

*' Now, that. Madam, is benevolence, — as I will prove at large 
when I have the honour of seeing you — all the other pleasures 
are short or precarious, or mixed, as those of sense, imagination, 
honour and esteem ; or else mortal, as that of hope, or some way 
or other inferior to the pleasure of benevolence, as is even self- 
approbation, which is only a consequence of benevolence, and the 
cause is always nobler than the effect. 

" Whether your Grace has examined this truth as much as I 
have done, or no, I cannot tell ; but this I know, that how little 
acquaintance soever your head may have made with it, it is a 
great intimate, and perfect crony of your heart, or your Grace 
could not after my behaviour be so kind to me ; but I dare say 
you have studied, as well as felt it, else it would be quite impos- 
sible you should be so great a mistress in it. I therefore must 
conclude by saying that your Grace is either a perfect riddle, or 
a profound philosopher." 

Postscript. — "I propose the honour and pleasure of waiting 
on you about the middle of next month, if your Grace 
permits, but I beg, before I come down you would turn the 
ghost out of the gallery. Mr. Goldsmith can do it in a trice, 
but spare the poor Red Sea, and send the Devil to the 
Spanish squadron, or if you had rather, send the Spanish 
squadron to him." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1741, November 17. [Wellwyn.] — "Your Grace in your last 
has brought a very severe indictment against me : I can by no 
means plead guilty to it. On Friday I propose rendering myself 
at your Grace's tribunal ; I shall not be content with holding up 
my hand ; I will hold up my heart at your bar, and if you will 
promise not to prick it, you shall take it [in] your hand, and see 
if you can find out that fault which you lay to my charge. I am 
very tender in this point, for I know that not only good manners, 
but virtue is concerned in the violation of that respect, which, I 
know, is your Grace's due, and especially from myself. But I 
think I shall not fly to your mercy, as an asylum from your 
justice ; your justice seasoned with a little spice of good nature 
shall acquit me. I would not. Madam, persist in my vindication, 
was it not to rescue your Grace from a mistake, for a mistake in 
your Grace is such a novelty that for ought I know, it might 
fright you into a fine lady, and give your Grace an absolute 
palpitation. As for myself, I can easily own a fault when I 
really commit it, as a bankrupt is not very tender of owning a 
debt. Especially to your Grace I should freely make confession, 
for — I know not how it comes to pass — I find I could prefer a 
pardon from your Grace before an acknowledgment from 


E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1741, December 22. Wellwyn. — "As I write this to your 
Grace on horseback, you will forgive the many allusions you meet 
with to that animal. The first I shall saddle is Mrs. Pendarves. 
I look on her understanding to be very surefooted, and perfectly 
acquainted with the road ; and though her understanding could 
show a good sheer pair of heels, and distance most companies it 
comes into, yet is it wisely content not to rob others of their 
good humour by seeing themselves undone ; thinking it enough 
that it is in power to give them the spleen whenever she thinks 
fit. As for Miss Kobinson, her understanding is of the best 
blood, and can carry any plate she thinks good to put in 
for, but it is sometimes rather pleased to prance than 
run, which has this advantage in it, that it is done with 
more grace, and less pains, and yet carries in it a demon- 
stration at the same time, that she can leave us whenever 
she will. As for Mrs. I)e\Y^, my horse says he has no more 
similes, unless she will permit me to say, that perfect com- 
plaisance seems to be the spur of her conversation, and discretion 
to hold the rein. As for your Grace, your understanding has 
been in the manage ; Art and Nature can't adjust their rights 
about it ; each swears in its turn, that she is your greatest bene- 
factor, and not being able to agree, they split the difference ; 
Nature takes all that is most amiable in your conversation, and 
Art all that is most prudent, yet even this does not end the dis- 
pute, for they are forced to call for grains and scruples to 
determine which has the largest share. 

" Thus, ladies, have I saluted you all round ; and I am now for 
binding you up in one nosegay altogether. Thus incorporated, 
pray, ladies, what are you ? are you the Graces or the Muses ? 
You are too many for the first, and too few for the last, and yet 
there is a vast deal of both those sisterhoods in you. I will 
therefore fairly tell your Grace what I apprehend to be [the] 
case. Considering what a world we live in, and that wit and 
beauty run both pretty low, those two societies could no longer 
separately subsist, and that they might not both make an 
absolute break of it, one somewhat like your Grace, and wiser 
than the rest, proposed a coalition, and deputed you four ladies 
as a little committee to mankind, to show that they still subsist, 
and to do them credit with the world. But whether this be quite, 
honest in those jades called goddesses, I leave to my Lord Duke 
and Mr. Achard to determine, to whom I beg duty, respect and 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1742, January 12. — " Your Grace's friend has lately called on 
me twice ; he passes to and fro like an inhabitant of another 
world, and tells us the deceased, the buried in the country, 
what is doing upon earth. I sent my compliments to your Grace 
by him, which I was half unwilling to do, for though we of these 
lower regions bear a good regard to virtue, yet, since we are quite 


incapable of doing any real service, we are sparing of verbal 
civilities, lest it should look like compliment and nothing 
else. If Miss Dashwood is the creature you represent, I 
give your Grace joy of her, but I more congratulate her- 
self ; all gain by good qualities, but the possessor most ; but 
be pleased, Madam, to observe that this possessor should 
be possessed. Fine women unmarried are like fine diamonds 
in the jeweller's shop, gazed at by multitudes, but enjoyed 
by none, and if they stay there too long, they are cheapened 
down below their real value. The lady and the ring should 
be both worn ; the ring, when on the finger, is in its proper 
situation, and answering the end for which it was made. Now I 
talk of marriage, I will tell your Grace a piece of news; Sir 
Thomas Hanmer was married last Thursday to Mrs. Pendarves. 
This I heard in this country but yesterday ; I wish it be true, for 
I know they would both be happier in that state than singly 
they can possibly be. There is but one objection against 
marriage, and that is one which the wise world amongst its ten 
thousand objections never makes ; I mean that the husband and 
wife seldom die in one day, and then the survivor must be 
necessarily miserable. 

" But to return to your delightful Miss Dashwood, your Grace 
says she is extremely modest ; I will let your Grace into a secret, 
for I know Miss Dashwood well ; I knew her mother before her, 
and I knew her daughter though yet unborn. This modesty is a 
lowly and successful cheat ; it seems to decline that which it most 
desires; it proceeds from a love of esteem, joined to a diffidence 
of our taking the most proper methods to gain it. This diffidence 
creates that inward uneasy emotion which discovers itself in 
the cheeks ; a blushing cheek who would not kiss ? but why ? 
because our own pride tells us it carries some deference in it to 
our judgment, and a desire of our good opinion ; so that the 
praise we bestow on this virtue proceeds in some measure from 
our own vice. Thus you see. Madam, that I take the liberty 
of calling your Grace proud ; but. Madam, take not offence 
at it, for if love of esteem is a vice — which is all that I 
lay to your or Miss Dashwood's charge — it is a vice that is to be 
found in other angels, in those above : love of esteem is planted 
in all created rational beings for excellent purposes, and it can 
never do harm but when it is conducted or directed amiss. Let 
none then be so proud, and so foolish too at the same time, as to 
say they have no pride in them. I honour Miss Dashwood's modest 
pride ; it is the only pride that carries its point ; confident pride 
defeats itself, and loses our esteem by being too sure of carrying 
it. I dwell on this, because, about ten years ago, it was quite a 
fashion with young ladies to pretend to more impudence than 
they had, and nothing could put them so much out of counte- 
nance as to have it suspected that they [were] capable of blushing 
at anything. If your Grace knows any such, please to tell them 
from me that they extremely mistake their own interest, if their 
designs are on mankind ; men are such impudent rascals, but to 
their honour be it spoken, so conscious of that their grand defect, 


that they dote on modesty wherever they find [it], though it 
should happen to be in coaldust and tatters. What pretty 
company have I brought your Grace into ! " 

E. Young to the Duchess of Poktland, 

1742, January 13. Wellwyn. — "What your Grace says of , 
my Lady Oxford grieves me, very sincerely I speak it, for I honour ' 
and love, and ever shall, the virtues of that lady. Your Grace 
was so good in your last letter as to pass a very handsome com- 
pliment; had it been more, I should have had the honour of f 
waiting on you here, which I humbly hoped for a week together, 
and put my house in order. Caroline, whom your Grace is so 
good as to remember, will soon be In town, and humbly begs 
she may be permitted the honour and pleasure of waiting on you. 
My Lady Cathcart, our neighbour, who has a house in Westmin- | / 
ster is so good to take her to town for some time, that the child I 
may be cured of starting at a human face. 

" I share your concern. Madam, for her Grace of Kent; I have 
as well great obligations to her, as a high opinion of her. 

"Some, Madam, are apt to think that God Almighty's 
providence is indeed very particular and notorious, as to 
kingdoms and nations ; but as to persons they imagine it is 
somewhat more distant or remiss. The truth, I conceive, is, 
that the Almighty's providence and inspection is equal as to 
both ; all methods are taken with us, that can be taken with free 
agents, in order to our amendment, and though almost every thing 
is an instrument in the hand of Providence to this end ; yet what 
seems to me to be peculiarly, and in the most eminent, and 
evident degree such, is, our friends. With these Heaven can most 
encourage, and most chastise us ; these can give us the 
greatest pleasure, and these the greatest pain. I would by 
no means damp that blessed and reasonable satisfaction which 
arises from them in our days of joy ; far from it. It is not only 
our prudence, but our duty, to enjoy them, but then we should 
sometimes consider, amid those most endearing and amiable 
enjoyments, that perhaps we are that moment whetting the - 
arrow that shall wound us ; for most sure it is the more we ; ^ 
enjoy, the more we may suffer from them ; the more severely \ y 
we shall feel their folly, their misfortune, or their loss. 

" Your Grace says you have a disposition little able to support 
the loss or misfortune of your friends. Madam, I never heard 
you commend yourself before. The highest character that can 
be given of a human creature is — 'A being with a feeling heart.' 
Such a heart, I confess, runs great risk in the present scene ; and 
yet human prudence and Divine Providence together form an 
ampler shield for our defence than is generally imagined. And 
when arrows of pain strike through it, such a feeling heart has 
this to say to itself, * That those very pains well borne will entitle 
it to a scene, where there is nothing but pleasure to be felt ; and 
where an unfeeling heart shall never enter.' " 


E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 
[1742, February?] Wellwyn. — " As I design myself the honour 
I of waiting on your Grace very soon, I shall not by letter fore- 
^ stall what I have to say as to theauthors you mention. Fiction 
may have a good tendency, and history may have a bad one, 
which I believe to be the case with' regard to these two writers, 
of whom I shall say no more at present. I am much obliged to 
the two ladies for the thousand fine things they did not say of 
me, but I take it a little ill they did not make it ten thousand, 
since it would have cost them no more. Madam, I beg my 
love and envy to the little ones, my real duty to my Lord 
Duke, and my humble service to Mr. Achard. The 
bear your Grace mentioned in your last has stretched out 
his great paw, and drags me to town, through bad weather i ^) 
and gangs of robbers, which infest Enfield Chase; but what can ' 
the fools expect from a man at law ? I hope they will not beat 
me for my poverty, for I can honestly assure them, that I have 
parted with my money to gentlemen who deserve hanging full as 
well as themselves, which they cannot take ill of me, at least, 
not so ill as if I had fooled it away in paying my debts, or 
squandered it in charity. I am, Madam, heartily glad to hear 
that Mrs. Elstob is restored to her health,- and pleasing province 
of sowing the seeds of virtue, and accomplishment in so happy a 
soil. God preserve, and increase your Grace's peculiar blessings, 
you know how to make a right use of them, nor need I say to 
your Grace, what I might very properly to many : — ' Happy are 
they who are not hurt by good things, happy are they who have 
nothing on earth which they hold dearer than their Maker.' " 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

[1742.] — "I humbly thank your Grace for your kind letter, but 
there are two many melancholy articles in it to give all the satis- 
faction I could wish. I hope my Lord Duke is perfectly 
recovered of the gout, and that Lady Fanny has likewise set 
your Grace's heart at ease as to her disorder. But poor Dr. 
Clarke — but why do I call him poor? I know no one whose death- 
bed I should envy more ; he's a very exemplary man, I love his 
person, and I reverence his character ; I would write to him, but 
that I fear might some way or other prove troublesome, yet I long 
to know how he does, and to hear better news of him, than your 
Grace sent me. If, therefore, you should do me the honour 
of writing, I beg. Madam, a line or two concerning him. I pro- 
posed much satisfaction in his acquaintance. 

" It gives me great pleasure that Lord Quarendon has your 
Grace's vote ; he certainly deserves it, and he has as certainly in 
it a proper reward of great desert. Lord Cornbury I have not .'*^ M^^ 
the honour of knowing, but hope your Grace will introduce me 
to his acquaintance; I know his Lordship's character, or I should 
not desire this favour. When persons of quality have equal 
merit with the most deserving of those below them, they have 
really greater. The diamond is better set, and throws a 
brighter lustre ; I do not mean from their fortune only, but from 


their manner, which has often a grace and dignity in it incom- 
municable to those 6i inferior rank. Since your Grace by your 

own authority has been pleased to divorce Mrs. P and 

Sir T H , they need not have the trouble of 

going Doctors' Commons. I propose, Madam, the honour of 
waiting on your Grace in town about the 18th of next month, 
but if possible, and no great trouble to you, I should be truly 
much obliged if your Grace would let me hear of Dr. Clarke long 
before. The herse of Mr. Hale, my neighbour, friend, and a 
most eminently worthy young gentleman, passed by my door 
for his own seat, this very moment ; he went to town to provide 
for his marriage with one Miss Gilbert (whom I know well and 
admire) and died with her wedding ring on his finger. These, 
things strike us, but most people are struck so often by them, 
that at last they seem to lose their feeling. When these things 
cease to pain us. Heaven gives us up; It leaves us entirely to the 
world to make the most of it ; the next step is, that the world, 
having us entirely its own, begins to domineer, and denies us our 
usual share of pleasure, — which is the necessary case of the 
abandoned —and then we are finely bit." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 
1742, May 3. [Wellwyn.] — "Such is my opinion of your 
Grace's goodness, that I can choose no subject more agreeable to 
you than to speak of your friends. Last week a neighbour of 
poor Dr. Clarke's'"'* now in Huntingdonshire called on me; he told 
me our friend was still living, and that his physician said he 
might possibly live four or five years longer. That is in the ever 
blessed will of God. After this melancholy account, I will give 
your Grace something more comfortable. The doctor retains his 
spirits, and is cheerful under circumstances that fright the 
bystander. Now this would be impossible, was there not an 
Indulgent Being who frights us with the appearance of remote 
evils, in order to give entrance to His fear into our hearts, and 
when those evils come supports us under them beyond our expec- 
tation, and more still beyond our deserts. Dr. Clarke's behaviour 
brings to my memory some lines which I have formerly read, 
whether it be in Fletcher perhaps your Grace can tell. After the 
author has represented a good man, whose name is Philander, on 
his deathbed behaving to the surprise of all about him, he adds : — 
' As some tall tower, or lofty mountain's brow^ 
Detains the sun, illustrious from its height. 
When rising vapours, and descending shades, 
In damps and darkness drown the spacious vale, 
Philander thus augustly reared his head 
Undamped by doubt, undarkened by despair ; 
At that black hour, which general horror sheds 
On the low level of inglorious minds. 
Sweet j^eace, and heavenly Jiope, and humble joy, 
Divinely beamed on his exalted soul. 
With incommunicable lustre bright.' 

* i.e., Alured Clarke, dean of Exeter, d. 31 May, 1742. 



** I hope in God, Madam, we may see our Philander again, 

before these verses are applicable to him in their full extent. 

Heaven is pleased to permit our friends to be so very dear to us, 

■ that our parting with them— which must necessarily be some- 

j times the case — might in some degree lessen that strong hold, 

1 which the world is apt to take on our hearts : the most deplor- 

J able case of all is, when the world so entirely fills our hearts, as 

not to leave room even for our friends. If such there are. 

Heaven keep your Grace as distant from them, as your disposition 

is from theirs." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1742, August 1. Tunbridge [Wells]. — "As this is a place 
\ where books are denied us, as unwholesome, we must either read 
i human nature, in that pretty edition the good company gives us 
of it, or read nothing at all. I have read the company over and 
over, some pages of which were very fair, and delightful, others 
were sullied, and dogs-eared with the cares and troubles of human 
life, and contributed more to the prevalence of the spleen, than 
the waters to the cure of it. 

'' Your Grace, I know, is curious to know the general contents 
of this human folio I have been reading, or what real knowledge 
I have gathered from my perusal of it. 

*' Madam, I fancy you have read it so often, and so well under- 
stand it yourself, that all I can extract from it will be nothing 
but a bad copy of your Graces's own thoughts. However if your 
Grace has a mind to contemplate the difference between a Z inks'-"' 
and a signpost, I will send you my portrait of human nature, 
but I must beg leave to defer exposing myself till my next. 

" For really. Madam, though there is no one on earth could 
sooner persuade me out of my senses than your Grace, yet I dare 
positively affirm that my head is giddy, but whether I stand on 
my head or my heels I will not presume to be quite so positive. 

" But, Madam, I hoj)e I shall never be so much indisposed as to 
forget the great obligations I lie under to your Grace and my 
Lord Duke, who has, I plainly find, made so serious a point of 
promoting my interest with their two Graces of Newcastle and 
Canterbury, that I am scarce more obliged by his favour, than 
astonished at his singularity." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1742, August 21. Tunbridge [Wells]. — "Your Grace is pleased 
to write to me in so obliging and in so sensibly affectionate a 
manner, that it, as it were, chastises, while it confers the 
greatest obligation, and gives me some pain to consider how little 
I deserve it at your hands. .Your Grace is pleased to ask pardon 
for giving me most kind and prudent advice ; Madam, rather ask 
pardon, for pardon asked, for that seems to imply a mean 

opinion of my gratitude or understanding. As to my Lord 


* i.e., an enamel by Zincke, then much in vogue. 

r . 273 

Egmont, whose character I honour, I thought I put myself in [ 
his way. It was not for me by making the first advance to take | 
his lordship into my patronage ; but perhaps I was too shy ; I 
assure your Grace I'll endeavour to mend for the future. 

"I hope in God, Madam, your Grace's spirits are raised by my 
Lady Oxford's perfect recovery : the loss of a friend is certainly 
the severest stroke under heaven. My Lady Bateman was here \ 
at that time : she had appointed me to drink tea with her that ■ 
afternoon, and when I came to the door I met the sad news, 
which denied me that favour. I remember the time when I have ' 
trembled at the sound of a post-horn, and was as much startled 
at the sight of a letter, as I should have been at a warrant to 
seize my person and vast estate. 

" I congratulate your Grace on Miss Robinson's marriage, but I 
will not congratulate her spouse till I know he deserves her. 
But your Grace knows my opinion of her already ; she is a 
surprising young being, by which I would mean, something 
of a middle nature between angel and woman. Your Grace 
will naturally understand this better than another. 

" But you, it seems. Madam, are humbly content with desiring \ 
a portrait of mere human nature ; this, Madam, I promised, and i 
this — God willing — I will perform. But not now, I do not 
design to trifle, but to be quite serious in it, not for your Grace's 
information, but to rescue you from your aversion, news, and 
chitchat, which have by the cruel courtesy of England taken 
possession of the epistolary pen. But at present my thought is / 
accidentally so much engaged on something else, that I care not 
to enter on that subject till I am more at leisure. 

" I beg. Madam, my humble duty to my Lord Duke, and please 
to let his Grace know, that on the receipt of his last kind letter 
I immediately writ to the Archbishop, as he advised. It was 
such a letter, as neither has received, nor expected an answer. 
I hope your Grace's olive branches flourish, and since the spirit 
of prophecy is on me, I will foretell a miracle ; they shall one day 
be turned into laurels and myrtles. Prophecies, your Grace 
knows, are always somewhat obscure, but if you consult Whiston, 
or, perhaps, Mr. Ashard — to whom my humble service — he'll 
probably let you into my meaning." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1742, October 1. Wellwyn. — " Yesterday a gentleman spent 
his day with me here, and he made the day to me most agreeable, 
by an entertainment I did not expect from him. How he came 
by his intimacy with my Lady Oxford's character I cannot tell ; 
but he told me many particular facts, most commendable in it, 
of which I knew nothing before. I envy her Ladyship the satis- 
faction she must receive from them. Wealth and rank, which 
shine so bright, have two rivals that outshine them, I mean 
wisdom and virtue. Not to cant, but to speak soberly what I 
know to be true ; these two rivals give the only real superiority 
to any person upon earth. Wealth and rank will ever indeed 

680'^ H 


gain followers, and those the most complaisant. But bows and 
smiles can subsist without love or esteem, and the great person 
that accepts them with joy would often reject them with disdain, 
if he saw the heart of his admirer. But, Madam, with wisdom 
and virtue, it is quite otherwise. These compel our esteem and 
love ; we can't withhold them if we would, and it is certain, many 
would withhold them if they could ; for all destitute of those 
qualities cannot but envy that real and absolute superiority 
they give others over them, and envy hates as much as ever she 
can ; but in this case Nature is against her hatred, and love and 
esteem will necessarily mix with it. 

" Thus, Madam, I have given your Grace a key, by which you 
may infallibly understand the secret cause of any disrespect I 
may possibly show, or any injury I may possibly do, you, or 
yours, hereafter. You offer violence, you compel, you extort, 
w^hat few are willing to part with, admiration and esteem, and I 
hate a tyrant, and you, I know, hate flattery ; and therefore I 
have taken care to abuse your Grace as much as was in my 
power, and so much was in my power as would have killed half 
the duchesses in this kingdom ; for I have fairly thrown your 
coronet on the ground, and bid your wisdom and virtue tread it 
under their feet." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1742, December 12. Wellwyn. — "I bless God my danger is 
over, but my recovery is slow. The good news your Grace sends 
of my Lord Duke and my Lady Oxford w^ill promote it ; I never 
saw anything in Mr. Hay, but what was a symptom of sound 
sense ; I am not therefore so much surprised, as pleased, at the 
account you give of his sermon. If your Grace sees him, I beg 
my humble service and thanks for his late favour to me at 
Kensington. A good sermon is a most rational and high 
entertainment to those that are so happy as to have a relish 
for it, which, I am persuaded, is your Grace's case. To keep 
preaching a little in countenance with those that have no very 
favourable opinion of it, give me leave. Madam, to observe 
that the whole creation preaches ; I mean, that we can 
make no just observation on any of the appearances 
in the material world, but what will naturally have a moral good 
effect on us. The Sacred Scriptures therefore are very justly 
considered as God Almighty's second volume, and creation as 
His first ; which speaks to the same purpose, and if attended to, 
is ever bettering the human heart. How happy then, and wise 
is your Grace, who are fond of both these books ! Mr. Hay, 
and others, of eminent talents for the pulpit, are only commen- 
tors on them, or panegyrists in their praise. Your Grace by 
this time sees, there is something sacred, as well as entertaining, 
in your drawers of shells, &c. ; they may be considered as so 
many little pages of that immense volume, which God Almighty 
has published in a most pompous edition to induce His rational 
creatures to a ready and constant perusal of it. Proceed, Madam, 


by your exemplary life and behaviour, nay, even by your amuse- 
ments, to preach to the preachers, and among others, to the 
most attentive of your congregation, your Grace's much obliged, 
and most obedient, humble servant." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1743, June 2. Wellwyn. — "After so long silence your Grace's 
letter gave me the greatest pleasure. Had I known or guessed ■ 
the melancholy reason you assign for not writing, I should not j 
have denied myself the honour of writing to you ; but 1 was 
really afraid your Grace had taken something ill. 

"You are pleased. Madam, to begin your letter with a reflection 
both on my understanding and gratitude. I do assure your Grace i 
that I do, and ever shall look on your correspondence — as I ■ 
ought — not only as a great honour, but real entertainment too. 
What you are pleased to say about Miss Lee is extremely kind, 
and if I wish her well, I must obey your Grace's commands in it. 

" As I take it. Madam, I am directly in your way to Nottingham- ,,, 
shire ; and why should you put yourselves to an inconveniency 
to avoid me ? I do assure you, I will neither hurt you, nor 
myself; I will receive you, as I ought to entertain, not as your 
Grace ought to be entertained. I heartily rejoice with 
Mrs. Montague, whose truly polite merits I know and admire ; 
and whose virtues, with the world for my rival, I shall ever 

" As for the advice your Grace gives me about preferment, I take j / 
it with all my heart. What God Almighty is pleased to give I | 
shall receive with the greatest gratitude, nor shall I repine at ' 
what He is pleased to deny, if His mercy is pleased to continue 
to me His grace, and my understanding. 

"Your Grace pays me a high compliment in desiring a long 
letter ; nothing but good sense can make such a one agreeable to 
your Grace, and to say the truth, at present I have no sense to 
spare. Madam, I have been confined to my bed for five weeks 
with the most acute distemper, and all the severities those 
butchers, surgeons, are able to inflict. I have gone through 
twenty nights, and had not twenty hours' sleep, nor am I yet at 
all come to my rest, or strength, though — I bless Almighty God 
— they tell me I'm past all danger. 

" This discipline has so beaten down my spirits and understand- 
ing, that, had I not a strong inclination to write to your Grace — 
after so long a time — I should not have been able to do it. 
Pardon, therefore, Madam, the nothingness of what I write ; please 
to accept my duty and goodwill now, and please to give me credit 
a little longer for my long arrear of common understanding." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1743, August 25. Wellwyn. — " I beg my humble duty to my 
Lord Duke, and a thousand thanks for all his favours, par- 
ticularly for his last. How much am I obliged to you both ! I 

y^<l*. --JSvvC 



hope, Madam, the cause of those low spirits your Grace com- 
plained of when I had the honour of your last letter no longer 
suhsists. Your Grace is so kind as to invite me to Bullstrode ; if 
any friend of mine, and of my standing, should acquaint me 
that he was going to make one in such a gay assembly, I should 
smile at him, in my sleeve, for a fool, who knew not his time of 
day, and forgot that his holidays were over. But your Grace's 
desires are commands, and your commands are sacred. I 
propose to myself the honour of waiting on your Grace the latter 
end of next month, if that is agreeable to you. 

"I have made a short excursion, or I should sooner have 
acknowledged those favours which lay me under so great an 
obligation; but I met with no such pleasing and surprising 
pictures of Art and Nature as your Grace sets Ijefore me in your 
two last letters; one would wonder how barren rock should 
furnish nutriment to support those large flourishing trees of 
which your Grace takes notice. These are strange sights, but 
not so strange as to see a rich overgrown miser, who could pur- 
-chase half a country, where Nature shows us these rarities — it 
is not, I say, Madam, so strange to see groves feeding on rocks, 
as to see that miser dining on a flintstone, which is a sight I have 
been lately honoured with in my travels ; and the worst part of 
the story is, I was obliged to dine with him, or to starve. 
Perhaps your Grace may desire to know the difference 
between these two : as the question is difficult, I must defer the 
resolution of it till I have the honour of seeing you. All the 
news 1 can tell your Grace is, that I've lately conversed with a 
most extraordinary person, Dr.;/raylor, the famous oculist. He 
is member of every university' in Europe but his own; he talks 
all languages but his own, and has an extreme volubility of 
tongue ; but it is like the volubility of the machine with which 
they winnow corn — I have forgot its name^and is excellent at 
throwing dust in our eyes. In a word his tongue is as well 
qualified to blind understandings, as his hand is to put out our 
sight. My near neighbour, and valuable friend. Sir Jeremy 
Sambroke, who has been blind twenty years, is now under his 
operations, but with such ill success that we are willing to 
compound for his life, which was once thought in danger. 
Madam, may the gracious wing of Providence be ever stretched 
out over Bullstrode, and may I find all as safe when I have the 
honour of waiting on you, as I now wish you, or, which is the 
same thing, as I wish myself." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

[1743, September?] Gubbins, Herts. — "I think it my duty to 
ask your Grace pardon for not waiting on you as I promised. 
Madam, I received a visit that prevented it, I mean the visit of a 
violent cold, which stays with me longer than 'tis welcome. I 
was forced by it to leave the town for clearer air ; I thank God, 
I am better since I came to this place, but not well. 


'' The day after I saw your Grace I waited on the Archbishop, 
who told me that my Lord Duke of Portland was very much my 
friend, but that nothing was to be done without the Duke of 
Newcastle or Lord Carteret, and presented me with his own good 
wishes in the handsomest manner ; for which I humbly thank 
my Lord Duke and your Grace. I really believe the Archbishop - 
is my friend, but your Grace knows 'tis dangerous trusting the / 

" If, Madam, I have the honour of hearing from you at this i 
place — where I design continuing some time with my friend Sir j/ 
Jeremy Sambrooke — I desire to know how my Lord Titchfield 
does, who was ill when I saw your Grace. Perhaps you expect ' 
some entertainment, but, Madam, I am neither in a merry, nor in 
a philosophical mood. Water gruel spoils my mirth, and an 
eternal cough interrupts my philosophy. 

" This minute I have the comfort of hearing that .preferment is | 
come very near me, that is. Madam, that my next neighbour, the j 
minister of Hatfield, is made Canon of Windsor. I left. Madam, j 
Miss Lee in town, but I do not design her the honour of waiting v 
on your Grace till I return to introduce her. I beg my humble 
duty to my Lord Duke, and hope your Grace will pardon this 
nothing from an invalid. I was blooded this day, and to-morrow 
begin running the gauntlet through all the rods of an 
apothecary's shop. You see. Madam, how dear we pay for life ; 
one would think there was something very valuable in it, yet 
ninety-nine in a hundred find it otherwise, nor can it be truly 
valuable to any but those who have something still more valuable 
as their principal point of view. You will pardon this if you | /^ 
consider that I write on a Sunday." i 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

[1743, September. Wellwyn.]— ^\ ....... " But I think 

myself entitled to ask it of your Grace, since you condescend in 
your last letter to ask me for a translation. Pray, Madam, to 
what bishopric ? I do not hear that his Grace of Canterbury is 

" Madam, I should have had the honour of waiting [on] you 
before now, had not a very melancholy accident happened to 
prevent me. The plague rages in foreign nations, and there the 
sword is drawn, while we sit smiling under our vines and fig- 
trees. Yet some calamities come on board our little island. 
There is a young man to whom I wish extremely well, nor is he 
altogether undeserving in himself, nor, I think, quite a stranger 
to your Grace ; he is going to be married, and my hands are 
chosen to be embrued in the blood of his precious peace. The 
nuptials are to be the latter end of this week at Putney. As 
soon as they are over, and I recovered from the formidable duty, 
I propose setting out for Bullstrode, so famous for nightingales. 

The first f ow lines of this letter haye been designedly blotted. 



" On reviewing your Grace's letter, I find you mean a translation 
from Eome to Britain. Madam, was I not fully satisfied that 
the former is by far the better see of the two, and that your 
Grace is absolute mistress of it, T should comply with your 
request. There dwells infallibility; how then can your Grace be 
deceived? I dare say, if Lucifer himself was to write in darkest 
characters to any Protestant king in Christendom, the Koman 
Chair would undertake to decipher it. 

"However, if your Grace only means to enquire whether I 
understand Seneca as well as yourself, I will venture to expose 
myself to you, by letting you know that I take his meaning to 
be, that he is a fool that is seeking preferment at my time of 
day, and that success — should I have it — would only convince me 
that it deserved not so much trouble in the pursuit." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1743, October 29. Temple Bar.—" This day by your friend 
Mr. Murray's assistance I carried just one half of my point, the 
other is referred to Prince Posterity. Mr. Murray has certainly 
learnt your Grace's art, for he helped me to the wing wdthout 
cutting off the leg. For the matter stood tliiis : I had two 
annuities of different dates, that of the second date he sliced off 
; for me with infinite address and dexterity, and left that of the 
. / ' first date still sticking to the Duke's estate. Though I must do 
him this justice, that if any man alive could have cut oft' the leg 
too, he had certainly done it ; for there is no tongue carries a 
better edge. 

"Your Grace's always shines, and I suppose can cut upon an 
occasion, but it is something reserved ; and as your Grace was 
pleased to sheath it in silence as to one particular of which I 
was in hope to hear you speak, I think it my duty to be silent 
too on that matter. 

" On Tuesday, Madam, I go to Wellwyn for some writings 
I necessary to the final conclusion of this matter, for the Chan- 
i cellor's decree is not yet more than minuted, and some trouble is 
\ to follow its being perfected, before a poor creature embarked in 
law for twenty-four years can come safe to land. 

" If affairs permit me the honour of seeing Bullstrode again this 
season, I will bring with me Mrs. Donellan's packet, as a charm 
against any misadventures in my journey. I will not say, as the 
religious carry relics, for that is making a saint of her, whereas 
I really think her only the very best of sinners. If she is not 
content with that character, I am sorry for it, for it is the tiptop 
of what our church admits. 

" This afternoon I waited on Mr. Virtue ; he showed me a 
thousand things that pleased me much ; but nothing half so 
pleasing as the simplicity of his own manners, and the integrity 
of his heart; he has engraved himself in my memory and 
esteem for ever. 

" Captain Cole was with him yesterday, but he was not very 
well. Miss Cole is in my head ; perhaps, when I see her, she may 



change her apartment. I have not yet embraced my friend at 
your Grace's gate, but I sent him an apology, and he says that 
for the sake of the blessed family he will forgive me. If your 
Grace would knit the friendship stronger between me and 
Josiah — that I think is his name — I humbly beg you to send to 
him Bishop Gastr ell's work'-*' I borrowed, for I cannot get it in 
town, and I much want to consult it once more on a particular 
exigence. I will call on Josiah for it ; and consult him about the 
immortality of the soul, and I will return the book safe and 
sound with his comment when I have the honour to see your 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1748, November 20. — " Such and so frequent are the calamities 
of human life, that, be our conduct never so correct, our station 
never so high, they one day or another will infallibly hook us 
in. Oh Madam ! The hook ! The hook ! Why was it not adver- 
tised ? Why not a reward proposed ? Why not the Germanic 
Empire that reward ? But alas ! in its present situation it would 
never have brought it, unless the finder had been as honest as 
the lady in the C 1 Street. 

''Madam, I have diligently sought it high and low, but in vain. 
I looked for it in the presents of inferiors ; in the Nolo episcopari 
of Bishops ; in speeches from the throne ; in the self-condem- 
nations of fine ladies ; but in vain. I found in all of them a 
hook ; but a hook that was by no means a mystery. 

" Your Grace's hook is all-mysterious. I therefore diligently 
sought it in every page of the Kevelations, but not one page 
could tell any tale or tidings of it. 

" Yet, Madam, do not despair. I hear the daemon of Bullstrode 
gallery, that old friend of mine, whisper in my ear — ' It shall be 
found.' — And lo ! here it is. 

" I heartily congratulate your Grace on this most happy and 
surprising recovery of your dear hook, and beg my heartiest con- 
gratulations to the two ladies who doubtless have long wept the 
supposed loss. 

" I beseech your Grace to be more careful for the future, and not 
to throw the world into so terrible a panic any more." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1743, December 10. Wellwyn. — " Such is the dangerous 
excellency of your Grace's understanding, that a man proves 
himself quite a hero who dares to converse with you. What will 
become of my poor unarmed, naked simplicity in so unequal a 
combat? Why am I thrown in panics when there is no danger 
near me ? Why am I told of impending tempests ? Why am I 
told of ladies in disj^leasure, when I am satisfied their opinions 
are at peace with me ? 

* " Moral Proof of the Certainty of a Future State" (1725). 


''As for Mrs. Donellan, I am not only not afraid of her anger, 
but I am confident of her goodwill, for is it possible her discern- 
ment can stop short of the real meaning of my heart ? I there- 
fore defy your Grace's pair of bellows, they may puff the coal of 
enmity between us, till they burst. 'Tis all in vain. Mrs. 
Donellan always thinks justly ; and therefore I am safe. 

" As for Lady Peterborough I have a high sense of the favour of 
her good wishes. But how came I by them ? Her great goodness 
gave them to me purely as a human creature in distress, so that, 
though they did me a great honour, yet did they a much greater 
to herself. 

" As for Mrs. Delany, she is very kind in giving me a place in 
her remembrance, and please, Madam, to let her know — for she 
is a great stranger to the secret — let her know, therefore, that as 
long as the prime virtues, decencies, and elegancies, and arts of 
life preserve their due estimation in the world, by no one who 
ever had once the happiness of knowing her, will she ever be 

"As to the last part of your Grace's letter I perfectly understand 
it, and am extremely obliged by it ; but if your Grace defers till 
the great world is settled, I shall wear a mitre in the millennium. 
The Duke of Newcastle is our Pope. Ecclesiasticals are under his 
thumb, and he is as fixed as St. Paul's, by his own w^eight, in 
spite of all the revolutions of the little court buildings round 
about him." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Poktland. 

1744, January 17. Welhvyn. — " Your Grace is pleased to com- 
plain in your last that I call you an incendiary. I could prove 
you such in more senses than one, but you expect I should retract ; 
I will, and to make you full amends, please accept of the title of 
an extinguisher. What can quench honest ambition more, than 
robbing it of emulation, and hiding laudable example from its 
sight ? Has Dr. Delany been with your Grace a month, and does 
your Grace mention him, and mention him only ? Why did you 
mention him at all ? Had you not, you then might have robbed 
me, and I known nothing of the felony; but now I am robbed, 
and murdered my strong and just desire of receiving the 
character of so distinguished a person from so distinguished a 
pen. But your Grace can set this right in your next, and I 
humbly hope you will. 

"As for Mrs. Delany, I grieve for her indisposition : what pity 
'tis that one who can't but give pleasure, should ever suffer pain ! 
As for Lady Peterborough, I should endeavour to cultivate my 
better acquaintance with her, was I not apprehensive of too 
powerful a rival in the Pope ; and who would be a pretender in 
vain ? As for Mrs. Donellan, I suppose your Grace was afraid 
to commit the very bright things she was pleased to say to your 
own bright style, lest both together should set the paper on fire. 
Madam, I rejoice at heart for my Lord Duke's recovery; my hum- 
ble duty to him; Caroline gives her duty to your Grace. Next 


to his poor wife, she is the greatest sufferer, an only sister, and / ^-^ 
most beloved. Thus you see, Madam, though we begin gaily, we 
end otherwise. Death steals into the latter end of my letter, 
though he has hitherto spared the latter end of my life, nor can 
so bright an assembly of ladies, though they hate him, quite 
fright him away. Had their meanest admirers no other rival, 
they would certainly carry their point." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

[1744, February. Wellwyn.] — " I know what pain is, and am 
heartily sorry for poor Mr. Achard, and I wish I was more sorry 
still. We feel not enough for one another, considering who felt such 
extremities for us all. Afflictions, as your Grace most justly 
observes, have their use with regard to another scene; and give 
me leave to add, they have their excellent use with regard to this 
scene too ; they soften the heart, and make us' more humane, 
they humble the heart, and make us sensible of blessings in that 
situation which was insipid to us before. The bare cessation 
of pain, if acute, gives us a pleasure nothing else can give, and 
the bare remembrance of it is the best preservative against need- 
less disgusts, and the most effectual counsellor for prudent 
caution, through the remaining part of our lives. 

" Madam, I shall be proud of the honour of being introduced to 
my Lord Cornbury when I wait on your Grace in town. When that 
will be, I am yet uncertain. As for Lady Andover, she is a person 
every good man would, I think, be glad to be acquainted withal, 
if for nothing else, yet for this, that angels, those beings of a 
nature so remote from, and unlike his own, might give him 
hereafter the less surprise. This may look like a highflown 
compliment ; what I mean by it is a plain and serious truth ; there \ 
is — if I mistake not — a sort of unterrestrial softness, sweetness, 1 
elegance and ease in her composition ; painters, for their ' 
superior beings, would steal such a face, and philosophers, to 
form the juster notions of their excellence, would contemplate 
such a mind. 

' ' I humbly thank yout Grace for your kind and well-judged advice 
with regard to your excellent cousin. He is not the man I meant; 
a less exceptionable character is fitter for my purpose. Your 
Grace's time for speaking is mine ; I absolutely acquiesce in your 
goodness and judgment about it. But I should think that a 
promise is like money, it carries interest, and the sooner it is 
procured, the richer in hope we should be. 

" Madam, I have the honour to acquaint you ladies in town, that \ 
it is spring in the country ; that every day your rivals, the 
flowers, exceedingly increase, and threaten your empire ; but I 
believe their menaces are vain. Mankind, who take upon them 
to hold the balance of power between you, are too great profli- 
gates to let rural innocence prevail. They are not so much for 
fair maids in February, as fair maids round the year. So that I ! 
consider myself as an unrivalled Sultan, I am just now going to 
take a walk in my seraglio, and which will be the happy daisy ; 
X cannot yet tell." ' 


E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

[1744] , May 19. [Wellwyn.] — '' I rejoice that your Grace found 
Bullstrode so dehghtful, at the worst it is a beauty. To be 
pleased with one's own is the greatest wisdom of human hfe, and 
to have reason to be so is the greatest happiness of it. But to 
balance this pleasure, your Grace has lost your friend, to whom 
you give the epithet of amiable ; amiable is the softest word in 
our language, and therefore by far the most proper for Lady 

"Your Grace enquires with great goodness after my health; 
thanks to Mr. Achard — to whom my very humble service — I am 
well, blest with so much indisposition only, as is, I hope, 
sufficient to keep me out the danger of thinking myself immor- 
tal. What your Grace says of the battle carries in it so much 
humanity that it is quite worthy of a duchess ; or rather such 
sentiments make duchesses, without coronets, of every lady by 
whom they are entertained. 

" Another instance of your Grace's great goodness is thinking 
of poor Caroline ; I believe the thing is past retrieve ; by my 
direction she has written to Lord Lichfield to acquaint him with 
it. She has not yet received his lordship's answer ; when she 
does, your Grace shall know it. 

" Your Grace should not have been at the trouble of transcribing 
your letter to your cousin. Though seeing is believing, yet faith 
is believing too, but your Grace takes me for an infidel. I wish 
the M y did, and then I might have a better chance. 

" Your Grace's letter to the Duke lays me under the greatest 
obligations ; nothing can be kinder to me, or more to the purpose ; 
when your correspondent can write half so well, I will certainly 
have the honour of waiting on him. What a lucky thing it 
would [have] been, if I, like my Lord Edward, had been born a 
bishop ! Poor little soul ! I wish your Grace does not find it has 
an ill effect on his manners ; however, I am very glad to hear 
that he and his little lay-relations are all well, and I beg my 
humble duty to their most worthy, and — as yet — most happy 
father. But I beg your Grace, when you are next in the way of 
wives, that you would forbear looking toward the Bench, though 
his Grace of Canterbury is really a comely person ; for indeed, 
Madam, to have a second child marked with a mitre, might 
occasion suspicion, and cause mischief without the assistance of 
an lago to promote it. 

" Caroline gives her humble duty, and looks like a fool, as she 
ought to do. If she performs as well every part of her duty in a 
married state, she will make the best of what, I fear, is but a 
[bad] bargain." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1744, May 29. Wellwyn. — '* It is with great feeling of heart 

that I look back on my Lord Duke's, and your Grace's late 

uncommon goodness to me. On Saturday I waited on my Lady 

Oxford to thank her for bringing you into the world. I could not 


get out of town till Saturday evening. The town is a great net, 
where honest men are caught like flies, and know not how to 
disentangle their integrity ; and where knaves sit, like spiders, 
spending their vitals in spinning out snares of iniquity. These 
spiders are of various kinds. Some only poison the principles of 
those they catch; these spiders nest in the Grecian, and at White's. 
Others are sure to suck the blood of those they get into their 
clutches. One of the first sort I saw crawling on Mrs. Mon — gu's 
fair bosom. I would fain have brushed it off; but astonishing to 
say it ! I found she was fond of the monster, and it has worked its 
way quite into her breast, and is quite visible in that fair and 
sweet repository, like a spider enclosed in amber. But give me 
leave to say, that amber the most illustrious, so poisoned, will 
soon, with all the better part of the w^orld, quite lose its power of 

" As to the second sort of spiders, the bloodsuckers, they nest 
chiefly in the Inns of Court, and Westminster Hall ; two or three 
of these lately seized on me at once, and played their parts so 
well, that it is almost incredible to think how much I am reduced. 

" But it is some comfort to me to consider that your Grace may 
be a gainer by both these calamities. Your Grace has a collection 

of philosophical rarities; clap Mr. M into one corner of 

your cabinet, as a spider enclosed in amber ; and hang me up in 
some old clock-case, for a skeleton : then laugh at Sloane. 

*' And now. Madam, is it not a most melancholy consideration, 
that I must soon be re-entangled in this horrid cobweb of the 
town ? I will live there, like a tortoise, in a box ; but it shall be 
a box of Irish oak, that spiders may not come near me." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1744, July 23. Wellwyn. — "I am but just returned to this 
place from a long absence, or I should have had the honour of 
writing to your Grace sooner, to return the sincerest thanks for 
your and my Lord Duke's late great goodness to me. 

" But though. Madam, I have not written to your Grace, I have 
written for your Grace, and ordered a copy of it to your house in 
town a week ago. For if I have not written for your Grace, for 
whom have I written ? Not for ten more in the kingdom. At 
least not so many as there should be. I mean not. Madam, as to 
the composition, but as to the subject, which is the most delight- 
ful, or the most disagreeable in the world, and which of these it 
shall be, the conduct of the differently-disposed readers is to 

**Your Grace's turn I well know, and am sure of at least a can- 
did reader in you. If this world was eternal, and we were 
eternally to live in it, and that in perpetual youth, and with the 
conveniences, nay, the glories of life about us ; though this to 
most would seem at first view a desirable situation, yet I am 
persuaded that on further consideration we should alter our 
opinion. For as, now that we know we shall die, the terror of it 
flings all our attention on what is agreeable in this world, with 


which we are, therefore, most unwilling to part ; so, if we knew 
we were to live here for ever, then our attention — so perverse is 
man — would be busy to find out all that was disagreeable in it ; 
that would most engage his observation, and a mind, whose 
observation was so engaged, would be inclined to change this 
scene for another. 

*' For my own part, Madam, I have good reason to consider 
myself as on the verge of that other scene ; and it is a situation 
that is apt to give us serious thoughts, and the more serious any 
persons are, the more grateful must they necessarily be to those 
from [whom ] they have received incontestable proofs of good- 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1744, September 16. Wellwyn. — " I am very sorry for Lady 
Peterborough's indisposition ; which, by the way, puts me in 
mind of my own, which I had really forgot, but now I remember 
it, my head aches mightily, and from eating a load of unripe 
fruit I have been for a whole week in a good deal of pain. And 
now, having discharged my conscience by doing justice to myself, 
let me enter on a more generous province, and do justice to my 
cousin. I grant that my cousin, as your Grace rightly observes, 
is very fit to make a Prince of the Empire, nor would Dutchland 
have disowned him, had his fortune dropped him there. But is 
this any reason why your Grace should disaffect his conversation ? 
Wherein, thinks your Grace, lies the blessing of conversation ? 
Is it in giving us an opportunity of admiring the parts of 
others, or of displaying our own ? If the first Avas all it presented 
us with, I know thousands that would renounce conversation for 
ever. I know a young lady that would turn nun, though she 
hates the Pope, and I know a bishop that would turn hermit, 
though it forfeited all hopes of a translation. 

*' Eeconcile yourself. Madam, to the blessings that befall you, 
visit my dear cousin, and be happy, look on him and see what 
sort of a man it was that inspired a Homer, and a Virgil ; such 
were their heroes, and sach heroes made them wits ; and does 
your Grace prefer wits before that important being that can 
make them ? By this time, no doubt, your Grace is convinced of 
my cousin's merit, and your own mistake. 

"I beg. Madam, my humble duty to my Lord Duke, and best 
compliments to Mr. Hay. I am much obliged to Dr. Tillotson 
for his blessing ; but now I think of it, I can bless too, I blessed 
Mr. Stephen Duck yesterday with a third wife ; they were pleased 
to come to Wellwyn for that benediction. How long they may 
think fit to repute such is uncertain." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

[1744, December? Wellwyn.] — ''You took notice— I remember 
— that my servant looked like an ancient Briton; I then 
dissented, and am now come entirely into your Grace's opinion ; 


for if he had been a modern Briton, he could not possibly have 
led me such a dance, but must necessarily have known more of 
his native land. 

" In a word, I set out from Bullstrode about ten, rid four hours, 
and my man's horse stumbling at tico, Tom waked, and told me 
he fancied we had mistook the way, and seemed to take it ill of 
me that I had suffered him to be my master so long ; and told 
me, if I would readmit him into my service, he would act in that 
character the first man we met, and ask him where we were ; 
which he did accordingly, and received in answer, that we were 
as far from Eickmansworth, exactly, as we were from Gerrard's 
Cross. On this, as I designed to ride but gently, I desired him 
to go to sleep again, which he did accordingly, and after some 
very dirty dreams, that he could not possibly be mistaken a 
second time, I brought him safe into an Inn at Watford, about 

'' But I ask your Grace's pardon, and beg leave that I may now 
wait on you into better company. Believe, Madam, a clergj^man 
for once ; I do assure you nothing could give me greater pleasure 
than hearing of his Grace's amendment. As for the ladies, they, 
I suppose, give more pain than they feel, and therefore my con- 
cern naturally devolves on the gentlemen. As for the little ones, 
I left my good Lord Archbishop a little out of order ; I hope it is 
over, for though he probably neither knows, or designs it, I 
assure your Grace, the Archbishop gives me his blessing every 
time I see him smile. Caroline gives her humble duty to your 
Grace; I beg mine to my Lord Duke." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

[1745 ?] , January 1. Wellwyn. — " Our friends at Chelsea ! alas ! 
Madam, how many melancholy scenes are there in the world, 
when we meet them so often within the narrow circle of our 
familiar friends ! What a comfortable reflection is it to consider 
that there is a world where they that give us joy will be under 
no necessity of giving us sorrow too, which in our present scene 
is inevitable ! Mrs. Montague seems to be for picking a hole in 
my philosophical surtout ; I give her joy ; it shows her present 
situation stands in no need of philosophy ; when it does, she 
will speak with more reverence of that which will rock her 
pains into patience more effectually than a coach and six. When 
Wit laughs at Wisdom, ravens should pull out its eyes, and young 
eagles should eat them. The surest symptom of a sound under- 
standing is neither to fear nor value wit. Lady Wallingford — 
to whom I beg my best thanks and respects— surprises me with 
her goodness. The mode of the world is to be extremely civil, 
but safely too, to shine away in promises, provided they have 
evasions in their pocket ; but to remember those that forget 
themselves, and solicit for trouble, this is a character that 
would make saints in modern Eome, and would have made 
goddesses in that of old. I know but one lady on earth tha^ 


rivals her in this most amiable character, 1)ut Providence, which 
inspires such thoughts and considers the will as the deed, has 
saved Lady Wallingford any further trouble. 

"Mr.*** Leigh has relented, and my neighbour is returned to his 
own house in peace. I hope this discipline has had its proper 
effect, and given him a heart fit for his grey hairs. 

"Ecclesiasticus, with me a most favourite author, says : — 
Much experience is the crowii of old men, and the fear of the 
Lord is their glory. If Mrs. Leigh has given him this crown, and 
he will wear it, 'tis the most valuable present he ever received 
in his life, and I thank Mrs. Leigh, by Lady Wallingford, for giv- 
ing my friend a better ornament for his head than the most rosy 
beaver he can possibly put on." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1745, January 17. Wellwyn. — "I find by your Grace's letter 
that the country, and so sweet a country, as your Grace's is, is 
capable of having a rival, and that rival a perfect dowdy. I 
must needs own, that, if the country gives ladies the spleen, town 
is their proper remedy, that region of assafoetida. But your 
Grace will say it has its aromatics too ; it has, but some of them 
are rather too strong, and all of them are apt to affect the head 
to its disadvantage, and to lead weak ones by the nose. But to 
balance all this, and ten times as much more, your Grace says, 
it gives you the conversation of your friends ; if it does, I grant 
Elysium could not give you more. Your Grace mentions but two 
in your letter, and if a maxim I read in your Grace's book at 
Bullstrode be true, I am very near hating them both, for that 
says : — ' The more a man loves any of your sex, the nearer he is 
to hating them.' 

"As for what Mrs. Donellan says, there is so much gallantry in 
it, that in pure decency I must consider it as rank raillery ; but 
I do not like it the worse for that : to be rallied by a young lady 
at my time of day is a favour not to be despised. And as for 
Lady Andover, pray, Madam, my best respects, and tell her 
ladyship, that by the quotation your Grace takes from her letter, 
I think she resembles the very beautiful youth — mentioned, as I 
remember, by Herodotus — who, perceiving his person had kindled 
a passion in a person very unfit for thoughts of that nature, 
thought proper to disfigure himself, to prevent a consequence he 
so much disapproved. 

" And now, Madam, since we are at this play, pray, what is your 
Grace like? 'Tis very odd, yet it is very true, you are like — the 
destruction of Sodom ; you have brought an ancient gentleman 
and his two daughters together, made him drunk with vanity, 
and were not they better and he older than somebody else, how 
could your Grace's goodness be responsible for the consequence ? 
And now. Madam, what am I like ? Why I am like, — no I am 
not like, but actually am a fool, and if your Grace does not burn 
this letter, I will not, I cannot forgive you." 

* Sic : but the context seems rather to suggest Mrs, 


E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1745, February 2. Wellwyn. — " Your Grace's goodness outruns 
me in all my selfish designs, and while my dulness is preparing 
my petitions, shows me that my gratitude should be paying my 

thanks. I am as much surprised, as obliged, by Mr. kind 

zeal to serve one of whom he knows so little. It would appear 
quite unaccountable to me, did I not conclude from this instance, 
that your Grace is not only my friend, but my friend-maker ; had 
you found the philosopher's stone and could turn all to gold, it 
would not enable you to make so noble a present. At the name 
of the two ladies that your Grace mentions my mind is neces- 
sarily struck with those two brightest of ideas, that of beauty, 
and that of wit. Those two brightest shafts in the female quiver, 
how dangerous to our sex ! but still more dangerous to them- 
selves, unless Heaven confers the shield of discretion at the same 
time, as It has done, abundantly, in these instances ; otherwise 
I should have wanted courage to give them joy of either of those 
accomplishments, so courted, envied and admired, in the world. 

"I sincerely grieve at your Grace's article from our friends at 
Chelsea. Suffering merit is the most affecting object of considera- 
tion upon earth; if we are good, it threatens us ; if we are bad, 
it threatens us still more ; and our concern for others may then 
be supposed to be very real and sincere, when it is accompanied 
with an apprehension for ourselves. I beg my best wishes and 
and respects when your Grace sees them again, and please to let 
them know that I desire they would take care of their health, 
for they cannot suffer in it without putting others out of order. . 

" Caroline gives her humble duty to your Grace ; her lover is in I </ 
Stirling Castle, so that she has a chance of being a widow before 
she is a wife. 

"I shall religiously observe your Grace's injunction in your 
postscript, nor ever dedicate any thing to that gentleman, but 
my humble service and thanks when you see him next, and my 
gratitude for ever." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

[1745 ?] , August 21. Tunbridge Wells.— '' I had the honour but 
this very post, of two letters from your Grace, one of July 22nd, 
one of August 20th. As for the comedians your Grace met in 
Nottinghamshire I have no cause to envy you, for we have, at 
least as good a pack at this place. We have men of seventy that 
represent boys of eighteen, and boys of eighteen that represent 
changelings, and many of your own sex that represent witches 
in the morning, and angels in the afternoon, and women at 

" The subject of the book you mention can never be too often 
reviewed; tor faith like virtue, is never at a stand ; it is ever in 
advance, or decline, and in one view it is more material than our 
speculations on virtue, for it is the root of it ; and as for all my 
merelii moral friends, I shall be sure to tyust them, when I am 


sure it is not their own interest to cut my throat. I am truly 
much concerned for the bad news from Chelsea ; God Almighty 
alter things for the better. 

'' But now comes a severe calamity of another kind ; why did 
your Grace let me know you was at Wellwyn ? Indeed it grieves 
me, but I have ever been in the wrong box. As to poor Caroline, 
I fear the affair proceeds ; I made her write to my Lord 
Lichfield, and she received a letter from him that became the 
prudence of his character and the nearness of his relation, but 
I fear it had too little effect. All I can bring her to is that she 
will not marry him in his present circumstances, and in that I 
am persuaded I may rely on her. She is at Wellwyn. 
As for your Grace's enquiries about her I take it infinitely 
kind, for what but your own good heart could put them 
into your Grace's head? The Duke of N. received me 
with great complaisance, ministerially kind, took me by the 
thumb as cordially, as if he designed it should go for pay- 
ment in full. In a word. Madam, with great civility — for which 
I thank your Grace — he told me the King had made some promises, 
and that he — the Duke I mean — had his ow^n pre-engagements, 
but that he would certainly do what he could ; so that if nothing 
is done, he has kindly prepared me for it. 

"As for Mr. Roberts, he is here, he returns his humble respects 
for the honour your Grace does him in supposing him of conse- 
quence, and says that he heard Mr. Pelham say : — ' that besides my 
own good title, the Duchess of Portland was a "person^ and character^ 
tvliich it teas very proper for both him and his brother very much to 
regard.' And Mr. Roberts added from himself, that, if your 
Grace would be so kind as to persist in your kind pressing in my 
favour, it must necessarily succeed; that your Grace's kind 
importunity, would be the Duke's full excuse to competitors ; that 
application should be made, whatever fell, or was likely to fall ; 
that a deanery was as easy to be got as a prebend, as things 
stand ; that he would be sure to be my remembrancer with Mr. 

" The copy of your Grace's reply to the Duke, which you are so 
indulgent as to favour me withal, is such an instance of your 
Grace's indefatigable favour, that I know not what to say ; I have 
been so little used to such treatment, that I am at a loss how to 
behave under it. To return my humble thanks falls very short 
of my real meaning. 

"Lady Oxford did me great honour by having me in her 
remembrance. I saunter, like your Grace, from oak to oak, but 
I miss many oaks I was formerly acquainted with in this place. 
I enquired after them of the neighbours, who tell me they are 
gone to sea, but that meeting foul weather in their passage, they 
threw the balance of Europe overboard, which was picked up by 
a French man-of-war." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 
1745, September 17. Tunbridge Wells. — " I pretend not to 
instruct by my letters, but to obey, and to stand candidate for 


your good opinion, by showing my sentiments close with your 
own. As for poor Colly, his impudence diverts me, and his 
morals shall not hurt me, though, by the way, he is more fool 
than knave, and like other fools, is a wit. He has a little wit, a 
little humour, and a little knowledge, and will lose none on't. 

" Pray to how many better companions can your Grace help me, 
within the bills of mortality? It was prudery in Mrs. M. to 
tell tales, and 'tis your Grace's compliment to her prudery to 
take notice of it. I honour Mrs. M. for what is truly valuable in 
her, which is much ; yet have I writ a satire on her in my heart, 
but racks shall not extort it from me. Lady Murray I have long 
known something of, and love her, but your duchess deserves not 
so much of your esteem. I propose. Madam, staying here as 
long as the weather will permit, and then, after a few days spent 
in London, waiting on your Grace. Your kind concern for poor 
Caroline is an obligation to me, who am anxious for her welfare. 
I am heartily glad to hear so good news from Chelsea ; there 
seems to be much real worth in that family, and its scarcity 
should make it precious. Mrs. M's 'many people, and little 
company ' is prettily, and truly said ; but let her not complain, 
she shines the more, she has often held me by the ear till all 
about her were annihilated, and, in a numerous assembly, there 
was neither company nor person but herself. There have been 
two or three ladies more here whose sense is not amiss. Mr. 
Koberts, Madam, is gone. Your Grace will hear soon from Mrs. 
M. ; she is much better for the waters. I know more of her than 
ever I did before; she has an excellent and uncommon capacity, 
which ambition a little precipitates, and prejudice sometimes 
misleads, but time and experience may make her a finished 
character, for I think her heart is sound. As for your friend 
Mrs. K. I esteem her, as I do the Portias and Lucretias; her 
fame rolls down to me through days of old. You see. Madam, I 
lay myself entirely at your Grace's mercy. You may quite ruin 
me, if you please, with a lady, in 'whose opinion I have an 
ambition of standing fair." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

[1745, Wellwyn.] — " The melancholy cast of your Grace's letter 
inclines me to observe that the world is our school ; much 
discipline and few play days belongs to the nature of it. We 
have, notwithstanding, pleasures allowed us here ; but they are 
moderate pleasures, and if we aim at more, we shall lose even 
those, that is, we shall be whipped for it. And yet not to aim at 
more is somewhat difficult, for, as we have a glorious holiday 
before us in the other world, where there are large delights, we are 
endowed with appetites and desires proportioned to them, which 
desires we are very apt to let loose here among objects too little 
to satisfy them ; whence unhappiness necessarily follows. For 
unhappiness is nothing but disappointment of our desires ; and 
happiness is the contrary. 

6802 T 


"It is plain, then, Madam, that moderation of desire is the single 
receipt for happiness on earth, and our most gracious Governor 
would have us tolerahly happy even here : but how shall He bring it 
about ? If He leaves us to ourselves, our desires grow exorbitant, 
our minds take no measure of the things about us, but gape as 
wide as if we were already in the land of immortality, and conse- 
quently they must famish on all the world can give. 

'• This, Madam, accounts for what seems very surprising, 
though it is very common : how often see we persons, possessed of 
all that earth affords, as truly wretched, as if they were destitute 
of every blessing in life ! How comes this to pass, when their 
accommodations are so large ? Because their desires are larger ; 
because they let loose that proportion of desire after temporals, 
which was designed only for eternals. In a word, because they 
cannot bring down their highset palates to the relish of a 
moderate repast. The chief cause of human misery is this, that 
men are hot in eternal pursuit of that which does not exist. 

" Since such is our folly, what shall we do ? Shall we be left 
to the fatal effects of it, and so be quite miserable ? No, God 
Almighty is too good to suffer it. His wisdom interj^oses where 
our prudence fails. He has a divine art of reducing us to the 
relish of moderate goods, since on earth there are no other ; when 
we will not choose the means of happiness, he will force them on 
us. He kindly sends fears and afflictions, and when they once 
show their ugly faces, then bare relief is happiness, escape is 
triumph, and moderate enjoyments rise to high delights. When 
a highlander's broad sword is waved over the head of a fine lady, 
her radiant eyes are opened, she sees that to be true which 
before appeared incredible. If he will suffer that fair neck and 
shoulders to continue their acquaintance a little longer, she finds 
it possible to make a shift to spend one evening, with some 
tolerable degree of content, without opera, ball, assembly or 
gallant. But I hear your Grace say. Is the man m-ad ? Is this 
his apology? Madam, a volume would not hold it, and — if it 
please God — before the week now begun is expired, I will have 
the honour of looking like a fool before you for my repeated 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1745, October 25. North End. — " Since, I find, your Grace is 

in the secret, give me leave to observe, that writers, like other 

j sinners, when they have once given away to the first temptation, 

are carried farther than they designed, and sin on till they are — 

Iwhat, Madam? You can guess, 'tis a bad word, and I will not 

shock your Grace with it. 

"Lady Andover does me honour in remembering that I exist. 
Yet 'tis all compliment; there is no sincerity, or she had not 
disappointed my assignation with her. Why go to town ! 
Dishonourable creature ! She is gone only with her husband ! 

"But your Grace, who are infinitely kind to your friends in such 
extremities, has taken care that the disappointment shall not 


prove fatal. Another mistress is the only cure, and oh, the 
charms, and those charms in my bedchamber, oh, the charms 
of a wicker chair ! My Lady Duchess, if you love Lady Andover, 
and I think you do, and I think she is well enough for a woman's 
love ; if you love her, I say, let her not know of this rival, a rival 
so irresistible, and that opens her arms, to take us wholly in, 
and hold us fast for hours — perhaps, fast asleep — it must make 
her despair ; it must break — and let it — her unfaithful heart. 

"Madam, the fit is going off, I am coming to myself. I have 
often seen our friends at Chelsea ; they are pretty well, and yevj 
good, and therefore will certainly be quite well in time. I am 
glad with regard to your Grace, and indeed — as in duty bound — 
with regard to the Church, that what is most episcopal in your 
family is so well recovered. Then the public papers inform 
us, that the Kirk has lately behaved very well. I begin to 
relapse ; nonsense is a distemper the bark will not cure ; though 
it may have its intermissions, those intermissions are but short. 
I know but one instance to the contrary, and an ambition to con- 
verse with that instance will hasten me to Bullstrode, soon as 

E. Young to the Duchess of Pobtland. 

1745, [November, Wellwyn] . — " I cannot thank you too soon 
or too much for the late great favours received at Bullstrode, a 
place where a person cannot receive civilities but he must 
receive honours at the same time, nor can he return his humble 
acknowledgments, without being proud under his humility. But, 
I assure your Grace, I am as sincere as I am proud, while I 
return my gratitude for your great goodness to me. 

**I rid very hard, and got hence by three of the clock, which 
you know, Madam, is dinner time. My maid told me she was 
glad I came so opportunely, for by that means she thought 
verily that she could provide me a dinner again the next day. I 
suppose the wench had heard that I eat six times a day at Bullstrode 
and was for balancing the account, nor was this the sole felicity 
of my journey. My man was ill of a fever ; therefore, when we 
came to St. Albans, he desired I would stop a minute, that he 
might take something, being ill; and as he said he thought his 
blood was much inflamed, I stopped, and left him the liberty 
of having what he pleased ; on which he drank half a pint of hot 
brandy ; then we put on apace, and by the time we had rid four 
miles, his horse stumbled, though it was the rider drank the 
brandy. On the jolt, Tom waked, and cried, * Sir, I have dropped 
the bag ! ' I was in a passion at his negligence, and told him I 
should then have nothing for dinner. 'No, sir,' says he, with 
great joy, 'the venison is here; I only have dropped your 
leather bags.' Now, Madam, in those bags was nought but my 
shirts, wigs, shoes, razors, &c. ; in short my whole travelling 
estate. On being a little disgusted even at that loss, he 
told me, to be sure somebody must pick it up, and no doubt 
would bring it after us; and then trotted on with great tran- 
quillity of mind. Whilst I was considering how I should best 


manage the handle of my whip to knock him off his horse, and 
leave him to be picked up by the next comer, with my bags, a 
servant from my, and yom- Grace's, honest landlord at the Red 
Lion overtook me with what was lost ; which was left on a 
horse-block in his inn-yard. Now judge, Madam, if I stand in 
need of highlanders in order to be undone. How long it may be 
before they strip me of my shirt, which I so happily recovered, 
Heaven only knows. 

"Beware of Jesuits. 'Oh no,' says your Grace, 'he appears to 
be the honestest man that ever lived, not only to me, but to 
everybody; even bishops take him to their bosom.' True, Madam, 
and what does that amount too? It is no more than saying 
thus : — ' I can't but think him an honest man, because he plays 
the knave to perfection.' " 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1746, April 6. Wellwyn.— " I had not omitted my duty in 
returning your Grace my early sincere acknowledgments for 
your particular favours when I was in town, but as soon as I 
returned I was taken ill of a fever, nor can I yet get clear of it. 
I heartily condole with every branch of your little family for 
what they suffered in their late illness, and bless God for their 

"Your Grace's kind regard to my little interests is extremely 
good in you, Avhatever shall be the event of these casual things, 
your Grace can never lose the satisfaction of having endeavoured 
to befriend one, whose chief title to your favour is his being 
deeply sensible of it. 

"Your Grace gives me great satisfaction, by your account of 
your friend Mrs. G. Cole's better health; and I shall ever set a 
high value on whatever favours she is pleased to confer on me. 

"Yesterday, Madam, the famous Mr. Whiston called on me, who 
prophesied severe things to this poor nation ; he pretended to 
support himself by Scripture authority ; how^ just his pretence I 
cannot absolutely say; but I think there are so many public 
symptons on the side of his prophecy, as to hinder it from being 
quite ridiculous. 

"I wish, Madam, I could at all contribute to your amusement, 
but sickness is but a bad correspondent ; however, 'tis better to 
have it for a correspondent than a companion. May your Grace 
ever keep it at a distance, yet not out of sight ; for, as I take it, 
the sight or thought of sickness is the enjoyment of health, and 
half the world are unhapj)y under the greatest blessing Heaven 
can bestow, purely from forgetting that it may be taken from 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

[1746] , June 12. Wellwyn. — " I have been so thrown back in 
my hoped recovery by a severe cold that I cannot keep my word 
in being in town on the 17th. My physician tells me he cannot 
set me up for such a journey under ten days, and I take for 


granted your Grace by that time will be out of town. I have a /^ 
brother chaplain in waiting that will do my duty at Court till my / 
health permits me to come to his relief. 

"I should have been extremely glad to have paid my duty to 
your Grace ; but as to the other point, viz. of having my curiosity 
satisfied by being let into the particulars mentioned in your last, 
that is of no moment ; your Grace, I am satisfied, will do what you 
can, and if I have the honour of hearing from you, it would add 
to the favour if your Grace would let me know how fares our 
good friend of Chelsea, of whom you grieved me with so melan- 
choly an account in your last. 

" Madam, I beseech you take care of your health. I have a 
very particular sense of the value of it at present, not only from 
my own want of it, but from the disorders and indispositions of 
many ot my friends and acquaintances. One of them, I find, has 
the honour of being known to your Grace, I mean Mrs. Rolt, 
from whom I received last post a most melancholy letter ; her sole 
hope, it seems, is in Bristol waters, to which she is going, and if 
she should fail, her children will fall into their father's hands, 
which is a most surprising way — one would think — of falling 
into ruin. In ancient story it is said of one Saturn, that he eat j / 
up all his children. As for my cousin Rolt I fear he will drink ' >' 
up his. He has already drank up one half of an ample estate, 
and seems to be exceedingly dry still, so high runs his fever, 
caught by perpetually basking in the too sultry beams of that 
sex, which seems designed by Providence for the comfort of wise 
men, and the ruin of fools." 

Postserijjt. — " Madam, I beg my humble duty to my Lord 
Duke, and humble service to Mr. Ashard,**"* and— if your Grace 

pleases — to Mr. M . When I last saw his Grace of N , he 

told me he had two or three to provide for before me. Three 
are just now preferred, but perhaps his two or three, like ■ 
Falstaff's men in buckram, may grow to nine or ten. For what 
fictions in the extravagance of poesy can exceed the wonderful 
realities in humble life? Your Grace will please to answer this 
puzzling question in your next." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1746, July 17. Wellwyn. — "Your Grace's particular regard 
for Miss Parsons confirms me in that in which I need no con- 
firmation, your just discernment, for most certainly her excellent 
disposition is indisputable. God forbid it should fall into bad 
hands. Your Grace's apprehensions about her are such as every 
true friend of hers must entertain, for she seems left absolutely 
naked of defence but her own prudence, and in so young a 
creature, and beset by such a world, how precarious a defence is 
that ! I pressed her therefore — after I heard your Grace's kind 
invitation — to the utmost of my power to be frequently at Bulls- 
trode, and with your Grace's friends in town ; for I cannot but 
have for her a very sincere regard and affection. 

* Sic : Young spells this name indifferently with a c or an s. 


"Business, Madam, detained me near the town till this week. 
I was to wait on Mr. M. ; but he was not at his chambers. I 
humbly thank your Grace for his kind intentions towards me. I 
am very glad, but not surprised, that he thinks with me with 
regard to, &c. Madam, 'tis impossible, 'tis impossible, though, 
I confess, the Devil has sufficient footing in the world, and never 
fails of a good place at Court. Poor Mr. Ashard ! I am very sorry 
for him, but from many late instances of the like nature in our 
own neighbourhood, I have great reason to hope he will do well. 
For my own part, who lately crept out of the same condition he 
is now in, I am far from being re-established in my health. As I 
have often in like condition found great benefit from Tunbridge, 
I have good hope from drinking these waters a due time ; and 
when it shall please God that I am well, I know I shall be better 
by waiting on your Grace, which I had much rather do now, if 
it was in my power. Lady Bute I have formerly seen, but before 
she was Lady Bute. From what I then saw, I very easily believe 
what I now hear of her ladyship's excellent accomplishments 
and character. I am glad your Grace has the happiness of her 
conversation ; I should be pleased and proud to partake of such a 
feast, but my ambition has lately met wdth more rebukes than 
one; which should, and, I hope, will, make me wiser than to aim 
at anything more than humble content for the future, which is 
prudence at all ages, but double prudence at mine." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Poetland. 

1746, September 23. Wellwyn. — "I have not yet got a curate, 
but hope sometime next month to get some neigTOourmg clergy-^ 
man to officiate for me one Sunday, and that will give a 
fortnight's absence, which I propose to dedicate to my paying 
my duty at BuUstrode, if nothing intervenes to prevent it. 

"Your Grace delights in curiosities; I therefore enclose one 
to you which is worth the best cockle shell in your museum. A 
snail's shell it must not be, for mine is all expedition ; if your 
Grace had such a thing as a flash of lightning in the corner of 
your cupboard, it would be the most proper return you could 
make for my present. It w^as indeed a clap of thunder to Lady 
C 1, who is now panting in the Irish seas under the conse- 
quences of it. 

" Your Grace's mentioning the Duchess of in your last 

put me in mind of this letter. I received it the next day after 
date ; I desire you to keep it by you till I have the honour of 
waiting on you. If the Duchess plays her cards no better than 
my lady, she will be in danger in a little time of being called 
hussy instead of lier grace. I send it for your private amuse- 
ment only, and beg it may be a secret, for I would not appear 
as a confidant in such an affair, much less as the betrayer of the 

"How one false step naturally betrays us into another ! Had 
her ladyship never married her grandson, she had never been a 


liai\ and if she had never been a Har, she had never been trans- 
ported, which, in this case, is, I think, a severer fate than that 
of being hanged. 

*'I beg, Madam, my humble duty to my Lord Duke, my service 
to Mr. Achard and best wishes to all, especially to Lady Harriet. 
When I am at a loss for a curate I cannot forget his grace the 
little Archbishop. What if he made his first ecclesiastical 
campaign in the fields of Wellwyn ! His innocence would recom- 
mend his doctrine to my parishioners exceedingly." 

Postscript. — " This moment I receive advice that the happy 
couple are soon to return from Ireland in perfect peace. Since 
there are no spiders in L'eland, I wonder how so many webs are 
spun there to catch English butterflies. Her ladyship is still, I 
believe, but a fair penitent, as well as your Grace's duchess ; I 
wish they were both as ready to repent of their sins, as they are 
of their follies. But that is the case of but few, and the reason I 
take to be this, viz. that folh/s hell is in this world, but the hell 
of sin in the next. But not many let their minds go a wool- 
gathering to the next w^orld, and yet without it, there is no 
prudence, safety, reputation, or peace in this, and they that seek 
them without it, not only do, but must fail, because it is contrary 
to the Almighty's fixed and original plan and law, which no 
human effort or wisdom, we are sure — if sure of anything — can 
possibly repeal. 

"I am deeply concerned for poor Miss Cole, and beg my hearty 
service to Miss Parsons when your Grace sees her." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1746, October 16. Wellwyn. — " Compassion is not only a 
duty, but a blessing ; it is attended with a pleasure, not only, in 
common with all other virtues, from a consciousness of doing 
right, but with a pleasure of its own peculiar growth, which the 
uncompassionate can never enjoy. The more sensible we are of 
others' calamities, the more sensible we must be of our own 
escape ; as we lament the former, we bless God for the latter ; the 
first gives us pain, the second, delight ; hence arises that mixed 
sensation which an honest heart feels at the objects of pity, 
which to many is a riddle, and which, while they feel, they do 
not understand. 

"What an object of compassion did your Grace lay before me 
in your last ! A human creature, and one of the tenderest sex, 
and one of the most deserving in it, and an old acquaintance, 
and a friend, and a friend that has so much contributed to 
the happiness of others, to be thus afflicted ! If this was all, 
the account would be very melancholy ; but this is far from 
being all ; it strikes me in a light still more affecting, for con- 
sider. Madam, a person deprived of reason by any cause, by 
pride, malice, or impetuous desire, is one of the most melancholy 
objects under heaven ; and if it touches us so much even when 
the cause is criminal, how much must we be affected when virtue 
is the occasion of it ! How much more affected still, when a 


virtue so rare as that of filial affection is the occasion of it ! I 
call it a rare virtue, because family-affection naturally descends ; 
it descends by instinct, and when it ascends, it is pure virtue that 
turns the stream. 

" How virtuous, therefore, as well as unfortunate must our dear 
friend be ! And unfortunate virtue calls for all the compassion 
and concern w4iich the most tender heart can yield. But 
then we should consider on this occasion that virtue itself may 
be guilty of excess, that we may stretch it into a fault, and what 
you. Madam, will hardly believe, that w^e may love a parent too 
well ; which we actually do, when we give him our u-liole heart. 
There's another who claims the supreme seat in it. Had our poor 
friend considered that her Father is still alive, that He can never 
die, that He is about her path and about her bed ; that 
Father, I mean, which gave her that father whom she 
mourns, that Father who, though He has angels for His 
children, not only permits but invites, nay, commands her to 
call Him by that tender name, and promises that, if she does 
so, that ■•' He will give her His blessing ; such a blessing as 
no parent on earth can give, that He will never leave her, or 
forsake her — as her other parent has done — but stretch His wing 
over her, with the utmost tenderness, both in this life, and the 
next. Had, I say. Madam, our poor friend fully considered this, 
it would have been such a cordial to her heart, as would have 
made her laugh at Monroe; this consideration would have done 
what medicine cannot do, it would have softened her affliction, 
and have prevented the calamity. 

' ' A calamity, I mean, to us ; for what it is to her, God only 
knows. We know no more of her than of the state of the dead ; 
she is actually dead to our manner of life, nor know we at all 
what her present condition is as to happiness or misery. That, 
doubtless, depends on the nature of the ideas that pass through 
her mind, and that we know no more of than of the dreams of 
those that sleep. The beggar in his dream may be a king, and 
she, under this melancholy appearance, may be happy for ought 
we know to the contrary. For now, Madam, she exists in a 
separate state ; we exist under the reign of reason, she is in the 
kingdom of wild imaginations only. 

''Let this consideration. Madam, comfort us; let us hope the 
best of her, as we do of friends departed in another way, let us 
look on her as a living monument of the really deceased ; and 
then, like other monuments, it will naturally put us in mind of 
the vanity of human life, and it will do that kind and needful 
office in a manner as much more effectual than other monuments, 
as it is more uncommon and surprising than they. Thus her 
reputed calamity will be our real benefit, and such, past dispute, 
God Almighty designs it to be. For all His dispensations to par- 
ticular persons are instructions to mankind in general. His good 
providence designs one person to be, as it were, a glass to another, 
and to show us our possible misfortunes by the actual misfortunes 
of those about us. Since then these melancholy, but most useful 
glasses are around us without number, since we may see ourselves 

• Sic, 


in them every hour of the day, methinks our souls should be 
better dressed than generally they are; but these are glasses in 
which birthday suits make but a poor appearance, and therefore 
we turn from them. How many heads are now full of birthday 
suits ! How little do they think of that hour when the gayest . 
tulip bed of St. James's on the 28th inst. will look as despicable • 
in their sight as the wardrobe of Long Lane ! A fine deathbed 
suit we should purchase at any rate ; it is by far the most glorious 
apparel we can put on; but pra}^ Madam, don't tell them so, for . 
they will certainly think you mad. 

"Madam, I am still under difficulties about my waiting on you; 
my schemes have been disappointed, and at present 'tis not in ? 
my power to fix the time. Miss Lee gives her duty to your ; 
Grace ; I beg mine, and humble service, and best wishes to my 
Lord Duke, Lady Wallingford, Mr. Achard, and those beautiful 
flowers of innocence that smile about the table, and might make 
a nosegay for an archangel, but I hope 'twill be very late before 
he gathers them." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1746, October 28. Wellwyn. — "Lhave got myself a curate, > 
and was preparing to set out for BuUstrode, but an unforeseen 
accident denies me the pleasure and honour of waiting on you, 
and what is still worse is that it is a public misfortune which 
includes my own. The murrain among the cattle is got within / 
four miles of us, to a place called Wotton, and I am obliged with 
another justice to hold a sessions once or twice a week, to put 
the x\ct of Parliament in execution for preventing its spreading 
further, and to pay the poor sufferers what they are entitled to 
by that Act, provided they perform the conditions of it. 

''I have, Madam, endeavoured to get a curate in this capacity 
also, but I find it is impossible, so that I am absolutely confined, 
and for how long is quite uncertain. 

"One particular fact I must tell your Grace, which will show 
very particular care is necessary. A farmer had half-a-dozen 
cows drop at once ; by Act of Parliament he is obliged to dig a 
hole and bury them: he was willing to spare that pains, and 
finding an old chalk-pit, he tumbled them in, and threw earth 
over them ; but it happened that this pit was so near the road, 
that in a few days the road became offensive to passengers, and 
if it gives them nothing more than offence, happy are they. 

" The following pretty tale for a tragedy may perhaps be new to 

your Grace. Lady C at 59 is smitten with the gay feathers 

of 33, and after short ceremoning (?) of billing and pruning, takes 
him into her nest. 33 finds it very well feathered, and had a 
great mind to pluck some plumes of it for his private use. This 
made Dame Partlet bristle against him. At this the cockscomb 
rose and could not bear it , it came to a little sparring, war was 
declared, and 33 must show all his generalship on this occasion. 
To this end he thought it prudent to strengthen himself by 
allies, and it happened very fortunately for him, that there was 


a young princess in tlie family of 18, whom 50 took from the 
dunghill, and tossed her into a tub of soapsuds, out of which 
she soon rose, like Yenus out of the sea, the delight of her lady- 
ship's eyes, and the conlident of her heart. This Venus fell in 
love with Mars ; which was very happy for him, for she returned 
the favours she received from him with the key of her ladyship's 
escritoire, where he found the will, which has made him 
run mad. In his distraction he snatches both away to Ireland, 
where the young princess personates her ladyship, who is ke^^t 
out of eyesight, for fear of telling tales, and as she before 
discovered the undutifulness of her husband, so very lately are 
her eyes open as to the treachery of her bosom-friend, and yet 
none but these two are ever suffered to come near her. Can 
your Grace easily feign a greater picture of distress ? I own I 
cannot, and yet for this terrible sore, she neither has, nor is like 
to have, any other plaister than potatoes and milk. 

' ' How dearly do we often pay for the gratification of an idle 
desire ! If such tales as these wevejiction, they would be of use ; 
but when they are real, methinks they might make any one 
tremble that is within the possibility of the like misfortune. 
Pray, Madam, make this a secret, or conceal its author." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1746, November 28. Wellwyn. — " It grieves me that I cannot 
wait on you, but the occasion that subsisted when I wrote last 
still continues, and what is worse increases. Nor are the poor 
cattle the only sufferers ; a pleuretic fever is epidemical in this 
neighbourhood; few escape it, and many die. And yet the 
survivors are as gay as ever, and as free from apprehensions of 
death as if they were immortal. This is so strange and yet so 
true that it naturally excites mere w^orldly curiosity to enquire 
into the cause of it. 

" Can you conceive. Madam, the cause of so astonishing a truth? 
I take it to be this. The shortness and casualty of life, and the 
certainty of death, are such obvious and quite indisputable 
points, that it seems nonsense to talk about them ; and from not 
talking, they come to not thinking about them too. Those 
points want no proof, and therefore they give them no attention ; 
that is, they think not of them at all, for the oddest reason in 
the world, viz., because the points are so very certain, that they 
should think of little else. 

" By this time, I hear your Grace say: — ' 'Tis pity this gentle- 
man had not continued in his pulpit ; he preaches very well ; I 
suppose his parishioners will have the favour of my letter next 
Sunday.' Why truly. Madam, this is naturally enough said, but 
how comes it to be natural ? This, I conceive, to be the reason, 
viz., that on any serious subject a man can't talk common 
sense, but it will fall in with something we have heard from the 
pulpit, and hence we naturally enough call it preaching. But 
this is not so much to the discredit of what is said as to the 
credit of the pulpit ; showing, evidently, that religion and 


good understanding are the same thing. And if, Madam, 
you call what I have said preaching, I will present you 
with many profligates, that by the same rule your Grace 
must call divines. Your Grace little thinks, therefore, that, 

while you accuse me of preaching, you are putting Sir 

into orders, and presenting ministers of State with lawn sleeves. 
For even these, in conversation, will take the side of virtue, not 
out of conscience, but out of pride ; not to save their souls, but to 
preserve their characters as men of sense. 

"But I am out all this while; I have been talking to your Grace 
as a divine, whereas I find you are a physician ; I had one of 
your Grace's patients with me this morning, Mr. Terrick, from 
whom your Grace need desire no other fee than that of being one 
of his audience, by w^hich — if I know your Grace's taste — you will 
think yourself richly paid. How comes it to pass, Madam, that I 
have so many rivals in your Grace's favour ? How comes it to 
pass, that at every turn, I hear of your Grace's goodness ? Is 
this like a Duchess ? Is not thi§ being a little out of character ? 
If you continue this extraordinary practice, I shall return the 
preaclwr upon you, for be assured one good example, and in such 
a station, out-preaches all the pulpits in Christendom. 

" I therefore thank your Grace for your excellent sermon, and I 
hope I shall be much the better for it ; for what can be such a 
spur to age, as to have youth get the start of it in what is right ? 
Nay, if it does not get the start of age, but only treads on its 
heels, even that is a great reproach, and men never bid fairer 
for virtue than when they fly from shame as w^ell as guilt. But 
take it not ill if I call even you an old lady, for 'tis said : — * Wisdom 
is grey hairs, and an unspotted life is old age.' 

" The good company your Grace has with you makes me still 
more regret my confinement at this place." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1746, December 5th. Wellwyn.— " I once saw a poor deserter 
shot in Hyde Park : six musketeers were employed in this 
melancholy office ; the three first, stooping, shot at his breast, and 
then the other three shot over them at his head, and killed him 
after he was dead. Such, Madam, is your request supported by 
Mrs. Delany's ; either of them would have struck dead the stout- 
est resolution I could possibly have taken to disobey your com- 
mands. But, Madam, my resolution was quite the contrary, and 
though I am in fact a deserter, yet am I an innocent one ; or 
rather I am not a deserter, but taken prisoner by the enemy, and 
detained in chains, which I am willing to break, but the links of 
it are too strong, and too many. For first. Madam, next week's 
fast insists on my stay, secondly, your friend Mr. West, 
who is patron to my curate, calls him to town, and lastly, 
my little house is full of London guests, with whom I am on 
the foot of some form, and therefore can neither dislodge 
nor abandon them. This frosty weather thaws human hearts. 



and as they sit round a good fire their kind affections flow in 
such abundance, that I find my friends disposed to obHge for 
some time. 

" I would therefore, Madam, have you and Mrs. Delany reflect, 
that, if you had a person with you, whose company you desired, 
yet if his inclinations were elsewhere, you would consider him as 
absent still ; so, on the other hand, as I assure you you have my 
inclinations, consider me as present, and treat me as kindly as 
you possibly can. When a man is personally present, form may 
supply the place of goodwill, and make handsome treatment con- 
sistent with real disregard ; but kindly to treat the distant in 
place, this is pure virtue ; this is the treat which angels give us, 
and therefore not absurdly to be hoped from those who bring 
them most into our thoughts. 

*' However, Madam, give me leave to own, that I have my objec- 
tions to you: some few marks of mere mortality are still upon 
you. Your Grace is guilty of a fault, and of a fault which few 
would be guilty of ; you oppress with your condescension and 
civilities ; I am really out of countenance at your repeated kind 
invitations ; and particularly, when your Grace thinks proper 
to distrust your own poAvers, and call in allies to assist your 
unreasonable indulgence toAvards me. M}^ Lord Duke, the Dean, 
and Mrs. Delany ! With such allies as these a less powerful poten- 
tate than your Grace might certainly make a most successful 
campaign. Suppose the Empress-Queen had a mind to prevail 
with the Prince of Monaco to accept of a million, and distrusting 
her own power should engage the King of France, and the Pope, 
and the Czarina, to succour her endeavour, and ensure her success ; 
would not this be very extraordinary ? Make a very small altera- 
tion, put parson for Prince, and your Grace may make the 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1746, December 17. London. — " I am now in town, and 
passing by Whitehall I made my bow to your Grace's house, and 
was sorry to find it empty. To how many houses in this great 
town might I bow, in which I have formerly enjoyed agreeable 
conversation, but shall enjoy it no more ! Whose inhabitants 
have taken a far longer journey from them than to Bullstrode ! 
Such thoughts, Madam, will occur to people in years, and as age 
is naturally talkative, it will tease other folks with them. How 
like a perfect dream seems all that is past ! And a dream it really 
is ; all is absolutely vanished, all our plans, our labours, even our 
most innocent amusements and delights ; all is as if it had never 
been, except virtue and vice. These, though past, are still with us : 
the first is immortal and cannot die, the second will be immortal 
too, unless it is put to death by repentance. Now, since as an 
Arabian proverb says, ' The remembrance of past joys is a sigh ; ' 
and since by the same way of speaking the infirmities of age may 
be called a groan, what fine music must a veteran make in so 
delightful a concert as is now at Bullstrode ! Besides, conversing 


with the blossoms of human life is apt to betray persons in years 
into a supposition that they are beings of the same nature, and 
in the same state of existence ; which is an absolute mistake. For 
what is wisdom in the young is folly in the old, and so on the 
reverse ; for which reason I once resolved to renounce your 
Grace's acquaintance, till I considered that the mischief of your 
Grace's age was balanced by the benefit of your example. 

'* Your Grace wonders what all this means, and what gives 
occasion to such random stuff. Why, Madam, to tell you the very 
truth, I am now in a coffee house waiting for a rascally attorney, 
who, having robbed me already of all my money, would now rob 
me of my time; and rather than do nothing — which is very 
tedious — I was determined to write nothing to your Grace." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1746, December 28. Wellwyn. — " I am sorry I could not 
have the honour and pleasure of waiting on your Grace after so 
many very kind invitations; but your Grace is in the midst of 
very agreeable company, which wants not that inspiration you 
are so well able to give. So surrounded, what. Madam, can you 
possibly want ? If you call for the delicacies of art or imagination. 
Miss Parsons and Mrs. Delany have them at their fingers' ends ; 
if to qualify these sweetmeats you call for the substantial bread 
of reason and argument, you have one with you who with 
that bread has strengthened man's heart against the insults of 
infidelity. Would your Grace, like Drake, travel round the world 
in search of curiosities ? Madam, you may spare yourself that 

pains, the mighty S ,'*"* like Atlas, on his broad shoulders 

will bring the world, like a rare show, to your own door ; he can 
present you with all the wonders of Egypt, pour the sevenfold 
Nile into the basin at Bullstrode, and luckily — at this season — 
give your Grace a Pyramid, as a model for a Christmas pie. 

"But think me not. Madam, so stupid or profligate as to depre- 
ciate his learned and excellent work ; 'tis as useful as it is 
entertaining ; 'tis an entertaining comment on the Scriptures, 
and a noble pillar to support our faith. What can so 
strengthen our belief as to have set before our eyes still extant 
monuments of ancient miraculous facts ? By this means faith 
is almost lost in knowledge, and ridiculous infidels grow still 
more ridiculous in our sight. Most of our travellers go abroad 
to damage their religion, few to mend it ; therefore this work is 
still the more commendable. - - 

"lam truly glad, Madam, that Miss Parsons is at Bullstrode, of 
whose accomplishments and virtues I have a great opinion, and I 
consider it as a providential part of reward to her virtue that she 
is near your Grace. 'Tis obvious to conceive that it many ways 
may be of great advantage to her at this critical period of life ; 
who knows but the whole future happiness of it may depend on 
this visit ? On very minute causes depend the greatest events 
of our lives, and when on retrospect we observe them, we are apt 

* Probably Thomas Shaw, 


to cry, * A lucky accident ! ' and so rob Providence of Its just 
glory and ourselves of the best instruction. When we read the 
various manners and fates of nations, we do justice to Providence, 
and acknowledge without hesitation the full evidence of the 
Divine hand over them. Providence is no less present to — 
what we are pleased to call — every accident of our lives, 
but Its interposition seems to [be] written there in a smaller 
character; in such as w^e cannot or will not read, but if our 
eyes are bad as to this point, it is worth our while to 
put on our spectacles ; for I am persuaded that every person at 
all advanced in life may with due attention read as useful, and 
probably more affecting lessons in their own lives, as they can 
in their Bibles. And this I presume, among others, was one 
important reason, which gave the saying, ^ Know thyself,' so 
much fame for wisdom among the ancients. 

' ' But your Grace will say, I know not myself when I write thus 
to you ; but pray. Madam, why not ? May I not have the liberty 
to repeat to you your own thoughts wdien I can furnish nothing 
better ? And these are your own thoughts, as far as I can 
collect them from your conduct, and if that imposes on me, which 
of us. Madam, is most to blame ? 

"The infection among the cattle does not spread, and the 
pleuretic fever is more merciful than at first. I bless God I 
escaped it, and I rejoice at Miss Parsons' recovery ; she has 
happily got rid of one pain in her side, but she is at a time of 
life very liable to another. If the shaft should come from a wrong 
quiver, your Grace will gently extract it, and apply a medicinal 
balm more precious than that of Gilead. For what tree drops 
wisdom? But though you are an excellent surgeon in these 
delicate cases, yet pardon me if 1 advise you — strange advice to 
a Duchess — to be a tinker, mend one hole by making another. 
It is the surest method, if I have any knowledge of the female 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1747, January 20. Wellwyn. — " On Saturday I sent your 
Grace a letter by a courier, like other princes, which I hope came 

o hand. That for the Duke of N — I sent open, hoping you 

would be so good to seal it, after perusal. How affairs may go, 
by your Grace's favour, I cannot tell ; but at present to me they 
are very mysterious. On your Grace's saying in a letter, about 
six weeks or more ago, that a friend of yours would be considered, 
if any removals beneath were occasioned by Bishop Clagett's 
death, through the dominion of self-love, I construed myself to be 
the man meant ; and employed my thoughts in sumptuous plans 
for the consumption of my future abundance, taking it for granted 
that your Grace had received some intimation of Ministerial good 
intention towards me. From this golden dream I was awaked 
by the thunder of Mr. Roberts' letter, which indeed, did not kill 
me, but filled me with great astonishment, as being utterly at a 
loss how to reconcile his storm and your Grace's sunshine 
together. This astonishment was scarce over, when your Grace 


filled me with new, by taking a dead cause in hand, .for dead in 
all appearance it seemed to me. Now the question is, whether 
your Grace will please to explain, or to keep me in the dark, as 
they do nightingales, that they may sing the better. The first 
will be the kinder office, though the latter will be the better jest; 
but I acquiesce in this, that your Grace will certainly do what is 
most proper to be done. 

"Madam, I write this letter, lest my courier should have got 
drunk, and given my letter directed to the Duke — to whom my 
humble duty — to some duchess of his ow^n. She will be surprised 
to find herself in your Grace's company, with two or three 
Ministers of State about her; and who knows but that I might i / 
find my account in her acquaintance ? 'Tis certain Nell Gwin 
made Dr. Ken a bishop. 

"When Mrs. Delany calls for inspiration, the sun should call 
for light. I long to see, but not to judge, her performance ; and 
I think I make a prudent choice ; for if people have not more 
vanity than sense, it will ever be less pleasurable to criticise than 
to enjoy." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

[1747, January. Wellwyn.] — "As you are my oracle, I have 
obeyed your commands, but I consider my letter only as a carriage 
foF~youf 'Grace's artillery. 'Tis your influence must do all the 
execution. But whatever success attends your engineering, I shall 
thank you, if not for success, yet for your good example. Few will 
do so much for their friends: what then will become of their foes? 
and yet they are recommended to their goodwill. But in this, as 
in some other debts, the verge of the court is a sanctuary. Virtue 
has great advantages ; its chief advantage is out of dispute, but 
if it was out of the case too, methinks its present advantages 
should recommend it to our favour. What reputation does 
it gain ! what esteem and affection secure ! Men are so fond 
of reputation that by letters and arms, &c., they will take 
infinite pains to procure it ; virtue would bring it at a cheaper 
rate, but that study they think harder than Algebra, and had 
rather lose a limb than another man's wdfe. I believe the 
reason why men prefer vice to virtue, is, l)ecause it must be 
owned that virtue is more like a wife than a mistress; virtue 
has equal— not to say far superior — joys, but then the joys 
of virtue have the misfortune of being unprohibited goods. If 
they want more pleasures than virtue can aftbrd, why do they 
not seek them where your Grace and Mrs. Delany have so 
happily found them, in the curious and elegant arts? These, 
though not moral, are intellectual pleasures, which is next door 
to the former, and both are true marks of the human race, such 
as are incommunicable to the creatures beneath us, and such as 
may one day — if we please — set us on a level with those glorious 
beings which are at present infinitely above us, which are now 
our directors and guardians, but will be, if we are wise, our dear 
companions, and familiar friends. 




" This is a triumphant consideration, and almost makes it an 
astonishment, that good people should be — which notwith- 
standing they are — afraid of death. Now, Madam, since to 
converse with those who have wisely chosen to gather their 
flowers of pleasure out of the two upper beds of human happiness, 
the moral and intellectual, and have left the leeks and onions of 
sensuality to those inferior beings whose poverty of nature 
affords them no better repast, and to those Egyptian co^stitu- 
tions of our own species, which have no passion for the Promised 
Land ; since, I say, to converse with such is the greatest 
happiness and improvement in this scene, and the fairest 
promise of a better, your Grace will easily apprehend that it was 
with no small concern that I found myself debarred the possi- 
bility of waiting on you at Bullstrode, as I proposed to do." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1747, February 3. Wellwyn. — "I return my most cordial 

thanks for the pains you have been pleased to take in my favour ; 

; if that will not do, nothing will, and I resign my chimerical 

/ expectations, which it is a shame I should have retained so long. 

t/ I consider it as a sort of a curse on the clergy, that the nature 

of their provision in this life keeps them generally gaping after 

preferment so long that they forget the next. 

" Business, Madam, calls me to town in about three weeks, when 
I shall not fail to pay my duty at Whitehall. I received a letter 
last post requesting Miss Lee's consent to petition the Parliament 
for the sale of Frogmore. I know nothing at all about it ; I 
suppose Miss Parsons may have talked with your Grace concern- 
ing it. 

" Madam, I must let you know that I have a new neighbour at 
the house that was my Lady Cathcart's ; she is an Irish lady, 
and this is the scheme (viz.) : she is to have possession of this 
English villa in lieu of an old castle in the utmost north of 
Ireland, frowning over the sea, in which Lady Cathcart is to be 
imprisoned, till some generous knight-errant shall come to her 
relief, and rescue her immaculate virginity from the merciless 
tyranny of the giant Maguire. 

" My law business is occasioned by disputes arising from the 
death of poor Mr. Lee. Mr. Murray is my counsel; and always 
shall be so, for he gave me excellent advice when he bid me 
expect nothing. And your Grace was an excellent prophetess, 
when you said we should not obtain a positive answer. None 
ever received other than an ambiguous answer from the ancient 
oracles, and your Grace knows who was the author of them, and 
yet Mr. Roberts and your Grace is for having me go to Delphos. 
I will, when I am in town, if your Grace continues of the same 

Postscrijpt. — " As I must soon resign in much more material 
points, I bless God I am resigned in this. I humbly thank your 
Grace for your kind wishes and endeavours, and shall call off my 
thoughts from so dead a scent to other game. I shall send them 


to take a turn, not among the stalls, but among the tombs of 
Westminster Abbey. There ambition will go out as a taper in a 
damp vault. I will no longer set my thoughts on the pinnacle 
of the Temple, to take a view of the glories of the world, lest I 
fall down and worship him to whom they belong ; nor do I, 
Madam, take this resolution altogether out of regard to that motive 
which ought to determine me to it ; but out also of mere human, 
secular prudence, for I find that expectation, in a point of this 
nature, hurts me much more than despair." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1747, [March] . London. — " My long service to his Majesty, 
my court to the two brothers, and your Grace's recommenda- 
tion, these three found a venj just title to favour. The Duke's 
absolute promise to me myself, that after two or three were 
provided for, I should be preferred, this heightens that just 
title. Your Grace's last so signal interposition in my favour makes 
that just title still higher. After this to sue would Jje mean in 
any that wanted not bread ; it would be mean at any time of life, 
but monstrous at mine. I am therefore fully resolved to stir no 
farther, which is only taking pains to be despised. 

" But I long to thank your Grace for your zeal to befriend me, 
and therefore will wait on you punctually by ten to-morrow 
morning, being obliged to be at Lincoln's Inn before twelve." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1747, April 16. Wellwyn. — " Amid so many dear domestic 
engagements of heart, and so many loud calls from the gay and 
great around you, is it possible your Grace can think of one so 
much out of the way, of such an invisible being as your humble 
servant ? I believe not ; I must therefore let your Grace know 
that you commanded me to. write, and that this comes therefore 
from the pen of obedience, not of presumption, but as I have no 
business and but little invention, what shall I say ? I will tell 
you a melancholy, but true tale, of too late a date. 

" A young woman— now about twenty-one — of good birth, and 
better principles, was some years in my family. About two years 
ago her much elder sister, who had long been governess of my 
family and me, married, settled in town, and carried her 
younger sister with her. A young apothecary in good business 
and circumstances courted her, won her affections, mutual vows 
of marriage were passed. Things standing thus, she came down 
for a month or two to me the latter end of last autumn ; the 
thing was kept warm by letters every post ; I invited, nay, pressed 
him to come down to her, knowing the pain of absent lovers ; 
but business, he said, hindered him. She returned to town in 
high expectations, just before I was last there; the spark visited 
her, but his behaviour was cold ; she bur^ into tears ; on which he 
said: — 'My dearest, I understand those tears; they upbraid me; 
and so far they agree with my own sentiments ; I upbraid myself. 

0802 V 



You feel, I see, the force of love, and therefore will the more easily 
pardon the same weakness in another. I feel it to distraction, but 
ask ten thousand pardons, 'tis for another person. I courted her 
some years ago, but she absolutely refused me, which occasioned 
the fatal step I have taken with you. But since you have been in 
the country, I have received intimations that she has thought better 
of it. The temptation is irresistible, and therefore we must 
part.' And so he took his leave; a duke could have done no more. 
"The heathen deities were said to laugh at the perjuries of 
lovers; and if your Grace is as much a heathen as you. are a 
goddess, you perhaps may laugh with them, but I cannot. If 
she lives a thousand years she'll never feel greater pain, and a 
good heart in pain is the most melancholy sight in the world. 
The sole consolation is, that a good heart in pain by pain will 
be made still better. But what young lady of your Grace's 
acquaintance would better her heart on terms like these !" 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1747, Ju^e 1. Wellwyn. — " I am glad your Grace has had so 
pleasant a ramble, and that you stopped short of Ireland, which 
is fond of an English Duchess, and cares not to let them fly home 
again, when once in her net. Cornbury, your Grace says, is a 
charming place and fit for such a master. My Lord I know not 
but from Mr. Pope'" and your Grace ; now Pope was a poet, and 
might therefore fib ; my Lord Cornbury must therefore thank your 
Grace for the good opinion I have of him. 

"The Duchess of Queensberry is, your Grace says, very enter- 
taining, and so are all oddities ; peevishness and pride are in 
their own nature the most ridiculous things in the world, and 
therefore must be extremely entertaining to such as only see, 
not suffer from them. If Mr. Foot! would take her Grace well off, 
you would find her much more entertaining still. 

" I congratulate your Grace on the nuptials of Miss Parsons, 
that must, I think, be a very happy couple if it is not his fault ; 
but a good wife sometimes makes a bad husband, as great 
prosperity corrupts good manners. 

"Your Grace has sent Lord Titchfield to Westminster ; no doubt 
it gave your Grace some care and concern, and so will every 
thing in life that is valuable and worth our wishes. It is greatly 
for my Lord's advantage, and therefore will be greatly for your 
Grace's happiness. Whatever advantages a private education 
may have, two very great ones it certainly wants, emulation and 
early experience in the tempers and talents of others ; the first 
is the greatest spur to diligence, and the last is an absolutely 
necessary qualification for making any figure in public life. And 
why. Madam, should we despair of seeing his grandfather revive 
in him ? When Lord Titchfield is Prime Minister, I will apply 
again for preferment," and not l)efore. And I think myself 
happy that your Grace's wishes concur with my resolution of 
neither visiting nor writing any more. 

* Imitations of Horace, I. Ep. vi. 60. 
t Doubtless the actor, Samuel Foote, 


"If your Grace continues your resolution of leaving the town 
in three weeks from the date of your letter, I shall not have the 
honour of waiting on your Grace the latter end of this month, 
when I am obliged to be on duty at Kensington. If, I mean, the 
gout will give me leave. j 

" Your Grace is jealous either of my bad head or bad heart 
without cause, for I do assure your Grace that I have not the 
least suspicion of insincerity in your Grace's favour to me, but 
with true gratitude of heart remember and acknowledge the 
manifold instances of your partiality to one who has no title to 
it, but his true sense of your Grace's prudence, virtues and 
accomplishments, so rarely seen in so eminent a situation, and 
so conspicuous a point of light. 

"Your Grace is so kind as to invite me to Bullstrode ; I have the 
assurance to invite you, Madam, and my Lord Duke, and Mrs. 
Montagu, &c., to Wellwyn. I am but fourjip.urg4yo3aa you, and / 
it may be some amusement to you to laugh at a country parson. 
Madam, I shall be proud of that disrespect." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1747, September 10. Wellwyn. — " The honour of your Grace's 
letter of the 5th I received not till yesterday, and rejoice that all 
is well. My Lady Oxford — to whom I beg my humble duty — 
does me great honour in remembering me, nor could I have a 
greater pleasure than an opportunity of waiting on her, for I 
know her Ladyship's worth, so that surveying the magnificence 
of the place would be the least part of my satisfaction at 

" I am concerned for Mrs. Delany's loss, but hope her appre- 
hensions for Mrs. Dews will happily be disappointed. If we did 
not suffer as much — perhaps more — from what we fear than 
from what we feel, the world would be much happier than 
it is. 

" His Grace the little Archbishop will not catch a fever in his 
return ; the weather is now very moderate, and I beg him to be 
my guest in his return. Your Grace is so good as to think of 
taking me up in your journey, but before Miss Lee returns it [is] 
not in my power to be from home, and her I expect not till the 
beginning of next month, at which my Lord Lichfield comes to 
town to welcome his uncle Fitzroy to England, and then will 
bring Miss Lee along with him. As my present fate necessarily 
fixes me here, your Grace will be sure to find me on my post 
whenever you return, and I shall for the future consider my 
post as a post of honour, since it gives me an opportunity of 
paying my duty to your Grace in your Wellbeck expeditions. 

" I dined yesterday at Stevenage in order to prevent the 
infection of the cattle from being spread among us, which has 
already begun from that place. Y^our Grace's friend at the Swan, 
for he pretends great intimacy with your Grace's family, is very 
solicitous for your health and return ; the latter of which may, I 
suppose, make him so tender of the former." 


E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1747, November 22. Wellwyn. — " Since my last I have been 
in a very bad state ; my clayn more tlian ever painful, my nights 
almost insupportable. What I have felt is, I hope, to your Grace 
quite inconceivable, for so, I am sure, it must be if you was 
never afflicted with the rheumatism yourself ; but I bless God I 
am much, very much better, yet still cannot go abroad without 
suffering by it. As soon as I can I shall attempt waiting on your 
Grace, for Miss Lee is with me now, and sends her humble duty. 

" Though your Grace is so kind to offer it, there is no need of 
any other tar- water than that you mention; its proportions are 
exactly right, and it is the only medicine from which I receive 
any manner of relief. 

" I do not yet hear anything of the result of your Grace's letter ; 
'tis this day a fortnight since I had Mr. Gore's promise to put it 
in Mr. Koberts'^" hand, who, I suppose, had it the next day, and I 
desired it might be returned, which is not yet done. 

"I humbly thank your Grace for the offer of your chaise; I may 
possibly ask the favour of having it meet me at Kickmansworth ; 
but as yet I am all uncertainty and complaint. 

" A second work by the author of Pamela will be published in a 
fortnight, and I fancy your Grace will find amusement in it, if, I 
mean, your taste is for a melancholy tale. I have heard it 
formerly, and not without a tear ; but, as I remember, your Grace 
laughs at fiction ; if so, I must visit others to see them weep. 
Fictitious tears are detestable, tears from fiction are not so. 
May your Grace never have occasion for any other." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1748, February 20. Wellwyn. — " As I opened my chamber 
window this morning pretty early, I was struck with the most 
beautiful landscape I ever saw. Houses, trees, woods, fields, all 
was covered with one entire sheet of snow, not a single footstep 
to be seen, not the least violation of its immaculate virginity. 
What an amiable emblem of universal innocence was this ! But 
since, as I conceive, our innocence is not yet quite universal, I was 
obliged to think of it in another view, and imagine our whole 
polluted species doing penance in a white sheet — as the custom 
still prevails in Scotland — for their secret sins. 

" Now please. Madam, to observe that I send all this to your 
Grace purely as an article of news ; you in town are in another 
world, and know nothing of what passes in the natural scene of 
things. In your hotbed climate frost is warm, and in your sea- 
coal situation snow is black ; in all things you are unlike us 
innocents in the country ; with you honesty is not the best 
policy, nor is the worthy the most honourable man at Court. 

*'But your Grace long ere this censures me for my triviality; the 
weather, you say, is a common topic of discourse, that indeed you 
have often met with it in conversation, but that you never saw it 

* Doubtless John Roberts, Henry Pelham's secretary. Cf. p. 802. 


signed and sealed in the solemnity of an epistle before. Madam, 
I acknowledge the indictment, I plead guilty, I own my letter is 
a kind of frost-piece, and far fitter to make a page among the 
winter months of an almanac than in any other composition, but 
I assure your Grace that the frost has only nipped my fingers ; it 
is got no farther ; my heart lies ten degrees at least southward 
of my hand." 

PostscrijH. — " Madam, that my Lord Duke may before this be 
on a better than a Chinese foot, and that the little ones may long 
trip it with the foot of fairies on Mrs. Delany's light, fantastic 
toe, before they know what pain means, is the hearty prayer of 
their humble servant and admirer. My humble service to my 
physician, Mr. Achard." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1748, [March. Wellwyn] . — ' ' Except Betterton, I never knew a 
player that was a good tragedian, and I never knew a dancing 
master that was a genteel man ; and the cause is the same, they 
both overshoot the mark. This is a fault not to be feared in 
your Grace's band; and the reason is plain; for when persons of 
low education undertake characters of dignity, they can only 
guess at what it is, and so mistake; but when persons in high 
life do the same, they knoic what true dignity is ; they, for 
the time, only change their habits and names ; whereas the 
former must change their manners and nature, which is a much 
harder task. 

" Besides, Madam, who so likely to act a part well, that is, to 
pretend to be what they are not, as persons of a Court education ! 
Dissimulation, which is putting oft ourselves, and simulation, 
which is putting on another's character, I take to be the whole 
science of a courtier. Nor do I speak this to their dishonour, 
but the contrary ; for, through the depravity of our nature there 
is so much in the human heart that ought to be concealed, that 
I cannot but lay it down for a maxim that : — ' They who know not 
how to dissemble, know not how to please.' If this startles your 
Grace's delicacy, consider. Madam, what is virtue, and religion 
itself ? It is little more than curbing the natural tendencies of our 
perverse hearts. If, therefore, courtiers instead of curbing or 
altering their passions, which they can do to admiration on 
secular motives, they did the same on nobler views, courtiers 
would be the best Christians in the world. Your Grace may, 
therefore, congratulate some of your friends on being so near 
that, which, I daresay, they very little suspected. 

" For the reason given above, I believe, with your Grace, that 
the play will be acted to great perfection ; and there is no enter- 
tainment that could give me greater pleasure. But then I like 
not the reason you give for my being present at it. ' Since yon arc 
to preach so soon d-c' says your Grace. I perceive. Madam, the 
satire that is couched in this argument; you mean, ' since you are 
to preach, you can't do wiser than to come to the best school for 


acting a part.' I grant, Madam, no preacher can come up to 
his precepts, but then he thinks it is his duty so to do ; whereas 
many a tailor has acted Alexander the Great, who never thought 
it his duty to demolish the Persian Empire. This is the difference 
— which your Grace would artfully sink — between a Roscius and 
a St. Paul. 

"However your Grace's tartness should not rob me of an enter- 
tainment that would give me so great delight, had I not many 
real tragedies, at this severe season, acting round about me at 
home, in several families distresses, disorders, and deaths. And 
why has Providence ordered that melancholy tales should give 
us pleasure, but to habituate our hearts to tenderness, that they 
may not grow callous when opportunities offer, which may 
render our tenderness of some real use? I fear. Madam, I can- 
not be in town soon enough; but, if not, I am not utterly at a loss 
for some consolation under the disappointment of my desire to 
wait on you. For my comfort is, that even at this distance my 
pride will be highly gratified, though my poor famished eyes and 
ears do not share in the entertainment. For, as it is said, 
that Pygmalion's statue grew warm under his embraces, and of 
stone became flesh ; so, I am persuaded, how dull and inanimate 
a figure soever The Revenge may make on the common stage, its 
condition will be very much altered under such hands ; tJicir 
approbation — not to mention their performance — will give it life. 

" I beg my best compliments for the great honour done me." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1748, April 12. Wellwyn. — " Miss Lee joins me in my best 
thanks for the favours we lately received in town. I left it ill, 
and though I bless God I am better, yet have I no reason as yet 
to boast. 

" This minute I received the rumour of a great victory in 
Flanders; I wish to-morrow's papers do not blast our laurels. I 
should have waited again on your Grace before I left town — as 
Miss Lee told me you desired — but I was in pain, and unwilling 
to make wry faces in company. Miss Lee has acquainted Lord 
Lichfield and her uncle the Admiral*** of her determination to 
marry, so that matter is past retrieve, though against the 
pressing advice of us all. I wish Count Saxe found our officers as 
irresistible as they are found to be at home. This irresistible 
hero is at Portsmouth taking his leave of his friend General 
Blakeney, who there sets sail for Minorca. I expect him here at 
his return. He is purchasing a majority ; the bargain is agreed 
between the parties, and the Duke's leave is waited for, and 
expected very soon. The man seems to me to be a plain and 
honest man, and I can see not much she could fall in love with 
unless it is his integrity, which, methinks, should have more 
charms for an old philosopher than for a young lady. I must 
give your Grace joy of Dr. Drummond's mitre. I hope all is 
well at Whitehall." 

* Fitzroy Henry Lee. Cf. p. 307. 


E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1748, June 4. Wellwyn. — " I much thank you for your very . 
kind letter, which has set my heart at rest from the uneasiness 
of fooHsh expectation and suspense. Your Grace's endeavours j 
were not the less kind for being unsuccessful, and to the kindness ' 
of a friend our gratitude is due, and not to his success. 

' ' I should think myself happy to see Bullstrode in its glory, but f 
I fear it will not be in my power ; the bride " and bridegroom! &c. 
are with me, and how long their stay, and what expedition lawyers 
will make in their concerns with them — in which I am concerned \ 
— is as yet uncertain, for there is a suit still depending about her 
brother Lee's will, which we must attend till it is finished. 

'* A young gentleman was with me last week, with whom your i / 
Grace lately made an assignation. He has but four thousand I 
pounds a year, and he came into my neighbourhood to take 
possession of a parsonage of one hundred and twenty pounds per 
annum, but it seems it is for the benefit of a minor. 

" I give your Grace joy of a glorious piece of news, which 
probably you may live to see accomplished; I shall not. Mr. ,/ 
Whiston was with me this morning, and has assured me that j ^ 
eighteen years hence the Jews will be converted, and that twenty | 
years hence the Millennium will begin, and next week he begins a : 
course of lectures in town to satisfy the world in that particular. 
Lady Wallingford will probably have a curiosity to see the new 
buildings at Jerusalem, for that city is to be rebuilt; till that 
happy scene arrives your Grace may look with satisfaction on the 
beauties of Bullstrode, but afterwards it will be of no manner of 
note. If Mr. Achard would travel so far, he would probably see 
that the mathematics are as yet but in their minority." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1748, September 25. Wellwyn. — " I ask Lady Primrose's 
pardon and your Grace's, that I did not wait on her sooner and 
oftener ; but it was a pretty w^hile after she was in these parts 
before I knew of it, and afterwards I was prevented from that 
honour extremely against my inclination ; though I knew not 
what I had lost by it till after my visit, when she gave me much 
occasion to think well of her understanding, besides her profess- 
ing her just and great opinion of your Grace. 

"Madam, I accept your very kind invitation, and his Grace's, to 
Bullstrode with great gratitude and pride, but whether I shall be 
so happy as to take the advantage of it, as yet I cannot say. \ 
Mrs. Haviland is now in town putting her goods on board for ;/ 
the North, but she returns to me next week for some — as yet — j 
uncertain time; I suppose, it depends on the Major's being com- ' 
manded to his post. All that I, therefore, can at present say is, 
that whenever health and circumstances admit, I shall be happy 
in paying my duty to you. 

* Caroline Lee, granddaughter of the first Earl of Lichfield, and Young's 

t William, afterwards General, Haviland. 


*'I am extremely [glad] to hear so comfortable an accomit of 

the matrmionial harmony between Mrs. and Mr. L d, and 

indeed the more so, because I had lately heard quite the contrary, 
and with this particular circumstance, that, though the fact was 

true, yet Mrs. L d to all her acquaintance declared the contrary. 

Which I accounted for in my own mind from that uncommon 
sweetness of temper, and prudence, of which I think her mistress. 
And though much urged, as the persons knew me to be no 

stranger to Mrs. L d, all I saicl, or could say, was, that, if 

the report was true, I thought myself confident that Mrs. L d 

was not the occasion of it, or, if she is, no appearances in your 
sex are ever to be trusted. 

"Your Grace mentions not a word of my Lady Oxford, though 

I writ in hopes of paying my duty to her on her journey ; which 

I puts me in mind of your Grace's going by my door last year 

w' yourself as if it had been a stranger's. Madam, unextinguished 

^ ambition will put such things in one's head, though I, who am 

so often receiving fresh honours from your Grace, have, I confess, 

the less reason to complain. 

"If, Madam, Mrs. L d is still with you, I beg my best compli- 

, ments, and let her know^ that her friend Mr. Eichardson left me but 

^ on Saturday last, and that she may expect to see before Christmas 

I part of her own amiable picture in the remaining part of Clarissa. 

" I know your Grace has no great esteem of this author; there- 

, fore in a letter to you I shall suppress my admiration of him, 

• and will only, instead of panegyrist, turn prophet, and let your 

I Grace know that your great grandchildren will read, and not 

I without tears, the sheets which are now in the press. They will 

\ pay their grandmamma's debt to this poor injured man ; and 

\ injured in a point which would touch him most nearly, if he 

knew your Grace, and knew your opinion of him." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 



1748, November 22. Charles Street, Westminster. — " I am 
greatly obliged to your Grace for your enquiry after my health. 
It is, I bless God, much better, but my yesterday's journey to this 
place has much fatigued me. I am very sorry for Mr. Hay, but 
hope a Lisbon sun may do much, when there are no physicians to 
hinder its operation ; though I think there is something both in 
Mr. Hay's manners and appearance that looks as if he was more 
fit to make an angel than a man ; as the world goes. 

" This moment I received a letter out of .Scotland, and find by it 
that Mrs. Haviland will soon have it in her power — and I dare- 
say in her inclination — to wait on Lady Bell Monk in Ireland. 
Thus are we tossed about on the face of the earth till we are 
gathered to our fathers. 

"I rejoice that all is so well at Bullstrode, the health of those we 
esteem is our best cordial unde'r the want of our own. 

" A friend of your Grace's not long since deceased in Hertford- 
shire has, I hear, many claimants to what he left behind him, but 


I hope no one will claim his bad example of dying intestate, which 
occasions all this trouble. I hear his curiosities will come into 
the hands of your friend Mr. West.**"' 

"Now I am in town I shall talk with Mr. Eichardson on the 
point mentioned in your Grace's last letter but one ; and if I 
find him guilty either of impertinence or illnature, I shall have a 
less opinion of mankind than I had before ; for I own I conceived 
him to be as incapable of either as any man on earth. But we 
are all very frail, and he that answers for another in almost any 
thing only shows that his knowledge of human nature is net 
equal to his zeal for his friend." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1748, January 29. Wellwyn. — " I rejoice that Mrs. Lambert 
has made her spouse so agreeable a present, such presents are 
great peacemakers, where peace is wanted, and pour fresh oil 
into the lamp of love, where it burns the brightest. I heartily 

hope my friend R n was a false prophet ; prophets of old 

had tw^o provinces, one w^as to foretell, the other was to instruct. 
Though he may have failed in the first, yet he has not in the 
last. Has your Grace read his Clarissa ? What a beautiful brat 
of the brain is there ! I wish your Grace would stand god- 
mother, and give it its name, Clarissa the Divine. That romance 
will probably do more good than a body of Divinity. If all 
printers could turn such authors, I would turn printer in order 
to be instrumental in promoting such benefit to mankind. 

"And yet. Madam, this excellent offspring of the imagination 
was in danger of having been stifled in its birth ; or, at least, of 
having been made a changeling. I think your Grace knows Mr. 
Littleton; he, Mr. Fielding, Gibber, &c., all of them pressed the 
author very importunately to make his story end happily ; but does 
not your Grace think that it is infinitely better as it is ? It does 
end happily, most happily, for Clarissa in the sense of all who do not 
terminate their notions of happiness at the grave. The reader 
that has most faith and virtue will be most pleased with this 
composition. I look on it therefore as a sort of touchstone for 
the readers of this virtuous age, who, while they think they are 
only passing their judgment on another's ingenuity, will make a 
discovery of their own hearts. 

" Your Grace is so good as to desire to see me in town. When in 
town I shall have the honour of waiting on you, but I have no 
thoughts of being there soon, though some of my neighbours 
seem to have an irresistible call to the Green Park. The cold 
weather, I suppose, makes them fond of fire. Instead of 
squibs and crackers, I shall humbly content myself with sun, 
moon, and stars, those glorious fireworks of that great King 
who in the noblest sense is the author of peacCy and lover of 

* Doubtless the antiquary James West, at this. date M.P, for St, Albans. 
Cf. p. 316 infra. 



E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1748, December 18. Wellwyn. — "Not being at home when 
your Grace's letter came, this cannot come to you till Thursday; 
and on Thursday sennight, that is St. Thomas's day, I am obliged to 
be at home again, if I have the honour of waiting on you ; and that 
time is so short, that I had rather choose some other opportunity. 

' ' When I was in town I talked with the author of Clarissa ; he 
and your Grace I find from the beginning were of different 
sentiments, though I daresay of equal good intention ; you for, 
he against, the match; he against it, from the great inequality 
of age ; your Grace for it, from — I suppose — such an opinion of 
the young lady's temper and prudence as rendered that objection 
of no weight. You prophesied good, and he, ill ; and now you 
are both for verifying your several prophecies ; which is all that 
I can make, on my best enquiry, of this matter. 

"Mr.L being often in the Tunbridge season at the Wells, 

and she, never, though much enquired after, gave, I find, some 
ground for suspicion, but whether a just ground or not, they 
themselves alone can tell. 

"I have got Mr. Monk to write to Ireland to procure Mrs. 
Haviland, who will soon be there, the honour of Lady Bell's 
countenance at her arrival in a strange land. 

" May this. Madam, find your Grace happy, happy in yourself, 
and in all you hold dear ; this I ardently wish, because, whenever 
I have the satisfaction of hearing good news from Bullstrode, I 
shall be truly capable of enjoying it, though I am not on the place." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1749, May 7. Wellwyn. — "About three months ago I had the 
honour of a letter from your friend Mrs. Delany. As its contents 
were of the greatest importance, I immediately wrote an answer, 
and that duty done, took the liberty to close my letter with an 
humble request for a favour at her hands with regard to poor 
Mrs. Haviland now in the barracks at Drogheda, and in the 
ensuing winter proposing to be at Dublin, where I thought I 
could not do better for her, either with regard to her happiness 
or reputation, than to recommend her to the countenance of 
Mrs. Delany. But I have had no letter from Mrs. Delany since, 
which, considering Mrs. Delany's goodness and complaisance, 
makes me suspect that my letter never came to her hand. 
I remember at that time I doubted if my direction was right; and 
therefore I humbly beg the favour of your Grace to let me know 
how I am to direct to her, though I should have thought that 
a letter directed to Mrs. Delany in Ireland could not have mis- 
carried. She shines not only with her own light, but with that 
of her spouse, and how with such a lustre to lead it, could a letter 
lose its way? " 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1749, August 3. Wellwyn. — " You desire me to tell you how 
your heart shall get clear of forming ineffectual wishes ; it is, I 


grant, a sad distemper ; yet, though your Grace does me the 
honour of making me your physician in ordinary, yet can I not 
in conscience wish you quite free from this disease, because I 
verily think there is no such thing as a perfect cure of it but 
death. However, there are some palHatives that may soften the 
pain it is apt to give us. 

^' First, Madam, I can adminster to your Grace a mahcious 
kind of consolation from the great number of your fellow sufferers, 
for no disease is so epidemic ; but this is, I know, a medicine that 
that will go against your stomach. 

"I had rather, therefore, observe that frequent blows of dis- 
appointment deaden the sensibility of the heart, and thus this 
distemper, at long run, like the scorpion, cures the wound it gives. 

"But the chief recipe I would prescribe may be called the 
balance; I mean, Madam, that your Grace should not permit a 
a disappointed wish to give you more pain than a successful one 
gives you joy ; and then I am persuaded you would find the 
violence of your distemper, in a great measure, abated. But to 
play the mountebank no longer, I descend from my stage into a 
perfect patient myself ; and must own that I am as much, if not 
more distempered, in spite of all my quackery, than your Grace. 
For I severely feel the disappointment of my sincere desire of 
seeing Bullstrode, which pleasure is denied me by friends that are 
to be with me for the summer. I humbly beg that my not waiting 
on your Grace may not be misunderstood ; for I am ashamed of 
having been honoured with so many kind invitations, and should 
be still more ashamed of not enjoying the advantage of them, if 
the occasion of it was not most real and unavoidable." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1749, September 17. Wellwyn. — "It grieves me that I cannot 
wait on you at St. Albans, as I designed, but am necessarily pre- 
vented. Your Grace will perceive by the enclosed that I must 
have had great inclination to talk with you. My friend Mr. 
Kichardson, your Grace will perceive, is very uneasy ; and, I am / 
confident is very honest ; if therefore on the perusal you can 
furnish me, at your Grace's leisure, with anything of consolation 
to him I shall rejoice. 

" I am. Madam, extremely sensible of the many and undeserved 
honours I receive at your hands. What would I not give to 
wait on you and my Lord Duke at Wellwyn ! I wish your 
Grace would change the conditions for any other on earth ; for / 
such is my state of health, that so late in the year I dare not be v 
from home. 

" Madam, the bar to my design and promise of waiting on your ; 
Grace at St. Albans was a coachful of ladies, who came to dine 
with me. 

" The latter part of the enclosed is the only part that desires 
the favour of your perusal, and such answer to it as your Grace's 
benevolence shall think proper, for I know poor Kichardson' s 
great delicacy is quite in pain about it." 


E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1749, October 5. Wellwyn. — "Accept my most cordial thanks 
for the honour your Grace and my Lord Duke so lately did 
me at this place ; had you continued but four hours longer, you 
would have seen the ladies you talked of the night before, 
Mrs. Montague and my Lady Sandwich. They dined at the 
Lnn, and drank tea with me ; and I breakfasted with them the 
next day, after which they went to town, both their husbands, 
as I understand, being there. As far as I can look into her at 
present I like Lady Sandwich very well ; her manner is very 
unlike that of her friend. They came from Hinchingbrook, 
where Mrs. Montague has spent some time with her ladyship. 
I asked her if she had any commands to Bullstrode, for that I 
should write soon ; she answered, that she should write herself 
on Tuesday night ; your Grace can tell whether her veracity is 
inviolable or not. 

"I hope your Grace had a pleasant journey, a safe arrival, and 
the happy welcome of finding all well ; my hopes are the more 
lively on this occasion at present, being awakened by a sad fire 
which happened in our neighbourhood the night after your 
Grace left us, which has reduced three poor families to great 
distress ; it was occasioned by a 'careless disposal of their lime. 

" I defer writing to poor Kichardson till by your Grace's favour 
I hear what Mrs. Lambart says to his letter. If he was to 
blame, it is evident he repents, and it is the interest of us all to 
wish that much power may be afforded to repentance. But I 
presume no farther ; your Grace knows what is fit and right to 
be done in the case, and, I am confident, will be for no other 
measures in it." 

Postscript. — "Since I writ the former part of my letter. North, 
Mr. West's friend, came to make me a visit, and in the course of 
our conversation — without the least provocation or hint from 
me — told me that the rise of his friend was owing to some secret 
he had to communicate to persons in power. I said, I questioned 
it, on which he told me that he had it from Mr. West's agent 
at St. Albans, who stood in such nearness to him that his 
information could not be questioned." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1749, [October]. Wellwyn. — " Your Grace is extremely 
obliging, and your present very acceptable. I have now another 
flock besides that of my parishioners, and I fear much the more 
innocent of the two. 

"I received the honour of your Grace's first letter, but it was 
after mine to [your] Grace was written, or I should have made 
my acknowledgments for it. Mrs. Hallows knows not how to 
express her sense of your Grace's so great favour; and Mrs. Ward 
is not with me. I am sorry to hear that I have seen the best of 

Lady S h, and as for her companion I found her out before 

your Grace did, which occasioned the disregard I showed her at 


Tunbridge, of which I know she complained to your Grace. The 
paragraph you favour me with, Madam, relating to Mrs. Lambart 
gives me real pleasure, for poor Richardson is a low-spirited 
man, and not only deserves but wants satisfactions. 

'' I return. Madam, my particular thanks for the receipts and 
medicine, and for that especially that encounters a_spre throat, 
my greatest enemy, to which I am most subject; but I shall 
stand less in dread of it for the future. 

"Lady Primrose and a friend of hers were, some time since, 
about taking a house in Oxfordshire, but the bargain went off, 
and they could not get it. Sometime after Lady Primrose met her 
friend, and was regretting that they missed that pretty place. 
'No,' says her friend, 'I have taken it.' 'How so?' says Lady 
Primrose with great joy. 'Why,' says her friend, 'I have married 
the landlord of it.' Which is very true. It is one Captain 
Hervey, with whom I am w^ell acquainted. 

"Your Grace asks, on a very proper occasion, ' Is it possible for 
a man to glory in his villainies ? ' Yes, Madam, so very possible 
that some have committed villainies purely to glory in them, but 
the gentleman in question fixed his prudent choice on something 
more substantial, and, we may suppose, in pure gaiety of heart 
from his extraordinary success, let the secret inadvertently drop 
from him. For that it did come from him in conversation, and 
that with a person of low rank, I have indisputable conviction." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1749, December 26. Wellwyn. — " Myjeye is just as it was, I 
cannot make use of it without uneasiness; but it would be 
greater uneasiness to me not to thank your Grace in a few 
words for your most kind enquiry. I rejoice in the welfare of 
your amiable fireside, and hope the little exception to it in the 
Archbishop will soon cease. I do not hope, but prophesy that 
my Lord Titchfield will advance in all things to your own 
heart's desire. It is natural to Mrs. Delany to leave marks of 
great ingenuity behind her wherever she goes, and still more 
natural to leave them there where she knows they will be 
relished by an exquisite taste, and be acknowledged by a heart in 
which it is her glory to have so large a share. To her and the 
Dean, I beg my best compliments, and my humble duty to my 
Lord Duke." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1750, April 20. Wellwyn. — "I was lately in conversation with 
a certain gentleman who pressed me much to bring my old 
tragedy on the stage, and he told me that your Grace had 
promised to second him in tliat request. I should be very glad 
to know at your Grace's leisure if this be true ; for I have certain 
inferences to make from the veracity, or the contrary, of this 





"I beg your Grace to pardon my liberty, and my brevity, for I 
am still under my late complaint as to my eye. When the sun is 
highest the shadow is least. I cannot say that the shortness of 
my letter proceeds from the height of my regard, but I can 
truly say it is absolutely consistent with it." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1750, October 21. Wellwyn. — "The many and great favours 
I have received at your hands make it my duty to comply with 
your requests ; your high rank makes it my ambition, and your 
Grace's amiable accomplishment makes it my pleasure, and the 
honour you did Wellwyn last year makes it an absolute debt in 
me to wait on you. Now it may seem somewhat odd that a man 
cannot comply with his duty and his own earnest desires. 

"But indeed. Madam, the case really stands thus. Soon after I 
had the honour of your Grace's last letter I was obliged to go to 
Winchester, where I had a son at the then election standing for 
a fellowship of a college in Oxford ; applications to the electors, 
&c., detained me there till the latter end of September; then 
business carried me into Surrey, where I continued some time, 
determining on my return to Wellwyn to set out for Bullstrode ; 
but on coming home I found a letter from the Speaker proposing 
to meet his son from Cambridge at my house : this I knew not 
how well to decline, and hoping their meeting would be soon, I 
still proposed waiting on your Grace afterward. But the Speaker 
put it off from time to time, and now at last he has let me know 
that he will be with me to-morrow, and probably he may stay till 
the end of the week. This pushes me too far into the winter to 
venture a journey, for the least cold flings me into pains of which 
my Lord Duke may have some idea, but your Grace can have 
none at all." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1750, November 4. Wellwyn. — " Notwithstanding my truant 
behaviour this summer, I am not altogether absent from 
Bullstrode ; I am as much there as a person at this distance can 
possibly be. I run over most of your alterations in my fancy, 
and am exceedingly pleased with them ; nor am I at all 
surprised at it, considering whose taste and genius presides over 
that scene so very capable of shining ; and I am persuaded that 
your Grace can change most things for the better but yourself. 
This, Madam, I think is courtly, and on the credit of it, I beg 
leave to step into your flower-garden, of which you are so fond. 
Why, truly, it is a most gorgeous apartment of your paradise. 
What shapes ! what colours ! what combinations of them ! what 
varieties ! what inimitable patterns for human art to copy after ! 
Even a duchess's fingers are far distanced by them. Poor 
Solomon ! what a beggarly appearance dost thou make in all thy 
glory compared with these ! But I am apt to believe. Madam, 
that if Solomon was with us, and sufficiently disengaged from 


the infatuations of his seragHo, he would be likely to say some- 
thing to this purpose: — 'If these things so delight us, if the 
glories of the vegetable world so much claim our admiration, 
how much more so, the glories, the flowers of the moral world ; 
where there are so many deformed and poisonous weeds to set oif, 
as so many foils, their amiability ! where there are ten thousand 
Mackleans*""* to one Duke of Portland ! ' 

" These are flowers indeed worth rearing, flowers that engage 
the care, and cultivation, and superintendence, and affection 
of superior beings, fill their invisible paths amongst us with 
fragrancy, and ever shine in their sight. Pardon the boldness 
if I say that the Archangels Michael and Gabriel &c. are florist 
with regard to these ; they gaze on them, and protect them for 
a season, and then to make their fate as happy as their beauties 
are bright, they will gather them one day in glorious clusters 
and present them to the Supreme. To whose great protection I, 
who am but grass, most cordially recommend your Grace and 
the little flowers of your family." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1751, July 26. Wellwyn. — "A lady of my acquaintance, who 
has a good hand at match-making, and who has lately brought : y 
together the proprietor of Pensilvania and a daughter of the . ^ 
Lord Pomfret, is now with them at my Lord's seat in North- 
amptonshire, and is to spend some days with [me] at her return ; ' 
I expect, the latter end of this week ; which unavoidable accident 
denies me that honour and pleasure which your Grace so very 
obligingly offers me. But I most humbly request that, at going 
into the north, or at your return, or both, you would refresh my 
spirit by resting yourself under my roof. 

" I rejoice in the restoration of your Grace's health, and I hope 
I may congratulate my most worthy Lord Duke on the same 
account. There has been nothing but death about me. Mr. 
West called on me not long ago, and gave me the pleasure of 
hearing you was w^ell, and of carrying or forgetting to carry my 
respects to your Grace, with whom he was to dine that week. 
Ho came into these parts in order to purchase for his sister a 
considerable estate of one Lady Cotton. Our neighbour. Lady > 
_Caroline Cowpei^ is gone to Bristol for her health. 

" Your Grace perceives, I pump hard for news; and therefore I 
will give it over, and content myself with assuring you that 
words cannot express the satisfaction it will give me to wait on 
your Grace at Wellwyn." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1751, September 8. Wellwyn. — "Your commands are sacred, 
and therefore I write, but my eye incommodes me, and therefore 
I write shorter than I ougBTt^ Bui I will make some amends for 

* The gentleman highwayman James Maolaine or Maclean had reoentlj^ been 
executed iit Tyburn. 


the brevity of my letter by the hnportance of it, for I shall speak 
of your Grace's friends. Mrs. Donellan is setting out for 
Ireland to take possession of wealth on her mother's death. 
Mrs. Delany in a letter, and that a very ingenious one, to a friend 
of mine, says, among other things, that there is but one Duchess 
of Portland, in which she speaks the sense of the nation, and 
give me leave to add, that I believe there is but one Lady Oxford, 
to whom, and my Lord Duke, I beg my humble duty." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1751, September 29. Wellwyn. — "In order to give the 
reason for not waiting on your Grace according to your and my 
Lord Duke's very kind desire, I find myself obliged to let you 
into a secret, which I desire you not to communicate. I am. 
Madam, printing a piece of prose, and am obliged to correct the 
press myself, which forces me to be in town till that affair is 
over ; and if I can so hasten it as to have it done in time, the 
piece and its author shall wait on you together ; if not, I shall 
send your Grace the piece as soon as finished. I shall send 
it to no one else, not putting my name to it, and for some 
reasons desiring the writer may be concealed; which reasons your 
Grace may possibly guess at, if you do the thing the honour of 
a perusal. As for the performance, let that be as it will, I am 
sure the subject is such as will meet with your approbation. To 
show you that my good wishes — as in duty bound — run very, 
very high for you and yours, I wish you all more happiness than 
you deserve." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1752, August 6. Wellwyn. — " I this day received the drops, 
and with them a demonstration of your great kindness to me ; as 
for your Grace's uant of cajmcity mentioned in your last, I am 
not in the least concerned about it, for I bless God I have more 
than I want, which is more than most princes can say. 

"Madam, I should never more have mentioned to you anything 
about preferment ; but, since your Grace glances at it in your last, 
pardon me, if. out of pure curiosity I ask what your crony, the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, meant by a letter to me two or three 
years ago, in which he says, that ' he would say nothing to me, 
but that he had acquainted my friend the Duchess of Portland 
with what concerned my interest.' I suppose His Grace meant 
to say something that was agreeable, unconcerned for anything 
more, for I have neither heard from nor writ to him since. 

" Your Grace, if you please, may at your leisure unriddle this; 
if not, I am quite contented to continue still in the dark." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1753, December 16. Wellwyn. — "I received with joy your 
kind remembrance of me, but far otherwise at the same time your 
Grace's black catalogue of calamities. You say Mrs. Donellan 
has been in danger ; we see therefore that a good understanding 
is no security. You say Mrs. Montague is in danger ; therefore 


it is certain that wit can make nothing more than a poor name 
immortal. You say, Madam, that Mrs. Delany is better ; there- 
fore she, to my sorrow, has been ill ; long may she live, not only 
to give a lustre to your Grace's grotto, but an ornament to your 

"When such as these suffer, what impudence is it in me to 
complain ! Though you, Madam, have had more than your share, 
yet have you not engrossed all colds to yourself. I have been 
much out of order; but am, I bless God, much better, and rear 
my head once more to see most of my old acquaintance and 
friends drop before me. My Lord Thanet was with me not long 
ago, and now I am at a loss how to return his visit." 

Postscript. — "Mrs. Delany 's humiliation, which your Grace 
speaks of, and your own lyresumption, is to me mysterious and 
unfathomable ; uncommon excellence is a sure charm against 
humiliation, and the presumption of conferring favours is a new 
figure of speech which few, uninspired by Bullstrode's clear air, 
would be able to decipher. But I suppose you two ladies, 
influenced by this season of town entertainments, are pleased to 
put your merry meaning in masquerade, to make a country 
parson stare, and your own polite circle smile. Nor can I take it 
ill ; jokes at Christmas want no excuse. However since I have 
detected you, I believe you ladies will be more sparing of your 
raillery in j'our next ; but since raillery is a symptom of health, 
may it continue, may it increase ; for, I assure you, on that con- 
sideration, the more you two invalids are pleased to laugh at 
your humble servant, the more abundantly will he rejoice." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1754, June 25. Wellwyn. — " Through a long absence from 
home, I have but just now received the honour of your last letter. 
I heartily rejoice with you on my Lady Oxford's good state of 
health, and am sorry to hear that your Grace has had reason to 
complain. You cure everybody but yourself. I thank your 
Grace I have found great benefit from your medicine. I should 
have ])een very glad to have waited on you at St. Albans, 
had the fates permitted. I received a present of his late pub- 1 
lished sermons from Dr. Delany, and as bound in gratitude, as ; 
well as charity, much rejoice in the turn his law-affair has taken i 
in his favour. 

" I am glad. Madam, that my friend Mr. Richardson has had / 
the happiness to recover your Grace's good opinion. I am con- 
fident he deserves it. As for the fountain from which the mischief 
sprang, I am sure it is a foul one, and therefore desire not to be 
better acquainted with it." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1755, September 7. Wellwyn. — "I have public duty always 
three days in the week, and often much more ; and at present I 

have no curate, nor can I get any. It is therefore utterly out of ^ 

6802 X 




my power to accept your Grace's kind and most obliging invita- 
tion, which otherwise I should have accepted with the utmost 
satisfaction, and shall ever remember with the greatest gratitude. 

"I congratulate you. Madam, and the public on Lord Titch- 
field's recovery ; the public is your rival, nor will you be sorry 
for such a rival in your love. 

" With what a relish you speak of your most amiable friend ! 
Your Grace has an excellent pencil, I never saw a more lovely 
family-piece, except at BuUstrode. 

"They, Madam, that are happy in their friends and near 
relations enjoy more than any other circumstances of life can 
give ; and that this for ever may be your case is the prayer of 
one who has missed friends where they were most to be expected, 
and found them, thanks to your Grace, where they were least 
deserved, by no means an uncommon case." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

/Lc^ 1756, January 20. Wellwyn. — *' Your last letter is an emblem 

^r^ f^ of the world, full of misfortunes and death. What reason have 

r A^^ they to bless Heaven who escape so many chances against them ! 

•^.^^'^>. Yet how few are there who can find out in the calamities of 

^f others God Almighty's admonition to themselves! My Lord 

tX , Bolingbroke's letter is w^ritten in a masterly manner. What pity 

it is that fine talents and integrity should ever be parted ! 

^^/^ While together they make an angel, and their separation gives 

^ us the precise and complete character of Lucifer. And yet from 

*c6y the beginning of the w^orld thus has it been, more or less. It is 

J- X very observable that all curious arts were found out by the 

descendants of Cain, who, by the way, fled his native country, 

and had a mark of infamy fixed upon him. I rejoice at 

Mr. Murray's recovery, and w^hen I have a sore throat your 

Grace shall certainly be my physician. I knew not that 

Mrs. Bellenden was dead. Does your Grace converse with my 

Lady Cowper ? She is come into my neighbourhood, and claims 

old acquaintance with me. I think there is something agreeable 

in her manner, for as yet I know her no farther. 

*' I have no thoughts at present of seeing the town soon; but I 

shall see it the sooner because your Grace is in it. I wish there 

were a few more such scattered up and down in it, to sweeten its 

corrupted mass, and reprieve it for another century. I hope that 

I Wellwyn will this summer lie in the way of your Grace's travels; 

I if so, I will show you what a fine colony of sheep your Grace has 

I transplanted from your own Arcadia into a foreign land. I wish 

f I could prevail with my flock to imitate their innocence; but 

they, like their betters, make innocence their prey, for they have 

stolen two of my lambs." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland, 

1756, July 29. Wellwyn. — '* Heaven re-establish your health 
and restore your spirits, without either of which the living have 



little to boast above the dead. Last week Lady Cowper gave me 
an account of Mrs. Delany, but mentioned not her indisposition, 
of which, I suppose, she was ignorant, for she professes a great 
value for her. For the sake of all that know her, as well as her 
own, I heartily hope her perfect recovery. 

''But to come still nearer to your Grace's heart, I congratulate 
you on Lady Harriet's health, nor less on Lord Titchfield's 
late-gained reputation. May he one day be the pride of the 
nation, as he is now of the University, and then the public will 
thank your Grace for giving it an ornament which posterity shall 
not forget. 

"Poor Lord Andover! but as I know not his character, I can- 
not tell if his death is to be deplored, or envied. Nothing is 
more to be envied than the death of the good. Last night I 
buried a most valuable woman, and her as profligate husband, 
now on his deathbed, I shall bury very soon. He was her death 
by his unkindness, and his own by his debauchery. The 
difference of their last hours, to which I have been privy, carries 
in it an instruction which no words can express. 

"Your Grace is so kind as to enquire after my health: I have 
had a very dangerous fever, which was not easily subdued, but 
God Almighty is pleased to continue me here longer at my peril. 
I say. Madam, at my peril, as, if we do not truly repent, longer 
life will prove in the event a curse, and if we do, death, which 
we so much dread, is the greatest blessing." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1758, July 9. Wellwyn. — "I am very sorry that, when you 
did me the honour of calling at Mr. Eichardson's, I was not there, 
but much more sorry for your Grace's indisposition. God in His 
mercy remove it for the sake of many, and particularly of two 
such sons, for whose welfare the public concern will rival your 

"Was I not at present confined for want of an assistant I 
should rejoice to add to the number oFyour an1ma?5 or rather of 
your plants^ for at present I have no locomotive faculty. 

" I hope with your Grace that my Lord Anson's news may be 
good. And now pardon me, Madam, if I presume to enquire 
after some news from your Grace. 

" I have lately by a dedication taken on me to put his Majesty / 
in mind of my long service, but, I take for granted, without any 
manner of effect. I perceive by your Grace that all hopes 
are over ; but though hopes are over, my curiosity is not ; that is 
rather increased. For as I was chaplain to his Majesty, even at ^ 
Leicester House, and as all other chaplains there were soon 
preferred after his Majesty's accession but myself, and as many, 
many years ago the Duke of Newcastle promised me — through j 
the Duke of Portland's kindly presenting me to him — prefer- 
ment after two then to be provided for by him before me, and ! 
as there is no instance to be found of any other so long in service 
under total neglect, there must be some particular reason for my 



very particular fate, which reason, as I cannot possibly guess at 
it, I most ardently long to know. 

''Your Grace's interest with persons in power is at least so 
great as to be able to gratify my very natural and very strong 
curiosity a little in this point." 

Postscript. — " This may seem to your Grace an extraordinary 
request ; but please, Madam, to consider, here has a thing hap- 
pened which never happened before, and which very probably 
will never happen again. How natural then for any, especially 
for him who is most concerned in it, to wish, if possible, to know 
the cause of it, for I am not conscious of the least cause I have 
given for it." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1758, September 7. Wellwyn. — "Your Grace is extremely 
kind in the noble offer you are pleased to make me ; whether it 
is tenable with Wellwyn or not, I cannot tell; but be it so, or not, 
your Grace's goodness lays me under an eternal obligation. If 
it should not be tenable with Wellwyn, wdll your Grace pardon 
me if [I] ask a bold question ? Can your great indulgence go so 
far as to give it to my son ? As that would greatly increase my 
great obligation, that would much more than double the favour 
of giving it to myself. 

"My son, Madam, is a student at Balliol College in Oxford; he 
is betw^een twenty-five and twenty-six years of age ; I left the 
choice of his way of life to himself ; he chose Divinity ; his tutor 
writes me word that he makes a laudable progress in it, and he 
will take orders very soon. 

"I thought it my duty to let your Grace know something of the 
person in whose behalf I presume to ask so very great a favour." 

Postscript. — " If, Madam, I can obtain that request I now pre- 
sume to make, I shall look upon all former disappointments as 
advantages, when ending in what I so very much desire." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1759, April 14. Wellwyn. — " I return many thanks for the 
joy you have given me by the most agreeable contents of your 
kind letter. I can easily conceive your Grace's great solicitude, 
during the dependence of a point of so very great moment to 
your own happiness, and the happiness of one so justly dear to 
you ; but that solicitude is greatly — thanks to Heaven — over- 
balanced by your present satisfaction in having well accomplished 
the most material transaction in human life. 

"Your Grace's relations are now increased, and since they may 
now increase yearly, may every increase make a new article in 
the list of your enjoyments, till you arrive at those enjoyments 
which will admit of no increase or end. I beg Lady Weymouth 
to accept my most sincere congratulation, and my hearty 
prayer for her as great happiness as that most happy state of 
life can confer on those who deserve it most, in the little number 
of whom, I believe, her ladyship justly claims a place. 


"May your Grace always — as now — hear froiiiy and o/, Lord 
Titchfield to your perfect satisfaction, and may the next news I 
hear of my Lord Duke be more to my satisfaction than that 
which you can afford me now. Virtue is no securit}^ against the 
accidents of human Hfe, but it is a great security to our patience 
under them." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1759, October 28. Wellwyn. — "From my heart I rejoice at 
the delightful scene of your Grace's family-happiness in all the 
noble and lovely branches of it ; for that is a happiness of all 
other under Heaven the most valuable, except that which is in 
the still narrower space of our own bosoms. 

" May the pleasure, and satisfaction, which you found at 
Longleat be but the beginning of those joys that shall arise 
from prudent and fortunate disposal of those you love in the 
marriage-state, in which we throw the die for the highest stake 
in human life. 

"To make that hazardous die turn up aright, nothing bids 
fairer than that similitude of tempers which you have discovered 
in my Lord and Lady Weymouth. It not only gives present 
happiness, but its promises of future are very great, because it is 
a private bisque in our sleeve which the caprices of outward 
fortujie can never rob us of. 

"As far as I can judge of Lady Harriet's temper — I think 1 have 
observed it — it seems to me to be such that it will be a difficulty 
on your Grace to lind its fellow in our sex. May she find it, or 
— what will be more to her honour and pleasure — make it, in 
the man she honours with her hand. 

" As for my Lord Titchfield, may you ever, Madam, receive 
accounts of him, and news from him, as agreeable as was your 
last, that your heart, which, you say, is with him, and which, I 
say, is then in good and sweet company, may for ever rejoice in 
him, and in the prospect of his conveying his mother's and 
father's virtues into future times, to bless those who, by his 
laudable conduct, will probably be put in mind of days past, and 
recollect to whom they owe sach a son, and so be the less 
surprised, though not less pleased, with what they love or admire 
in him." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1760, November 20. Wellwyn. — " More than once I have j 
heard the famous Mr. Addison say that it wiis much his wish — | 
if it so pleased God — to die in the summer, because then, walking | 
abroad, he frequently contemplated the works of God, which gave 
such a serious turn and awful composure to the mind as best 
qualified it to enter the Divine presence. 

" Summer scatters us abroad into the fields to gather wisdom 
there, if we please ; the storms of winter drive us back to shelter, 
and contemplation gives place to company. Happy they that 


enjoy such as those which your Grace says are now with you ! 
Music is a deHcious entertainment, and the only one that I know 
of, which earth enjoys in common with heaven. Long may you 
enjoy those pleasures here which bid fairest to end in such as 
will never cease; lovei^s of reading and work are most likely to 
make those their choice." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1761, January 20. Wellwyn. — "I have taken some hours to 
consider of the very kind offer your Grace is so good to make me. 
I am old, and, I bless God, far from want ; but as the honour is 
great and the duty small, and such as need not take much from 
my parish, and especially as your Grace seems desirous I should 
accept it, I do accept it with great gratitude for your remembrance 
of one who might easily and naturally be forgotten. 

" The honour, indeed, is great, and in my sight greater still, as 
I succeed to so great and good a man. Would to God I could 
tread in all his other steps as well as this ! " 


E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1762, May 27. Wellwyn. — " Of all the severe dispensations, 
with which a good God is pleased wean our affections from those 
objects which can never satisfy them, the most severe is the 
loss of those we love ; and if by His grace and our own prudence 
we can support our spirits under that, we may congratulate 
ourselves on a magnanimity that is able to stand the greatest 
shock of this short scene, into which we were brought with no 
other intent than by our gratitude for its comforts and acquies- 
cence in its discipline to make ourselves fit candidates for that 
glorious scene where tears shall be wiped from every eye. 

"Madam, may that Friend who will never leave or forsake us 
continue to speak peace to your soul, by inspiring it with true 
discernment of those blessings which are wrapped up in the 
melancholy veil of our present afdictions, and with the most 
lively hope of those joys which are free from all those unpleasant, 
but wholesome ingredients, which ever embitter the highest 
happiness of human life." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1762, June 1. Wellwyn. — "I read your letter with uncommon 
pleasure; no sight is more delightful, or more beneficial, than 
that of a rightly-disposed mind. If Britain could show us more 
of them it w^ould be an happier world than that in which we now 
live. The whole secret of being happy ourselves, and making 
those so that are near us, is to preserve a true relish of life, 
unabated by any anxious fear of death. Providence has provided 
for your Grace what may make life most palatable : may it long 
continue to you, Madam ! SiLch children, and to them sucli dis- 
positions ! It is not only a great but a very rare blessing ; and 


your Grace can scarce look anywhere out of your own family 
without seeing great cause for rejoicing in it; and all blessings 
are doubled by the peculiarity of them. 

''May, Madam, Bullstrode air second your prudence to the 
perfect re-establishment of your health; as for my own, which, 
with that of multitudes more, has suffered much through the 
whole of the late unwholesome season, it is but indifferent. I 
have not, I bless God, much pain, but much languor ; if it was ]/ 
less, I would certainly pay my humble duty to your Grace ; if it I 
should be much more, with due submission to the Divine will I 
must pay my duty to Heaven." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1762, August 24. Wellwyn. — "I congratulate you on prudence 
and spirit to go abroad, in quest of rational amusement and 
its sweet companion, health, which may you ever find. I am 
sadly confined, by my sight greatly impaired, and other com- / 
plaints, which I am unwilling to trouble your Grace withal. 
My case is this ; I have been troubled near thirty years with 
rheumatic pains ; they have been now long entirely ceased, and 
my physician tells me that Nature throws all that .mischief on 
my eyes and head, which has undergone, and is still undergoing, 
great discipline, and to very little purpose. This is bad, but 
what greatly aggravates it is that it denies me the power, which 
from my soul I ardently desire, of paying that duty which I shall 
ever owe to your Grace. But notwithstanding all I have said, 
and all I feel, notwithstanding dark days and sleepless nights, 
such is my age that I must not complain. Heaven's blessed will 

be done, and may it not deny me the comfort of seeing those in 
felicity whose welfare I am bound in gratitude to have most at ' 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1763, June 2. Wellwyn. — "In yesterday's newspaper I read an 
article with infinite satisfaction ; I beg leave to give your Grace 
joy on that happy occasion. May you, Madam, and Lady 
Harriet, I should say. Grey — to whom my humble duty — find 
your fullest satisfaction in it. Parents deserve our congratula- 
tion on nothing so much as on their final and happy disposal of 
those whom they love, and who deserve their love, so well as 
Lady Grey. The accomplishment of this important point takes 
a great load from the tender maternal heart, and promises serene 
days to the remainder of life. 

" I hope your Grace is entirely free from the painful indisposition 
of which you complained in your last ; that letter I answered 
long since, with my fullest acknowledgments to my Lord Bute ■ 
for his unmerited indulgence to me. But that indulgence I am 
conscious must be owing to your Grace's favour, to whom, 
therefore, on that* occasion my principal and most sincere 
acknowledgments and thanks are due. 


"Once more I give your Grace joy of so happy a conclusion in 
an affair which must have had a just title to your most tender 
concern ; and that it may yearly present you with new occasions 
of joy, till your joy receives its full completion where there is 
neither marrying nor giving in marriage, is the prayer of your 
most dutiful servant." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1764, March 18. Wellwyn. — " If gratitude is any virtue, I 
have great reason to be truly concerned upon your Grace's 
indisposition ; may a good Providence soon remove it, and restore 
you to perfect health and a true relish of it, which nothing can 
give us so effectually as a little taste of the contrary. Please to 
accept my humble thanks for the great honour you design me ; I 
have long wished for it, for few pleasures are equal to seeing the 
face of those w^hom we know to wish us well. The dancing 
duchess would scarce have so much pleasure in a well performed 
minuet ; or the busy duke in his political country-dance from 
the angry cabals of town to the learned banks of Cam. How 
vain the business or amusements of life to those great things 
which infirmities or age will naturally, if not necessarily, bring 
to our thoughts ! I bless God I am pretty well, and for me to 
hope for more would be folly ; for miracles are ceased. 

"Not being able through the weakness of my sight to wait on 
Lord Bute, a pretty while ago I wrote to him, and received a 
most obliging letter in answer, for which I thank him and your 
Grace ; but I do not thank him for raising the price of our provi- 
sions by his great hospitality. We are all very welcome if we 
please to indulge at his plentiful table, but a chicken will cost us 
very dear if we eat it at our own. He nobly entertains the rich, 
and charitably relieves the poor, -and reads, I hope with Christian 
patience, in the papers the great thanks which the public returns 
for those virtues. 

"I give your Grace joy of being no politician, for whoever turns 
his head that way at this time might as good put it in the pillory, 
for he will be sure to have dirt thrown at him by some hand or 
another, though they stoop for it into the kennel of nonsense and 
ill will ; yet some ears are so nailed to politics that they are deaf 
to every thing else. 

"Madam, your Grace has many that share your good wishes; I 
hope they are all well ? And may they all contribute to your 
happiness, till your happiness, which must necessarily have its 
root in earth, shall arrive in its full bloom above." 

Postscript. — "Your Grace says that you shall never forget 
that you are on the verge of fifty ; if you should live two fifties 
more, after all your experience, this would be your last thought : 
what very, very trifles all the world so passionately pursues ! 
how great the prize it so carelessly neglects ! how inconceivable 
must that bliss be which cost the blood of God ! These things 
force themselves on the thoughts of age, but how much happier 
are they in the day of enjoyment and strength of life, when 


the very thought is virtue, since we must then fight our way 
through temptations to the contrary to • come at it! How very 
different the vakie of these thoughts in the fine walks of 
Bullstrode, and in the melancholy chamber of languor or pain ! 
These politics are a noble science, and too little studied by 
country and court ; few Secretaries of State are made by them. 
Your Grace will pardon me for repeating to you your own 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1764, August 7. Wellwyn. — " I greatly rejoice that you have 
recovered what is most valuable in life, health and spirits, and 
that you have recovered them by the most pleasant as well as the 
most effectual means ; that is, by driving away from your physician 
as fast and as far as you can ; which is the most likely way of 
leaving your disorder too behind you. As for my own health, 
which your Grace is so good as to ask after, I bless Heaven that 
I sufter no severe pains, but I have little appetite by day, and 
very indifferent rest by night, and my eyes grow worse and worse ; 
but x\lmighty God's most blessed will be done. 

"I have not for a long time either seen Mrs. Montague or heard 
from her ; but I have heard often of her. Dr. Monsey called on 
me a little while ago, and told me he was to wait on her, but 
could not be admitted, because my Lord Bath was dead ; and 
this last week, one Mr. Keate, of the Temple, an author both in 
prose and verse, favoured me with a visit for two or three days, 
and told me that «ome little time ago he had the honour of 
dining with Mrs. Montague with about ten more, all or most of 
them writers ; that the entertainment was very elegant, and that 
a celebrated Welsh harp added music to their wit. 

" They are wise who make this life as happy as they can, since 
at the very happiest it will fall short of their desires, which, 
blessed be God, are too large to be quite pleased with any thing 
below ; and whilst by their largeness they give us some little 
disgust to this life, they make rich amends for that disadvantage 
by giving us at the same time as strong assurance of a better." 

E. Young to the Duchess of Portland. 

1765, February 19. Wellwyn. — " It is so long since I had the 
honour of writing to you that you may possibly look on this as 
a letter from the dead, but I am still above ground, though I 
can hardly venture to say that I am quite alive ; the severe 
weather on Sunday night almost destroyed me. My being so 
long silent was not occasioned by disrespect, for I bear to your 
Grace the greatest [respect] ; nor was it occasioned by want of 
power, for, I bless God, I am pretty well; nor was it occasioned 
by want of inclination, for 1 desire nothing more than to hear of 
your Grace's welfare. Whatever, therefore, was the cause of it, I 
beg your Grace to permit me now to enquire after your health 
and the health of all those who have the happiness of being 



related to or of being esteemed by you. In the last letter which 
1 had the honour of receiving from your Grace, you was about 
to make a round of visits to several entitled to one or to both of 
the characters above. I hope you found and left them well, and 
brought home at your return an increase of health and satisfac- 
tion. Air and exercise are not greater friends to the former 
than the cheerful smiles of those we love are to the latter; and 
when is it more necessary to provide for our private satisfaction 
and peace than at a time when that of the Public seems to be 
in some hazard of being impaired, if not lost ? But what have I 
to do with the public affairs of this world ? They are almost as 
foreign to me as to those who were born before the Flood. My 
world is dead ; to the present world I am quite a stranger, so very 
much a stranger that I know but one person in it, and that is 
your Grace." 

Elizabeth Montagu ■-' to the Duchess of Portland. 

[1749 ?] November 7. Sandleford.— " May not I from my cell 
address myself to the Duchess of Portland in her drawing-room ? 
I hear that your Grace came to town for the birthday, but I 
suppose according to the usual perverseness of my destiny you 
will return to Bullstrode before I come to town. But may I not 
say I regret my solitude here has not been enlivened by one line 
from you ? I have been here a month enjoying in tranquillity the 
health I gained at Tunbridge ; the shortness of the days allows 
very little commerce with our neighbours; which I do not regret, 
for my social virtues had not only been exercised but fatigued. In 
along Tunbridge season, I had such a surfeit of company I was 
afraid I should have grown a misanthrope. Having long subsisted 
on the news and chat of the day, no very delicious nor very 
nourishing fare, I am now amusing myself with the characters of 
the ancient world. Kecord has only preserved their great actions, 
and time has obscured the little motives that perhaps gave birth 
to them ; for Fate's innavigable tide, as Mr. Prior calls it, is 
different from other streams, where the light things are borne 
up, and weighty ones sink; the stream of time bears up only 
those of weight, the rest fall soon to the bottom. Characters 
therefore delivered to us in this manner, and seen from such a 
distance, have their little imperfections rendered invisible, and 
appear with a dignity and create a respect one is not apt to have 
for objects with which one is more intimately acquainted. I have 
just laid a book out of my hands which has given me so much 
pleasure I believe I shall take the liberty to recommend it to you. 
It is entitled 'Choses Memorables de Socrate par Charpentier.' 
The character of Socrates has been treated always as almost divine ; 
this book gives a picture of the man by the repeating many of 

* The Mrs. Montagu of literary and social celebrity. 


his dialogues and maxims which were collected by Xenophon 
his discijDle, and are from him translated by Charpentier ; your 
Grace knows that Socrates, pronounced by the oracle to be 
the wisest man of his age, presumed so little on this as 
to affirm the character was given him only because he was 
most sensible that he knew nothing; this humility is a fine 
foundation of a great character, and I think it gives one the 
highest pleasure to see one character whose fame was raised 
by modesty and not ambition. His precepts are all such as 
are useful in common life. He despised all the subtleties of 
science, every knowledge that did not tend to make a man 
better and more serviceable to his friends and country. The 
solidity of his merit stood him in great stead, when disgrace, 
imprisonment and death came upon him ; ostentatious and vain- 
glorious additions forsake people in such severe instances, but 
he had a virtue proof against all trials, and that could not be 
shaken by outward accidents. If your Grace reads this book 
upon my recommendation you will meet with some gross repre- 
hensions of particular vices at the beginning of it, which you 
must excuse from the want of delicacy in those times ; but I 
mentioned it that you might not lay the book in the way of the 
young ladies, for there are really some things said against vice 
that are hardly agreeable to virtue, and not therefore so proper 
for young people, whose best guard is the absolute purity of the 
heart ; and as I did not know but the book might come within 
their reach before your Grace had met with anything exception- 
able, I thought it best to speak of it. I cannot help laughing 
that the subject of my letter should be the character of Socrates, 
but I know that even in London your Grace spends some time in 
reading in your dressing-room, and I thought this would please 
you. If it entertains you, I shall be glad I mentioned it. The 
orange trees your Grace was so good as to give me are the orna- 
ments of Sandleford; they flourish in all the luxuriance of health, 
and only want to present a nosegay to your hands ; when may I 
hope they shall have that honour? I have not seen our friend 
Kit Lansdell ; I hear he is disconsolate for the loss of the widow ; 
I wonder he managed the affair so ill, for Hudibras says : — 
' There is no lover has that power 
T'inforce a desperate amour, 
As he who has two strings to his bow, 
And burns for love and money too.' 
But the conqueror, Mr. Gore, has carried her to Bath ; by marry- 
ing so many men she has acquired a masculine spirit, and the 
other day distinguished herself by dispossessing a lady of her 
place at the play ; the company at Bath did not approve of the 
violence of her proceedings, and if the monarch Nash had not 
lost most of his power and prerogative, I imagine he would have 
obliged her to behave better. If she proposed to herself these 
heroic deeds, I do not think little Kit would have been a proper 
champion ; so diminutive a person and so pacific a spirit would 
have ill assorted those acts of violence. I propose to come to 
town at the meeting of the Parliament, but I am much afraid 


your Grace will be returned to Bullstrode. I am greatly con- 
cerned at Lady Wallingford's ill health ; Mrs. Donnellan says she 
is not better than when I left her. I beg my compliments. In 
what part of the world is Mrs. Delany conversing with the Muses ? 
I long much to see her, and hope she will be in town when I 
come, if your Grace is there, otherwise she will be in the blest 
regions of Bullstrode. The post is going out, and I must only 
add Mr. Montagu's compliments to your Grace and my Lord 
Duke, and beg mine to his Grace and the ladies." 

Elizabeth Montagu to the Duchess of Portland.* 

1762, June 22. Sandleford. — "I hope your Grace will pardon 
the liberty I take in troubling you with a letter, but the state of 
spirits in which I saw you in town left an anxiety upon my mind 
that I could not till now have suppressed, if my health would 
have allowed me to write. I am under the utmost apprehensions 
that the great effort your Grace makes to hide your grief from 
those whose tender part in it hurts you more than your own 
sufferings may have some very bad effect on your health ; and as 
your Grace's welfare is of such importance to them, I must beg 
that even for their sakes you would not do great violence to your- 
self. Sorrow is a kind of poison, and, if not suffered to exhale 
itself in sighs and tears, has the more fatal consequences. Your 
Grace, with your friends who are less nearly connected with 
your affliction, but whose sympathy is such that they will 
think of your consolation while they feel your grief, should 
suffer your sorrow to have its way unconstrained. There is 
no doubt but your Grace's piety and good sense will in time 
set before you every argument of consolation. The sting of death 
is sin ; the person your Grace laments was the most free even 
from sinful thought and evil disposition of perhaps any one in the 
world. The prayers of the widow, the orphan, and distressed 
were continually offered up in his behalf ; no heart ever groaned 
under his oppression, not even an insolent thought ever arose in 
his mind. Where in his great rank can one find such another 
character! He did justice, loved mercy, and walked humbly with 
his God, [and] added to the great virtues of a Christian character 
those that became his great station and fortunes. Your Grace 
loved him too well long to lament that he is taken from the warfare 
of the world and a state of trial to one of perfect bliss and certain 
reward. Surrounded as he was with every worldly blessing, he 
still in a mortal state must be liable to all the shocks that flesh is 
heir to. Had any illness threatened your Grace's life, from whom 
all his blessings were derived, what would not he have suffered ! 
Add, dear Madam, to all your other noble and tender proofs of 
faithful attachment to him that of care of your health, which 
perhaps is still a most dear concern to him. 

"Your Grace in the most unbounded prosperity has shewn a 
mind superior to the intoxications of greatness and wealth ; you 

* Now, by the death of her husband. Duchess Dowager. 


have still remembered the Hand from whence they came, and 
enjoyed them with, humility; I am not therefore afraid your Grace 
should forget it is the same Hand that chastises you. I expect 
everything from your resignation and good sense, but these 
considerations must have a time to take effect, and in the mean 
while I fear the consequences of your constraint. Some unhappy 
instances of this kind, which have happened amongst my particular 
friends, perhaps may make me more apprehensive, and I hope 
your Grace will therefore pardon the liberty I take in writing 
on so tender a subject. I had but little time to talk on the 
subject with you in town, but the violence I saw your Grace 
put upon yourself that evening gave me very anxious and uneasy 
thoughts. I hope your good nature will pardon a heart that 
has many motives of high regard and gratitude towards you 
for speaking so freely. May your Grace enjoy many, many 
years of health and happiness ! The very extraordinary merit of 
your family cannot fail of giving you the greatest felicity. It has 
been a singular mercy of Providence that you did not meet with 
this trial before they were of an age to shew you all your most 
partial wishes for them would be answered, and that the heir of so 
many illustrious ancestors and of such immense fortunes would 
from his personal wishes and accomplishments add more lustre 
to them than he derives from them. May the tender attentions 
of the most affectionate of children make you remember the 
importance of your health to them, and the harm it may receive 
by too violent constraint." 

Elizabeth Montagu to the Duchess of Portland. 

1764, December 9. Bath. — "The lampoons and panegyrics 
which your Grace must have seen dated from Tunbridge and Bath, 
must long ago have convinced you that the waters there are of 
a nature very different from those of Helicon ; but, unless you 
immediately conversed with those who drank them, your Grace 
could never imagine the headache, the dizziness, or, to call things 
by their true names, the stupidity that comes on the least 
application. Very conscious of all this I long forbore to write 
to your Grace, but being rather less disordered by the waters for 
this last two or three days, I have ventured to take up my pen 
and ink, in some hope, [that] though dull, I may be intelligible, 
but it is very probable this will appear an ill-grounded presumption 
before my letter is ended. Mrs. Boscawen is extremely flattered 
by your Grace's obliging remembrance and offer of the China 
pheasants. She says she has not anything prepared to receive 
birds of such quality and distinction. She is possessed only of 
chicken-pens and hen-roosts, but Lady Smythe, at whose villa 
Mrs. Boscawen passes great part of the spring, has more 
elegant accommodations; but Mrs. Boscawen could not accept 
any favour from the Duchess of Portland to convey it to another, 
though her particular friend, without her Grace's permission. I 
came to this place merely to visit my sister, who fell very ill at 
Sandleford in the autumn, but, being on the spot, I thought 


I would take the opportunity of drinking the waters, and I think 
they have been of service as to my usual and constant disorder of 
the stomach. Of the pleasures of the place I can say little. 
The rooms were prodigiously crowded with very uncouth 
figures most wonderfully dressed ; those whom Nature designed 
to be homely Art rendered hideous, and many, whom education 
made awkward, mantua-makers, tailors, friseurs and milliners 
made monstrous. Some of the misses seemed to be adorned with 
the scalps of Indian warriors, whether brought them by their 
lovers from America, or that they are now sold in London as 
part of our importation from our Colonies, I do not know ; but I 
must say that under our hemisphere I never saw such terrible 
dresses. Absurdity of a more melancholy sort appeared in poor 
Earl Granville and his illustrious Countess. His Lordship 
appeared in that kind of wig which is vulgarly called a scratch, 
and so dirty and dishevelled is the said wig that the word 
' scratch ' does not seem at all misapplied. The rest of his 
dress was in the scratch order